Test 1 A&P Flashcards


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1

1.) Gustatory receptors are located

A) in the eye

B) in the ear

C) on the surface of the tongue

D) in the nose

E) on the skin

C) on the surface of the tongue

2

2.) What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

A) depth perception

B) color vision

C) vision in dim light

D) accommodation for near vision

C) vision in dim light

3

3.) What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

A) aqueous humor

B) lens

C) cornea

D) iris

D) iris

4

4.) Receptors for hearing are located in the _______.

A) cochlea

B) semicircular canals

C) tympanic membrane

D) vestibule

A) cochlea

5

5.) Bitter taste is elicited by ________.

A) hydrogen ions

B) alkaloids

C) acids

D) metal ions

B) alkaloids

6

6.) Farsightedness is more properly called _________.

A) myopia

B) hypopia

C) hyperopia

D) presbyopia

C) hyperopia

7

7.) Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ______.

A) eye

B) ears

C) skin

D) nose

A) eye

8

8.) Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?

A) pinna

B) external acoustic meatus

C) tympanic membrane

D) pharyngotympanic tube

D) pharyngotympanic tube

9

9.) Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ______.

A) go to the superior colliculus only

B) pass posteriorly without crossing over at the chiasma

C) divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing

D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

10

10.) The are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

A) bipolar cells

B) ganglion cells

C) cone cells

D) rod cells

B) ganglion cells

11

11.) Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals the produce it?

A) sweet - organic substances such as sugar and some lead salts

B) sour -acids

C) salty - metal ions

D) bitter - alkaloids

E) umami - triglycerides and fatty acids

E) umami - triglycerides and fatty acids

12

12.) What is a modiolus?

A) bone in the center of a semicircular canal

B) bone around the cochlea

C) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

D) a bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves

C) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

13

13.) Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?

A) The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.

B) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.

C) Visual pigment content is reduced in cones more than rods.

D) The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function.

B) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.

14

14.) Dark adaptation _______.

A) is much faster then light adaptation

B) results in inhibition of rod function

C) primarily involves improvement of acuity and color vision

D) involves accumulation of rhodopsin

D) involves accumulation of rhodopsin

15

15.) In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the _______.

A) medial retina

B) lateral geniculate body

C) primary visual cortex

D) optic chiasma

C) primary visual cortex

16

16.) The blind spot of the eye is where _____.

A) more rods than cones are found

B) the macula lutea is located

C) only cones occur

D) the optic nerve leaves the eye

D) the optic nerve leaves the eye

17

17.) Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?

A) frequency of sound waves : loudness of the sound

B) quality of sound : frequency of sound

C) amplitude of a sound : intensity of the sound

D) frequency of sound waves :number of wavelengths

A) frequency of sound waves : loudness of the sound

18

18.) Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by _______.

A) substances in solution

B) stretching of the receptor cells

C) the movement of otoliths

D) movement of a cupula

A) substances in solution

19

19.) Tinnitus, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called __________.

A) Meniere's syndrome

B) conjunctivitis

C) strabismus

D) motion sickness

A) Meniere's syndrome

20

20.) The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the _______.

A) lateral rectus

B) superior oblique

C) inferior oblique

D) medial rectus

C) inferior oblique

21

21.) The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.

A) basal cells

B) gustatory hairs

C) fungiform papillae

D) taste buds

B) gustatory hairs

22

22.) Light passes through the following structures in which order?

A) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea

B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

C) cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor

D) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor

B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

23

23.) Damage to the medial rectus muscle would probably affect ______.

A) refraction

B) accommodation

C) convergence

D) pupil constriction

C) convergence

24

24.) Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?

A) impacted cerumen

B) middle ear infection

C) cochlear nerve degeneration

D) otosclerosis

C) cochlear nerve degeneration

25

25.) Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the

A) medulla oblongata

B) medial geniculate

C) cerebral cortex

D) olfactory bulb

E) olfactory tract

D) olfactory bulb

26

26.) What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?

A) aqueous humor

B) ciliary body

C) iris

D) extrinsic eye musles

E) None, because the lens is rigid.

B) ciliary body

27

27.) The part of the eye that determines eye color is the

A) conjunctiva

B) cornea

C) iris

D) pupil

E) canal of Schlemm

C) iris

28

28.) The opening in the iris through which light passes is the

A) conjunctiva

B) cornea

C) pupil

D) anterior chamber

E) posterior chamber

C) pupil

29

29.) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?

A) gelatinous fluid that fills anterior chamber

B) secreted in bright light

C) excessive production may lead to glaucoma

D) converts to vitreous humor with age

E) provides the liquid component of lacrimal secretions

C) excessive production may lead to glaucoma

30

30.) Which of the following is a function of tears?

A.) lubricate the eye

B) wash away debris

C) provide oxygen

D) nourish the cornea and conjunctiva

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

31

31.) Which of the following description applies to the term myopia?

A) farsightedness

B) nearsightedness

C) normal vision

D) astigmatism

E) age-related decline in accommodation

B) nearsightedness

32

32.) The gelatinous material the gives the eyeball its basic shape is the

A) vitreous humor

B) aqueous humor

C) ora serrata

D) perilymph

E) posterior cavity

A) vitreous humor

33

33.) Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ________. and sympathetic activation causes _________.

