EMT written Flashcards

Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by Abby_Griffin
updated 8 years ago by Abby_Griffin
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
code changes based on your size selection


Vector-borne transmission of an infectious organism occurs via...

animals or insects


Which of the following statements regarding the different stages of the grieving process is correct?

The stages of the grieving process may occur simultaneously


While providing care to a patient, blood got onto the ambulance stretcher. Because the stretcher was not properly cleaned afterward, a virus was transmitted to another emergency medical technician several days later. Which route of transmission does this scenario describe?

indirect contact


The EMT's first priority is..

personal safety


Which of the following is an effective stress management strategy?

developing a social network outside of EMS


The simplest, yet most effective method of preventing the spread of an infectious disease to...

wash your hands in between patient contacts


**To help protect patients, EMS agencies are required to have...

a privacy officer to answer questions


Which of the following general statements regarding consent is correct?

a patient can consent to transport but can legally refuse to be treated


After assessing a patient's blood glucose level, you accidentally stick yourself with the contaminated lancet. You should...

Report the incident to your supervisor after the call


Which of the following statements regarding HIV is correct?

There is no vaccine against HIV infection


The MOST serious consequence of drug or alcohol abuse among EMS personnel is..

substandard or inappropriate patient care


At the scene of an automobile crash, a utility pole has been broken and power lines are lying across the car. The patients inside the car are concisous. You should...

mark off a danger zone around the downed lines


***Which type of consent is involved when a 39 year old mentally competent female with a severe headache asks you to take her to the hospital?



You arrive at the scene of a motor vehicle-versus-pedestrian accident. The patient, a 13 year old male, is unconscious and has multiple injuries. As you are treating the child, a law enforcement officer advises you that the child's parents will be at the scene in approximately 15 minutes. What should you do?

Transport the child immediately and have the parents meet you at the hospital


When is forcible restraint permitted?

when the patient poses a significant threat to self or others


***In which of the following circumstances can the EMT legally release confidential patient information?

the patient is competent and signs a release form


Which aspect of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) MOST affects EMS personnel?

protecting the patient privacy


You respond to the home of a 59-year old man who is unconscious; has slow, shallow breathing; and has a weak pulse. The family states that the patient has terminal brain cancer and does not wish to be resuscitated. They further state that there is a DNR order for this patient, but they are unable to locate it. You should:

begin treatment and contact medical control as needed


You and your partner arrive at the scene of a major motor vehicle crash. The driver, a young male, is severely entrapped in his car. He has an open head injury and massive facial trauma. He is unresponsive, is not breathing, and does not have a palpable carotid pulse. You should:

have your partner check for a pulse to confirm that the patient is deceased


The EMT's scope of practice within his or her local response area is defined by the:

medical director


Effective therapeutic communication skills require...

verbal and nonverbal communication techniques


Which of the following types of questions allow for the most detailed response?

open-ended questions


***Which of the following will help improve radio communications?

Wait 1 second after pressing the transmit button before speaking


During your assessment of a 20 year old man with a severe headache and nausea, you ask him when his headache began, but he does not answer your question immediately. You should:

allow him time to think about the question and respond to it


When you are communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:

most older people think clearly and are capable of answering questions


Communicating with patients who are deaf or hard-of-hearing can be facilitated by doing all of the following EXCEPT:

elevating the tone of your voice and exaggerating word pronunciation


As you are wheeling your patient through the emergency department doors, you receive another call for a major motor vehicle crash. You should:

Respond only after giving a verbal patient report to a nurse or physician


Which of the following statements is NOT appropriate to document in the narrative section of a PCR?

General impression revealed that the patient was intoxicated


Which of the following statements regarding a patient refusal is correct?

a mentally competent adult has the legal right to refuse EMS care and transport


The suffix -pathy means:



The root melan/o means:

Chondro in the word chondritis:

the meaning around can have which of the following prefixes?

Myo is the word myocarditis means:

which of the following suffixes mean pertaining to?

Which of the following suffixes means two?

Gastro in the word gastroenteritis means:

A 5 year old boy has fallen and has a severe deformity of the forearm near the wrist. He has possible sustained a fracture of the ____forearm.

The topographic term used to describe the location of body parts that are closer toward the midline of the body is...



Peri and circum-


-al and -ic

dipl- and bi-





The ___ is a muscular dome that forms the inferior boundary of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen.



Bile is produced by the liver and concentrated and stored in the:



The ___is made of the maxilla and zygoma, as well as the frontal bone of the cranium.



The brain connects to the spinal cord through a large opening at t he base of the skull called the:

foramen magnum


Which of the following structures does NOT contain smooth muscle?

skeletal system


A by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation is...



If the patient's chest barely moves during inhalation, even if the patient's respiratory rate is normal you should suspect that:

a minute volume is decreased


***What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?

the arteries contract to increase the blood pressure


***A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The "130" in this measurement represents:

ventricular contraction


Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin?

metabolic coordination


The respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute in an infant is___



The areas of the infant's skull that have not yet fused together are called___



Children of which age group are considered toddlers?

1-3 years


A normal systolic blood pressure for a 30 year old is between:

90 and 140 mm Hg


What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult?

12-20 breaths/min


***Atherosclerosis is defined as___

the blockage of a coronary artery


***Older adults frequently___

take multiple medications


In preconventional reasoning, children:

act almost purely to avoid punishment and to get what they want


A 16 year old female complains of vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping that began several hours ago. During your assessment interview, you should:

inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible


The human body should be functioning at its optima level between the ages of:

19 and 25 years


Which of the following scenarios does NOT involve the presence of any symptoms?

a) a 44 yr old male with abdominal pain and severe dizziness
b) a 49 yr old female with blurred vision and ringing in the ears
c) a 55 yr old male with a severe headache and 2 days of nausea
d) a 61 yr old female who is unconscious with facial cyanosis

a) a 44 yr old male with abdominal pain and severe dizziness

b) a 49 yr old female with blurred vision and ringing in the ears

c) a 55 yr old male with a severe headache and 2 days of nausea

d) a 61 yr old female who is unconscious with facial cyanosis***


Which of the following actions would NOT be performed during the scene size-up?

