antomony and physiology exam 1 review Flashcards


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1

The term central nervous system refers to the ________.

brain and spinal cord

2

Which of the following describes the nervous system integrative function?

analyzes sensory information, stores information, makes decisions

3

Schwann cells are functionally similar to ________.

oligodendrocytes

4

Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called ________.

ganglia

5

Neuroglia found in the CNS that change the permeability of capillaries in the brain by binding to and surrounding these blood vessels are called ________.

astrocytes.

6

Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.

found in the retina of the eye.

7

That part of the nervous system that conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ________ nervous system

somatic;

8

Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?

innervation of skeletal muscle.

9

Which of the following is not characteristic of neurons?

They are mitotic

10

Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?

voltage-gated channel;

11

Which of the following does not correctly describe a graded potential?

it travels long distances;

12

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which of the following channels will open?

voltage-gated potassium channels

13

The interior surface of a neuron's plasma membrane at resting membrane potential will have a

negative charge and contains less sodium than outside of the cell;

14

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ________.

depolarization

15

Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?

voltage-gated channel

16

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which of the following channels will open?

voltage gated potassium channels.

17

Saltatory conduction is made possible by ________.

the myelin sheath

18

18. In an unmyelinated axon, which of the following will determine the velocity of action potential tramsmission?

diameter of the axon

19

In a myelinated axon, which of the following will not determine the velocity of action potential transmission?

length of the axon.

20

20. The neuron cannot respond to a second stimulus, no matter how strong it is.

absolute refractory period

21

As the membrane of the presynaptic neuron is depolarized, which voltage gated channels are opened in the presynaptic membrane so that neurotransmitter can be released

Ca2+

22

Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse from

storage vesicles;

23

Which of the following is not a way for neurotransmitters to be inactivated?

inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.

24

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are all of the following, except,

are small depolarizations, but are above threshold

25

Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are all of the following, except,

are small hyperpolarizations, but are above threshold

26

Place the following in the correct order:

  1. Action potential arrives at the axon terminal.
  2. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open, allowing Ca2+ to enter.
  3. Ca2+ causes release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles.
  4. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse to bind specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
  5. Neurotransmitters bind specific receptor channels, allowing ions to enter or exit, causing a graded potential.
  1. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
  2. 2, 3, 1, 4, 5.
  3. 2, 3, 4, 5, 1.
  4. 2, 1, 3, 4, 5.
  5. 4, 5, 1, 2, 3.

27

Depolarizations vary in amplitude (size).

if the property applies to graded potentials

28

Produced by the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels

the property applies to action potential and graded potential ( applies to both

29

A stimulus has to be strong enough to reach threshold

if the property applies to action potentials

30

Initiated by neurotransmitter binding to receptor ion channels on the postsynaptic membrane

if the property applies to both

31

Can be added in time and space (temporal and spatial summation

if the property applies to graded potentials

32

Decays with distance

if the property applies to graded potentials

33

EPSPs and IPSPs

if the property applies to graded potentials

34

This neurotransmitter crosses the synapse between motor neuron and muscle.

acetylcholine

35

Which neurotransmitter will always produce hyperpolarization in the postsynaptic neuron?

GABA

36

Among the reasons why reflexes are so fast is that

the brain is not involved (no thinking required); it is an effective survival mechanism; (both)

37

A single neuron in the brain can activate hundreds of skeletal muscle fibers.

if divergence applies to the scenario

38

You are at your high school reunion where they are playing the school fight song (auditory), which takes place at the school (visual) and the odors emanating from the restrooms all trigger memories of your high school days.

if convergence applies to the scenario

39

you are hurrying to class because you are late, causing you to breath harder.

if reverberating circuit applies to the scenario

40

Walking engages this circuit

if reverberating circuit applies to the scenario