A) dilation; constriction

B) dilation; dilation

C) constriction; dilation

D) constriction; constriction

E) vasoconstriction; vasoconstriction

C) constriction; dilation

34

34.) When a rod is stimulated by light,

A) the plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized.

B) the retinal changes from 11-cis to the 11-trans form.

C) less neurotransmitter is released.

D) cGMP decreases and sodium channels close.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

35

35.) There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated

A) red, yellow, blue

B) red, green, blue

C) red, green, yellow

D) yellow, red, blue

E) red, white, blue

B) red, green, blue

36

36.) Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound

A) retinal

B) opsin

C) rhodopsin

D) transduction

e) cGMP

C) rhodopsin

37

37.) A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is

A) retinal

B) opsin

C) rhodopsin

D) transduction

e) cGMP

A) retinal

38

38.) The external acoustic meatus ends at

A) the tympanic membrane

B) the auditory ossicles

C) the cochlea

D) the pinna

E) the vestibule

A) the tympanic membrane

39

39.) The auditory ossicles connect the

A) tympanic membrane to the oval window

B) tympanic membrane to the round window

C) oval window to the round window

D) stapedius to the tympanic membrane

E) otitis to the media

A) tympanic membrane to the oval window

40

40.) The region of the ampulla that contains the receptors for rotational (dynamic) equilibrium are called

A) utricles

B) cristae

C) ampullae

D) fovea

E) maculae

B) cristae

41

41.) The superficial hard part of the inner ear is called the _______ and contains _________.

A) bony labyrinth; perilymph

B) membranous labyrinth; perilymph

C) membranous labyrinth; endolymph

D) cochlea; perilymph

E) bony labyrinth; endolymph

A) bony labyrinth; perilymph

42

42.) Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals

A) produces a rushing sound

B) allows us to hear low tones

C) signals rotational movements

D) signals body position with repsect to gravity

E) signals linear acceleration

C) signals rotational movements

43

43.) The structure attached to the oval window that transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is the

A) malleus

B) basilar membrane

C) incus

D) stapes

E) auditory tube

D) stapes

44

44.) Low frequency sounds stimulate hair cells on which part of the basilar membrane?

A) area close to the round window

B) the entire membrane

C) the distal end

D) the middle region

E) area close to the oval window

C) the distal end

45

45.) The function of the auditory tube is to:

A) help maintain equilibrium

B) amplify sounds

C) equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane

D) redistribute endolymph after hearing a sound

E) provide a passageway for sound waves to enter the ear

C) equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane

46

46.) Normal development of the immune response is due in pat to hormones produced by the _______.

A) adrenal medulla

B) pancreas

C) thyroid gland

D) thymus gland

D) thymus gland

47

47.) Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

A) calcium

B) deactivating ions

C) nucleotides

D) second messengers

D) second messengers

48

48.) Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the bod are called _________.

A) enzymes

B) antibodies

C) proteins

D) hormones

D) hormones

49

49.) ADH ________.

A) increases urine production

B) promotes dehydration

C) is produced in the adenohypophysis

D) is inhibited by alcohol

D) is inhibited by alcohol

50

50.) Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?

A) permissiveness

B) synergism

C) antagonism

D) feedback

D) feedback

51

51.) An activated G protein can trigger

A) the production of diacylglycerol

B) the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane

C) the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores

D) a fall in cAMP levels

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

52

52.) When adenyl cyclase is activated,

A) ATP is consumed

B) cAMP is formed

C) cAMP is broken down

D) ATP is produced

E) ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

E) ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

53

53.) After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,

A) adenyl cyclase is activated

B) cyclic nucleotides are formed

C) G proteins are phosphylated

D) gene transcription is initiated

D) gene transcription is initiated

54

54.) All target cells

A) have hormone receptors

B) respond to electrical signals

C) secrete hormones

D) produce their own hormones

E) are in the blood

A) have hormone receptors

55

55.) Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

A) polyuria

B) polydipsia

C) polyphagia

D) polycythemia

D) polycythemia

56

56.) Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interactions?

A) blood levels of hormone

B) type of hormone

C) number of receptors for that hormone

D) strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone

B) type of hormone

57

57.) Which of the following hormones suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure?

A) gastrin

B) secretion

C) leptin

D) renin

C) leptin

58

58.) When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _______.

A) estrogen

B) epinephrine

C) angiotensinogen

D) renin

B) epinephrine

59

59.) Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

A) the heart

B) the kidney

C) the skin

D) the spleen

A) the heart

60

60.) Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to _______.

A) testosterone

B) estrogen

C) cortisol

D) epinephrine

C) cortisol

61

61.) The most important mineralcorticoid regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.

A) insulin

B) aldosterone

C) glucagon

D) cortisol

B) aldosterone

62

62.) In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.

A) sensitivity increases

B) cellular affinity

C) up-regulation

D) a stressor raction

C) up-regulation