a) asking a neighbor to secure the patient's dog

b) rapidly assessing a patients respiratory status

c) notifying the dispatcher to send fire personnel

d) noting the position of a crashed motor vehicle

b) rapidly assessing a patient's respiratory status


You are assessing a 72 year old man with abdominal pain. The patient is sitting in a chair, he is conscious, alert, and calm. As you are talking to the patient, your partner discreetly directs your attention to a handgun, which is located on a nearby table. You should:

position yourself in between the patient and the gun and ask your partner to request law enforcement assistance


Which of the following statements regarding the mechanism of injury is correct?

the MOI may allow you to predict the severity of a patient's injuries


During an EMS call, you should take standard precautions:

before exiting the ambulance and before actual patient contact


Treatment and transport priorities at the scene of a mass-casualty incident should be determined after:

all the patients have been triaged


When approaching a 32 year old male who is complaining of traumatic neck pain, you should:

ensure that the patient can see you approaching him


***Which of the following conditions would be LEAST likely to cause an altered level of consciousness?

acute perfusion


An elderly patient has fallen and hit her head. Your initial care should focus on:

airway, breathing, and circulation


An injured patient is assigned a total sore of 9 on the GCS. He is assigned a score of 2 for eye opening, a score of 3 for verbal response, and a score of 4 for motor response. Which of the following clinical findings is consistent with his GCS score?

opens eyes in response to pain, uses inappropriate words, withdraws from pain


To protect a restrained patient and prevent him from using leverage to break free, the EMT should secure___.

one arm above the head


The ___ is both the mechanical weight-bearing base of the spinal column and the fused central posterior section of the pelvic girdle.



An EMT may injure his or her back, even if it is straight, if the...

back is bent forward at the hips


The proper technique for using the power grip is to:

lift with your palms up


Which of the following statements regarding patient weight distribution is correct?

the majority of a horizontal patient's weight is in the torso


To minimize the risk of injuring yourself when lifting or moving a patient, you should:

keep the weight as close to your body as possible


Which of the following is the MOST appropriate device to use when immobilizing a patient with a suspected spinal injury?

a long backboard


To facilitate a safe and coordinated move, the team leader should:

use preparatory commands to initiate any moves


As you and your partner are carrying a stable patient down a flight of stairs in a stair chair, you feel a sudden sharp pain in your lower back. You should:

stop the move and request additional lifting assistance


When pulling a patient, you should extend your arms no more than___ in front of your torso.

15-20 inches


The amount of medication that is given is known as the...



What is the rout of administration for the EpiPen auto-injector?



Which of the following is required for an EMT to administer a drug to a patient?

medical direction approval


Which of the following patient populations typically require a modified drug dose?

pediatric patients


After taking diphenhydramine (Benadryl) for an allergic reaction, a person begins experiencing drowsiness and a dry mouth. These findings are examples of a(n):

side effect


Advil, Nuprin, and Motrin are trade names for the generic medication:



While assisting a paramedic in the attempted resuscitation of a 55 yr old male in cardiac arrest, you should expect the paramedic to:

administer drugs via the IV route the achieve the fastest effect


A 31 year old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:

reassess the patient and document her response to the medication


A 62 year old male is seen with crushing chest pain, which he describes as being the same kind of pain that he had with a previous heart attack. He has prescribed nitroglycerin but states that he has not taken any. After administering supplemental oxygen if needed and contacting medical control, you should:

assist him with his nitroglycerin unless his systolic blood pressure is less than 100 mm Hg


Which of the following clinical signs would necessitate the administration of naloxone?

slow respirations


Inadequate circulation of blood throughout the body is called___



What are the three components of the perfusion triangle?

hear, blood vessels, blood


You suspect your patient is in shock. You note the patient's skin is pale. This is likely due to...

Peripheral vasoconstriction


Shock due to severe infection is called....

septic shock


***Your patient has a decreased cardiac output and poor myocardial contractility. This will likely lead to___

cardiogenic shock


Foods, medication, and insects are common causes of___

anaphylactic shock


Your patient is in shock, but the body's defense mechanisms are currently able to maintain adequate circulation. This is called___

compensated shock


***To protect vital organs, the body compensates by directing blood flow away from the organs that are more tolerant of low flow, such as...

the skin


***Hypovolemic shock caused by severe burns is the result of a loss of:



When assessing a patient with signs and symptoms of shock, it is important to remember that:

blood pressure may be the last measurable factor to change in shock


Assessment of the medical patient is usually focused on the...

nature of the illness


Most treatments provided in the prehospital setting are intended to___.

address the patient's symptoms


Most patients with an infectious disease will have...

a fever


Which of the following is bacterium resistant to most antibiotics and causes skin abscesses?



***Which of the following conditions is NOT categorized as a psychiatric condition?

substance abuse


You and your EMT partner arrive at the residence of a 50 year old man who complains of weakness. Your primary assessment reveals that he is critically ill and will require aggressive treatment. The closest hospital is 25 miles away, you should...

manage all threats to airway, breathing, and circulation and consider requesting an ALS unit


When assessing a patient with a medical complaint, which of the following would MOST likely reveal the cause of the problem?

primary assessment


It is especially important to assess pulse, sensation, and movement in all extremities as well as pupillary reactions in patients with a suspected___ problem/



The determination of whether a medical patient is a high-priority or low-priority transport is typically made:

after the primary assessment has been completed


In which of the following situations would it be MOST appropriate to utilize an air medical transportation service?

A) a 29 year old woman who is 18 weeks pregnant and has light vaginal bleeding, and stable vital signs

B) a 43 year old man experiencing a heart attack, and the closest appropriate hospital is 15 minutes away

C) a 50 year old conscious woman with severe nausea and vomiting, fever, and chills of 3 days' duration

D) a 61 year old man with signs and symptoms of a stroke and a ground transport time of 50 minutes

a 61 year old man with signs and symptoms of a stroke and a ground transport time of 50 minutes


***Your patients has a chronic respiratory condition. His stimulus to breathe is triggered by low oxygen levels in the blood. This is known as____

hypoxic drive


Which of the following must be assessed in every respiratory patient?

lung sounds


Crackles (rales) are caused by___

air passing through fluid


In what area of the lungs does respiration occur?



Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing?

A) 22 breaths per min with an irregular pattern of breathing and cyanosis

B) 20 breaths per minute with shallow movement of the chest wall and pallor

C) 24 breaths per minute with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin

D) 30 breaths per minute with supraclavicular retractions and clammy skin

C) 24 breaths per minute with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin


Which of the following conditions would be least likely to result in hypoxia?

A) pleural effusion

B) severe anxiety

C) pulmonary edema

D) narcotic overdose

B) severe anxiety


***A 59 year old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's condition?

spontaneous pneumothorax


Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would MOST likely be contraindicated in which of the following situations?

A) pulmonary edema, history of hypertension, and anxiety

B) difficulty breathing, two-word dyspnea, and tachycardia

C) shortness of breath and a blood pressure of 76/56 mm Hg

D) conscious and alert patient with an oxygen saturation of 85%

C) shortness of breath and a blood pressure f 76/56 mm Hg


***A 30 year old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all the lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him high-flow oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is....



You are assisting an asthma patient with his prescribed metered-dose inhaler. After the patient takes a deep breath and depresses the inhaler, you should:

instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can


The three major parts of the brain are the ...

cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem


***Interruption of cerebral blood flow may result from all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) a thrombus

B) an embolism

C) cerebral vasodilation

D) an acute arterial rupture

C) cerebral vasodilation


***The MOST significant risk factor for a hemorrhagic stroke is:



***Which of the following MOST accurately describes a simple partial seizure?

a seizure that begins in one extremity


Which of the following MOST accurately describes what the patient will experience during the postictal state that follows a seizure?

confusion and fatigue


During the primary assessment of a semiconscious 70 year old female, you should...

ensure a patent airway and support ventilation as needed


You are caring for a 68 year old man with sudden onset of left sided paralysis and slurred speech. His airway is patent, his respirations are 14 breaths/min with adequate depth, and his oxygen saturation is 98%. Treatment for this patient should include:

recovery position and transport


When you are obtaining medical history from the family of a suspected stroke patient, it is MOST important to determine:

when the patient last appeared normal


When assessing for arm drift of a patient with a suspected stroke you should...

ask the patient to close his or her eyes during the assessment


Your patient opens his eyes, moans, and pulls away from you when you pinch his trapezius muscle. You should assign a Glasgow Coma Scale score of ___



***For a patient with a GI complaint, it is MOST important for the EMT to...

identify whether the patient requires rapid transport


Which of the following helps filter the blood and has no digestive function?



Which of the following is correct about the secondary assessment for a high-priority patient?

you may not have time to complete a secondary assessment


Which of the following may help reduce your patient's nausea?

low flow oxygen


Pain that may be perceived at a distant point on the surface of the body, such as the back or shoulder, is called:

referred pain


***A 30 year old woman with a history of alcoholism presents with severe upper abdominal pain and is omitting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool, pale, and clammy; her heart rate is 120 beats per minute and weak, and her BP is 70/50 mm Hg. Your MOST immediate action should be to_____

Protect her airway from aspiration


***A 47 year old male presents with severe abdominal pain of 3 hours' duration. His abdomen is distended and guarded. Your MOST important consideration for this patient should be to:

assess his BP to determine perfusion adequacy


Which of the following statements regarding dialysis is correct?

A) acute hypertension is a common adverse effect of dialysis

B) Hemodialysis is effective but carries a high risk of peritonitis

C) Patients who miss a dialysis treatment often present with weakness

D) The purpose of dialysis is the help the kidneys retain salt and water

A) acute hypertension is a common adverse effect of diaylsis


***Peritonitis may result in shock because:

fluid shifts from the bloodstream into body tissues


When assessing a patient with abdominal pain, you should:

Palpate the abdomen in a clockwise direction, beginning with the quadrant after the one the patient indicates is painful


The main function of the endocrine system is to__

maintain homeostasis


**A patient with an altered mental status; high blood glucose levels; and deep, rapid breathing may have a condition known as____

diabetic ketoacidosis


A patient with hypoglycemia will often present with which of the following signs/symptoms?

pale, cool, and clammy skin


Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?

A) most cells will function normally without glucose

B) blood glucose levels decrease in the absence of insulin

C) The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen

D) The brain requires insulin to allow glucose to enter the cells

C) the brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen


In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes:

is caused by resistance to insulin at the cellular level


The EMT should assess for hypoglycemia in small children with a severe illness or injury because:

children cannot store excess glucose as effectively as adults


Classic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include:

cool, clammy skin, weakness, tachycardia, and rapid respirations


A 75 year old male with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing___

a heart attack


A man finds his 59 year old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should___

open and maintain her airway and assess breathing


A 66 year old woman experienced a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She has a history of type 2 diabetes and DVT. On a basis of her medical history, which of the following should the EMT suspect?

pulmonary embolism


When an allergic reaction proceeds to life-threatening anaphylaxis, it will usually do so.....

quickly and within 30 minutes


When a foreign substance invades the body, the body will____

protect itself, go on alert, and attempt to inactivate the foreign substance


At the site of the injury, signs, and symptoms of an animal or insect bite or sting may include pain, localized heat, and a wheal, which appears as ___

a raised, well-defined area of the skin


Care for a victim of an immunologic emergency who is severely hypotensive should include which of the following?

Apply high-flow oxygen therapy, place the patient in a shock position, and help maintain the patient's body temperature


Epinephrine stimulates the ___response, increasing blood pressure and relieving bronchospasm.



After administering 0.3 mg of epinephrine via auto-injector to a 22 year old woman with an allergic reaction, you note improvement in her breathing and dissipation of her hives. However, she is still anxious and tachycardic. You should....

monitor her closely but recall that anxiety and tachycardia are side effects of epinephrine


Urticaria is the medical term for...



A 37 year old male is having a severe allergic reaction to penicillin. He does not have an epinephrine auto-injector and your protocols do not allow you to carry epinephrine on the ambulance. How should you proceed with the treatment of this patient?

Administer oxygen, transport at once, and request a paramedic intercept


Which of the following sounds indicates swelling of the upper airway?



A 19 year old female was stung multiple times on the legs by fire ants. She states that she is allergic to fire ants, but does not carry her own epinephrine. The patient is conscious and alert and complains of pain to the area of the bites. Her blood pressure is 122/70 mm Hg, her pule is 100 bpm and strong, and her respirations are 18 breaths, min and unlabored. You should.....

Administer oxygen and transport her to the hospital


How do poisons typically act to harm the body?

by changing the normal metabolism of cells or by destroying them


If the victim of a toxicological emergency vomits, an EMT should____

use appropriate PPE and examine the vomitus for pill fragments or other clues for patient care


Of the four avenues of poisoning, generally ____ is the most worrisome in terms of treatment of the EMS provider.



Victims of inhaled poisoning will require which of the following?

transport to an emergency department for evaluation


The recommended treatment for absorbed or contact poisons includes....

safely removing or diluting the poisonous substance


Most poisonings occur via the ___route.



Heroin is an example of an___



Hypotension, hypoventilation, and pin point pupils would be expected following an overdose of ___

oxycodone (Percocet)


Which of the following questions would be LEAST pertinent during the initial questioning of a patient who ingested a substance?

Why was the substance ingested?


Activated charcoal is given to patients who have ingested certain substances because it:

binds to the substance and prevents absorption


What is the most common misconception surrounding mental illness?

Feeling bad or depressed means the must be sick


Why might EMTs encounter a larger proportion of violent patients than the population at large?

EMTs respond to patients who, by definition, are having an emergency


Everyone exhibits some signs and symptoms of mental illness at some point in life___

but that does not mean a person is mentally ill


A behavioral crisis interferes with which of the following?

activities of daily living

behavior that is acceptable to the community

dressing, eating, or bathing


Which of the following is an example of a psychiatric emergency?

A) a person going on a week-long bender after losing a job

B) a person violently attacking family members

C) a person who is depressed and no longer caring for himself

D) a person who is experiencing a panic attack

a person violently attacking family members


When a psychiatric emergency arises, a patient is most likely to exhibit which of the following behaviors?

A) disruptions to activities of daily living

B) any behaviors unacceptable to the patient, family, or community

C) any behaviors that are a violent threat to the patient, EMTS, or others

D) visual or auditory hallucinations

any behaviors that are a violent threat to the patient, EMTs, or others


The two basic categories of diagnosis that a physician will use for behavioral crises or psychiatric emergencies are ___

A) organic brain syndrome and altered mental status

B) functional and nonfunctional

C) physical and psychological

D) all of the above are correct

physical and psychological


Which of the following is considered an organic brain syndrome?

Alzheimer dementia


Which of the following is a good guideline for physical examination of any patient?

avoid touching without permission


A general impression of the patient is formed by an EMT:

at a distance when the patient is first seen


The ___ connects each ovary with the uterus.

fallopian tubes


Some women experience___during ovulation.

slight cramping


While the ages can vary, women typically experience menstruation from approximately ages ____to ____.



Which of the following infections, when left untreated, may lead to infection of the blood and brain?


B) chlamydia

C) bacterial vaginosis

D) gonorrhea

D) gonorrhea


The EMT should ensure that vaginal bleeding is___

taken seriously nd the patient is transported for gynecologic evaulation


Causes of vaginal bleeding include what?

ectopic pregnancy, vaginal trauma, spontaneous abortion


***In cases of sexual assault, it is important to ensure that you do which of the following?

call for a female EMT or ALS care provider

immediately write down observations of the scene before assessing pt

discuss with law enforcement any suspicions that you may have about the perpetrator


A 26 year old female presents with heavy vaginal bleeding. She is conscious, but restless. Her BP is 84/54 mm Hg, her pulse is 120 bpm and weak, and her respirations are 22 breaths per min with adequate depth. She tells you that she inserted a tampon about 2 hours ago. You should___

administer high-flow oxygen, place a sterile pad over her vagina, keep her warm, elevate her lower extremities, and transport without delay


When caring for a female patient who has been sexually assaulted, you should:

place any bloodstained clothing or other articles in separate paper bags


Law enforcement personnel request your assistance to assess a 31 year old female who was sexually assaulted. When you arrive at the scene, you find the patient sitting on a curb outside her apartment. She is conscious, alert, and crying. When you ask her what happened, she tells you that she does not want to be treated or transported to the hospital. She further tells you that all she wants to do is clean up. You should___

provide emotional support and visually assess her for obvious trauma


The CNS is composed of the :

brain and spinal cord


What part of the nervous system controls the body's voluntary activities?



The five sections of the spinal column, in descending order, are the:

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal


Common signs and symptoms of a serious head injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) a rapid, thread pulse

B) a widening pulse pressure

C) CSF leakage from the ears

D) decelerate posturing

a rapid, thready pulse


***When assessing a patient with a head injury, you note the presence of thin, bloody fluid draining from his right ear. This indicates:

a rupture of the tympanic membrane following diffuse impact to the head


***Which of the following breathing patterns is MOST indicative of increased intracranial pressure?

A) increased rate with normal inspiratory time and a prolonged expiratory time

B) irregular rate, pattern, and volume of breathing with intermittent periods of apnea

C) increased rate and depth with the distinct odor of acetone of the patient's breath

D) slow, shallow, occasional gasps that progress to prolonged periods of apnea

B) irregular rate, pattern, and volume of breathing with intermittent periods of apnea


A man jumped from the roof of his house and landed on his feet. He complains of pain to his heels, knees, and lower back. This mechanism of injury is an example of:

axial loading


Once a cervical collar has been applied to a patient with a possible spinal injury, it should not be removed unless:

it causes a problem managing the airway


The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess:

eye opening, verbal response, and motor response


When immobilizing a trauma patient's spine, the EMT manually stabilizing the head should not let go until:

the patient is completely secured to the backboard


When a warm hand is immersed in water that is 70 degrees F, heat is transferred from the hand to the water through a process called___



The body's natural cooling mechanism, in which sweat is converted to a gas, is called:



Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature falls below:

95 degrees F (35 degrees C)


A 30 year of male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30 degrees F (-1 C). He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance where you perform a primary assessment. He is unresponsive, pale, and apneic. You should:

protect the affected part from further injury


Common signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) nausea

B) headache

C) tachycardia

D) hot, dry skin

D) hot, dry skin


You receive a call to a residence for a sick patient. Upon your arrival, you find the patient, a 53 year old diabetic male, lying down on his front porch. His wife tells you that he had been mowing the lawn in the heat for the past 3 hours. The patient is confused and has hot, moist skin. His pulse is weak and thread, and his BP is 90/50 mm Hg. You should:

load him into the ambulance and begin rapid cooling interventions


You respond to a local lake where a diver complains of difficulty breathing that occurred immediately after rapidly ascending from a depth of approximately 30 feet. On assessment, you note that he has cyanosis around his lips and has pink froth coming from his nose and mouth. You should:

suction his mouth and nose, apply high-flow oxygen, monitor the patient's breath sounds for a pneumothorax, and contact medical control regarding transport to a recompression facility


The venom of a black widow spider is toxic to the:

nervous system


You and your partner respond to a park where several people were reportedly struck by lightning. When you arrive, you find three patients. The first patient is lying supine on the ground; he is unresponsive and does not appear to be breathing. The second patient is ambulatory, appears confused, and is holding his arm against his chest. The third patient is sitting on the ground holding the sides of his head. After calling for backup, you should:

assess the unresponsive patient's pulse, begin CPR starting with chest compressions if he is pulseless, and attach the AED as soon as possible


Which of the following destinations is most appropriate for a 41 year old male patient who was involved in a rollover motor vehicle collision and is unconscious and unresponsive, assuming that travel times to each is equal?

a Level 1 or Level 2 trauma center


The index of suspicion is MOST accurately defined as:

your awareness and concern for potentially serious underlying injuries


Which of the following statements regarding gunshot wounds is correct?

A) high velocity bullets will cause less severe internal injuries

B) the size of a bullet has the greatest impact on the injury produced

C) low-velocity bullets will cause the greatest amount of trauma

D) the speed of a bullet has the greatest impact on the injury produced

D) the speed of a bullet has the greatest impact on the injury produced


Which types of motor vehicle collisions present the greatest potential for multiple impacts?

rotational and rollover


While en route to a major motor vehicle crash, an on-scene police officer advises you that a 6 year old male who was riding in the front seat is involved. He further states that the child was only wearing a lap belt and that the air bag deployed. On the basis of this information, you should be MOST suspicious that the child has experienced:

A) open abdominal trauma

B) neck and facial injuries

C)blunt trauma to the head

D) lower extremity fractures

B) neck and facial injuries


15 year old female was struck by a small car while riding her bicycle. She was wearing a helmet and was thrown to the ground, striking her head. In addition to managing problems associated with airway, breathing, and circulation, it is MOST important for you to:

stabilize her entire spine

other options: obtain baseline vital signs, inspect the helmet for cracks, leave the bicycle helmet on


A 12 year old male jumped approximately 12 feet from a tree and landed on his feet. He complains of pain to his lower back. What injury mechanism is MOST likely responsible for his back pain?

A) lateral impact to the spine

B) energy transmission to the spine

C) direct trauma to the spinal column

D) secondary fall after the initial impact

B) energy transmission to the spine


When assessing an elderly patient who fell, it is important to remember that:

osteoporosis can cause a fracture as a result of a fall from a standing position


Which of the following interventions is the MOST critical to the outcome of a patient with multisystem trauma?

A) IV fluid administration

B) early administration of oxygen

C) elevation of the lower extremities

D) rapid transport to a trauma center

D) rapid transport to a trauma center


According to the Association of Air Medical Services, you should consider air medical transport of a trauma patient if:

Traffic conditions hamper the ability to get the patient to a trauma center by ground within the ideal time frame for the best clinical outcome


Which section of the heart receives deoxygenated blood?



Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cell's oxygen, nutritional, and waste-removal needs is termed__



Hypovolemic shock occurs when:

the body cannot compensate for rapid blood loss


What mechanism(s) does the body use to control bleeding?

clotting, coagulation, vasoconstriction


The severity of bleeding should be based on all of the following findings, EXCCEPT:

A) systolic BP

B) poor general appearance

C) the mechanism of injury

D) clinical signs and symptoms

systolic blood pressure (A)


***Following blunt trauma to the abdomen, a 21 year old female complains of diffuse abdominal pain and pain to the left shoulder. Your assessment reveals that her abdomen is distended and tender to palpation. On the basis of these findings, you should be MOST suspicious of injury to the:



A young male was shot in the abdomen by an unknown type of gun. He is semiconscious, has shallow breathing, and is bleeding externally from the wound. As you control the external bleeding, your partner should:

assist the patient's ventilations


If direct pressure fails to immediately stop severe bleeding from an extremity, you should apply:

a tourniquet proximal to the injruy


a 43 year old man is experiencing a severe nosebleed. His BP is 190/110 mm Hg and his heart rate is 90 beats per minute and bounding. Preferred treatment for this patient includes:

pinching the patient's nostrils and having him lean forward


Whether you are using a commercial device or a stick and triangular bandage as a tourniquet, it is important to remember that:

you should try to control the bleeding by applying a pressure to a proximal arterial pressure point first


The EMT is legally obligated to protect a patient's privacy according to___



National guidelines for EMS care are intended to___

provide more consistent delivery of EMS care across the United States


Which of the following interventions is used by all levels of EMS providers?

automated external defibrillator

Not: multilumen airways, needle compression, automatic transport ventilators


***Online medical control requires__

phone or radio contact with the medical provider


Prehospital patient care decisions should be based on __

EMS research


American Heart Association protocols are based on___

evidence based research


The ability to handle multiple tasks based on their priority is called____

time management


You are encouraging a patient to go to the hospital by ambulance. You know that a transport will keep you on duty several hours after your regular quitting time. This is an example of ___

patient advocacy


Which of the following descriptions MOST accurately portrays emergency medical services (EMS)?

A) a vast network of advanced providers who provide definitive emergency care in the prehospital setting

B) a team of health care professionals who are responsible for providing emergency care and transportation to the sick and injured

C) A system composed exclusively of emergency medical responders and emergency medical technicians who are responsible for providing care to sick and injured patients

D) a team of paramedics and emergency and emergency physicians who are responsible for providing emergency care to critically injured patients



Which of the following statements regarding the NREMT is correct?

A) the NREMT is a governmental agency that certifies EMTs

B)EMS training standards are regulated by the NREMT

C) the NREMT is the exclusive certifying body for EMTs

D) the NREMT provides a national standard for EMS testing



Which of the following areas of the body has the thinnest skin?



***Which of the following processes occurs during the inflammation phase of the healing process?

The immune system releases histamines, which cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, resulting in local redness and swelling


Which of the following statements regarding crush syndrome is correct?

Compromised arterial blood flow leads to crush syndrome and can occur when an area of the body is trapped for longer than 4 hours


Which of the following open soft-tissue injuries is limited to the superficial layer of the skin and results in the least amount of blood loss?



During your assessment of a patient who was shot in the abdomen, you notice a large entrance wound with multiple small puncture wounds surrounding it. This wound pattern is MOST consistent with a:



A 39 year old male was struck in the head by a baseball during a game. He is confused and has slurred speech. He has a large hematoma in the center of his forehead and cannot remember the events preceding the injury. After manually stabilizing his head and assessing his airway, you should:

Administer high flow oxygen


As you approach a young male who was involved in an industrial accident, you note that his eyes are closed and that he is not moving. You can see several large contusions to his arms, a laceration to his forehead with minimal bleeding, and a closed deformity to his right leg. You should:

Open his airway and assess his breathing status


A 33 year old male sustained an abdominal evisceration to the LLQ of his abdomen after he was cut with a large knife. After appropriately managing his ABCs and assessing him for other life-threatening injuries, how you should care for his wound?

cover it with moist, sterile gauze and secure with an occlusive dressing


In which of the following patients should you remove an impaled object?

A) a semiconscious patient with an ice pack impaled in the chest

B) an apneic patient with a shard of glass impaled in the abdomen

C) a pulseless and apneic patient with a knife impaled in the back

D) a conscious and alert patient with a fishhook impaled in the eye



A burn that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a:

superficial burn


When performing a full body scan, you should assess for ____



If your patient swallows blood following facial trauma, there is an increased risk of ___



The upper jawbones are called the ___



***The MOST significant complication associated with facial injuries is ___

cervical spine injury


When caring for a patient with an open facial injury, the EMTs immediate priority should be to:

wear gloves and facial protection


Bleeding from soft-tissue injuries to the face is MOST effectively controlled with:

direct pressure using dry, sterile dressings


A factory worker was splashed in the eyes with a strong acid chemical. He complains of intense pain and blurred vision. Your ambulance does not carry bottles of sterile saline or water. You should:

irrigate both eyes continuously for 20 minutes with plain water


A 4 year old female has a peanut lodged in the external auditory canal of her right ear. You should:

transport her to the emergency department


A 52 year old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her face when her truck collided with another vehicle. She has obvious swelling to her face and several dislodged teeth. A visual exam of her mouth reveals minimal bleeding. She is conscious and alert with a blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg, a pulse of 110 beats per min and respirations of 22 breaths per minute with adequate tidal volume. You should:

fully immobilize her spine, attempt to locate the dislodged the dislodged teeth, suction as needed, and transport


A 6 year old female was riding he bicycle and struck a clothesline with her throat. She is breathing, but with obvious difficulty. Your assessment reveals a crackling sensation in the soft tissues of her neck and facial cyanosis. In addition to the appropriate airway management, the intervention that will MOST likely improve her chance of survival is:

rapidly transporting her to the hospital


Children are often "belly breathers" because___

their intercostal muscles are not developed


Closed chest injuries are typically caused by___

blunt trauma


Which of the following is most likely to cause immediate death?

A) myocardial contusion

B) pulmonary contusion

C) aortic dissection

D) aortic rupture

D) aortic rupture


Immediately life-threatening chest injures must be found and managed during the___

primary assessment


If a patient with a chest injury is only able to inhale small amounts of air per breath, he or she:

must increase his or her respiratory rate to maintain adequate minute volume


In order to avoid exacerbating a patient's injury, it is especially important to use extreme caution when providing positive-pressure ventilation to patients with a:



A simple pneumothorax:

is commonly caused by blunt chest trauma


****You respond to a residence for a 40 year old female who was assaulted by her husband; the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Upon your arrival, you find the patient lying supine of the floor in the kitchen. She is semiconscious with severely labored breathing. Further assessment reveals a large bruise to the left anterior chest, JVD, and unilaterally absent breath sounds. As your partner is supporting her ventilation you should:

Immediately request ALS support


The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the:



Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?

oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries


Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?

A) larynx

B) pharynx


D) oropharynx

C) bronchus


The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called:



Which of the following statements regarding breathing adequacy is correct?

A) patients with a grossly irregular breathing pattern usually do not require assisted ventilation

B) the single most reliable sign of breathing adequacy in the adult is his or her respiratory rate

C) patients breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate

D) a patient with slow respirations and adequate depth will experience an increase in minute volume



Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?

A) A conscious male with respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin

B) a conscious female with facial cyanosis and rapid, shallow respirations

C) a conscious male with respirations of 18 breaths per minute and reduced tidal volume

D) an unconscious 52 year old female with snoring respirations and cool, pale skin

A) a conscious male with respirations of 19 breaths per min and pink skin


Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:

Cheyne-Stokes respirations


In which of the following patients would the head tilt chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway?

A) a 24 year old male who is found unconscious at the base of a tree

B) a 37 year old female who is found unconscious in her bed

C) a 45 year old male who is semiconscious after falling 20 feet

D) a 50 year old male who is unconscious following head trauma

A 37 year old female who is found unconscious in her bed


A 19 year old is found unconscious by her roommate. Your primary assessment reveals that her breathing is inadequate. As you insert an oropharyngeal airway, she begins to gag violently. You should:

remove the airway and be prepared to suction her oropharynx


The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it:

can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex


When testing a mechanical suctioning unit, you should turn on the device, clamp the tubing, and ensure that it generates a vacuum pressure of more than:

300 mm Hg


In pediatric patients, the liver and spleen are___

larger in proportion to the abdomen


Abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever are most likely due to___



When a patient stiffens the muscles of the abdomen, it is known as___



Which of the following is true regarding injury to the kidneys?

A) the kidneys are not well protected

B) only minimal force is needed to damage the kidneys

C) kidney injuries are rarely caused by blunt trauma

D) Injury to the kidneys usually indicates injury to other organs

Injury to the kidneys usually indicates injury to other organs (D)


Because the depth of an open abdominal wound is often difficult to determine:

prompt transport to the hospital is essential


You are transporting a 42 year old male who experienced blunt abdominal trauma. He is receiving oxygen at 12 L/min via a nonrebreathing mask and full spinal precautions have been applied. During your reassessment, you note his level of consciousness has decreased and his respirations have become shallow. You should:

Insert an airway adjunct if he will tolerate it and begin assisting his ventilations with a BVM


Which of the following statements regarding abdominal eviscerations is correct?

The protruding organs should be kept warm and moist


Your presence is requested by law enforcement to assess a 33 year old female who was sexually assaulted. The patient is conscious and obviously upset. As you are talking to her, you note an impressive amount of blood on her clothes in the groin area. Her BP is 98/58 mm Hg, her pulse is 130 bpm, and her respirations is 24 breaths per minute. You should:

Control any external bleeding, administer oxygen, and transport at once


You are transporting a patient with blunt abdominal trauma. The patient is unstable and is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of shock. Your estimated time of arrival at the hospital is less than 10 minutes. After treating the patient appropriately, you should:

closely monitor him and reassess him frequently


All of the following are hollow abdominal organs, EXCEPT the:

A) spleen

B) bladder

C) ureters

D) stomach



Deoxygenated blood from the body returns to the:

right atrium


Angina pectoris occurs when:

myocardial oxygen demand exceeds supply


The electrical impulse generated by the heart originates in the:

SI node


Risk factors for AMI that cannot be controlled include:

family history


***A 49 year old male presents with an acute onset of crushing chest pain and diaphoresis. You should:

assess the adequacy of his respirations


A patient in cardiac arrest is wearing an external defibrillator vest, which is interfering with effective chest compressions. The EMT should:

remove the battery from the monitor and then remove the vest


A dissecting aortic aneurysm occurs when:

the inner layers of the aorta become separated


A 66 year old female with a history of hypertension and diabetes presents with substernal chest pressure of 2 hours of duration. Her BP is 140/90 mm Hg, her pulse is 100 bpm and irregular, her respirations are 22 breaths per minute, and her oxygen saturation is 92%.The patient does not have prescribed nitroglycerin, but her husband does. You should:

administer oxygen, give her 324 mg of aspirin, and assess her further


A patient tells you that he has a LVAD. Which of the following conditions should you suspect that he has experienced?

acute myocardial infarction


You and your partner arrive at the scene of a middle-aged man who collapsed about 5 minutes ago. He is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. Bystanders are present, but have not provided any care. You should:

begin high quality CPR and apply the AED as soon as possible


The musculoskeletal system refers to the:

bones and voluntary muscles of the body


Skeletal muscle is attached to the bone by tough, ropelike, fibrous structures called:



Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would MOST likely result in deformity?

A) severe strain

B) moderate sprain

C) hairline fracture

D) displaced fracture

D) displaced fracture


An open fracture is MOST accurately defined as a fracture in which:

The overlying skin is no longer intact


Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the greatest threat to a patient's life?

A) an amputated extremity

B) bilateral femur fractures

C) nondisplaced long bone fractures

D) pelvic fracture with hypotension

D) pelvic fracture with hypotension


A 22 year old female was ejected from her care after striking a tree head-on. As you approach her, you note obvious closed deformities to both of her femurs. She is not moving and does not appear to be conscious. You should:

stabilize her head and perform a primary assessment


A 54 year old male accidentally shot himself in the leg while cleaning his gun. Your assessment reveals a small entrance wound to the medial aspect of his right leg. The exit wound is on the opposite side of the leg and is actively bleeding. The patient complains of numbness and tingling in his right foot. You should:

Control the bleeding and cover the wound with a sterile dressing


In which of the following situations should the EMT splint an injured limb in the position of deformity?

A) when distal circulation and neurological functions are absent

B) if transport time to the hospital is greater than 20-30 minutes

C) if resistance is encountered or the patient experiences severe pain

D) if a traction splint will be used to immobilize the injured extremity

C) if resistance is encountered or the patient experiences severe pain


During your assessment of a 29 year old female with significant deformity to her left elbow, you are unable to palpate a radial pulse. Your transport time to the hospital is approximately 40 minutes. You should:

splint the elbow in the position of deformity and transport immediately


A 17 year old female dislocated her patella while playing soccer. Her knee is flexed and she complains of severe pain. You should:

Keep her knee flexed and secure it with padded board splints


From what internal female organ is the fetus expelled during delivery?



The amniotic fluid serves to:

insulate and protect the fetus


A 26 year old female who is 34 weeks pregnant is experiencing a seizure. Her husband tells you that her BP has been high and that she had been complaining of a headache for the past few days. You should:

Place her on her side, administer high-flow oxygen, and transport


A history of pelvic inflammatory disease or tubal ligations increases a woman's risk for:

An ectopic pregnancy


The presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid indicates:

that the baby's airway may be obstructed


When preparing a pregnant patient for delivery, you should positon her:

on a firm surface with her hips elevated 2-4 inches


During your visual inspection of a 25 year old woman in labor, you see the baby's head crowning at the vaginal opening. What should you do?

Apply gentle pressure to the baby's head as it delivers


Following delivery of a full-term baby, you have properly cared for the baby and have clamped and cut the umbilical cord. During transport, you note that the mother is experiencing moderate vaginal bleeding. You should:

firmly massage the uterine fundus with a circular motion


If a baby is born at 7:52, the second Apgar score should be calculated at:



Your 22 year old patient is in active labor. Upon visual inspection, you note that the infant's leg is protruding from the vagina. Appropriate management of this situation includes:

Placing the mother supine with her head down and pelvis elevated


The first month of life after birth is referred to as the:

neonatal period


Unless he or she is critically ill or injured, you should generally begin your assessment of a toddler:

at the feet


Pale skin in a child indicates that the:

blood vessels near the skin are constricted


The purpose of the pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) is to:

allow you to rapidly and visually form a general impression of the child


You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18 month old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retraction, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 bpm. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:

administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother


A viral infection that may cause obstruction of the upper airway in a child is called:



Infection should be considered a possible cause of an airway obstruction in an infant or child, especially is he or she presents with:

drooling or congestion


When questioning the parent of a child who ingested a poisonous substance, which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence initially?

Why did your child ingest the poison?


A 2 year old female has experienced a seizure. When you arrive at the scene, the child is conscious, crying and clinging to her mother. Her skin is hot and moist. The mother tells you that the seizure lasted approximately 5 minutes. She further tells you that her daughter has no history of seizures, but has had a recent ear infection. You should:

Allow the mother to drive her daughter to the hospital


When caring for a female child who has possible been sexually abused, you should:

Have a female EMT remain with her if possible


To minimize distractions and confusion when assessing an older patient, you should:

have only one EMT speak to the patient at a time


Sedentary behavior while healing from a hip fracture would MOST likely predispose the older patient to:



The leading cause of death in the geriatric patient is:

heart disease


During the natural process of aging, the number of functional cilia in the respiratory system decreases, resulting in:

a decreased ability to cough


In contrast to younger patients, older patients are more prone to a decrease in BP upon standing because:

the body is less able to adapt the BP to rapid postural changes


Clouding of the lenses of the eyes is called:



***An abdominal aortic aneurysm:

is often the result of hypertension and atherosclerosis


The stooped posture of some older people, which gives them a humpback appearance, is called:



Common causes of depression in the elderly include all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) chronic medical conditions

B) prescription medication use

C) an acute onset of dementia

D) alcohol abuse and dependence

C) an acute onset of dementia


Because of the complexity of the older patient and the vagueness of his or her complaint, you should:

attempt to differentiate between chronic and acute problems


Which of the following statements regarding patients with intellectual disabilities is correct?

A) speaking with the patient's family is the least effective way to determine how much the patient understands

B) patients with intellectual disabilities are susceptible to the same disease processes as other patients

C) an intellectual disability differs from mental retardation in that it is the result of a congenital abnormality

D) most patients with intellectual disabilities have normal cognitive function, but abnormal physical features

B) patients with intellectual disabilities are susceptible to the same disease processes as other patients


When caring for a patient who is visually impaired, it is important to:

tell her or her what is happening, identify noises, and describe the situation and surroundings


A 70 year old male complains of shortness of breath. During your assessment, you note that he has bilateral hearing aids. When you ask him questions related to his chief complaint, he does not answer you. You can hear a whistling sound coming from his hearing aids. You should:

try repositioning the hearing aid or remove it and turn down the volume


Which of the following conditions would MOST likely be encountered in a patient with cerebral palsy?

seizure disorders


Spina bifida is defined as:

a birth defect caused by incomplete closure of the spinal column


You are assessing a 440 lb man who complains of shortness of breath and lower back pain. The patient is conscious and alert, his BP is 148/98 mm Hg, and his heart rate is 120 bpm. Your MOST immediate action should be to:

avoid placing him in a supine position if possible and administer oxygen


Because a tracheostomy tube bypasses the nose and mouth:

secretions can build up in and around the tube


A 13 year old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the mechanical ventilator is malfunctioning and the child has increasing respiratory distress. You should:

disconnect the ventilator and apply a tracheostomy collar


***Under what circumstances is a left ventricular assist device used?

as a bridge to heart transplantation while a donor heart is being located


Which of the following statements regarding interaction with the caregiver of a child or adult with special health care needs is correct?

Communication with the patient's caregiver or family members is important because they are the most familiar with the patient's condition


A type___ ambulance features a conventional, truck cab-chassis with a modular ambulance body that can be transferred to a new chassis as needed.



Equipment and supplies that are carried on an ambulance should be stored:

according to the urgency and frequency of their use


The LEAST practical place to store a portable oxygen cylinder is:

in the driver's compartment


For every emergency request, the dispatcher should routinely gather and record all of the following information, EXCEPT the:

patients medical history

the information that would be gathered includes:

The nature of the call, caller's phone number, and location of the patients


Immediately upon arriving at the scene of an emergency call involving a traumatic injury, you should notify the dispatcher of your arrival and then:

observe the scene for safety hazards


When arriving at the scene of an overturned tractor-trailer rig, you note that a green cloud is being emitted from the crashed vehicle. The driver is still in the truck: he is conscious but bleeding profusely from the head. After notifying the hazardous materials team, you should:

position the ambulance upwind


Maintaining a cushion of safety when operating an ambulance means:

Keeping a safe distance between your ambulance and the vehicles in front of you and remaining aware of vehicles potentially hiding in your mirrors' blind spots


The use of lights and siren on an ambulance:

signifies a request for other drivers to yield the right of way


In which of the following situations would the EMTs MOST likely utilize a police escort?

The EMTs are unfamiliar with the location, but the police officer knows the area


When approaching a helicopter, whether the rotor blades are moving or not, you should:

never duck under the body or the tail boom because the pilot cannot see you in these areas


At a scene with downed electrical lines, the EMT should____

remain outside the danger (hot) zone


Returning the emergency unit to service is part of the ____

termination phase


The EMTs responsibility during search-and-rescue operations is to___

wait at the staging area until the patients is located


Upon arrival at a trench rescue operation, you should___

park at least 500 feet from the incident


While staged at the scene of a structure fire, the EMT should___

remain with the ambulance


Extrication is defined as:

removal from a dangerous situation or position


Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you can see three patients, one who is entrapped in his car and two who have ejected from their vehicle. You should___

immediately request additional resources


The rescue team is in the process of extricating a 40 year old male from his truck. The patient's wife, who was uninjured in the crash, is calmly observing the extrication and asks you if her husband will be all right. You should___

ensure that she is in a safe area, away from the scene


You are attempting to gain access to a patient who was injured when his truck struck another vehicle from behind. The patient is conscious and alert, but is screaming in pain. You try to open the door, but it is locked. You should:

ask the patient if he can unlock the door


A 19 year old female has just been extricated from her severely damaged car. She is on a long backboard and has been moved to a place of safety. As your partner maintains manual stabilization of her head, you perform a rapid assessment. The patient is unresponsive, has slow and shallow respirations, and has bilaterally closed femur deformities. You should:

direct your partner to begin ventilator assistance