BIO: Chapter 42

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1

Which of the following best describes an artery?

A) Arteries carry blood away from the heart.

B) Arteries carry blood away from capillaries.

C) Arteries carry oxygenated blood.

D) Arteries have thin walls compared with veins.

A

2

Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have _____.

A) branched tracheae

B) an open circulatory system

C) a closed circulatory system

D) a gastrovascular cavity

C

3

In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

A) insects

B) fishes

C) annelids

D) frogs

D

4

The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the _____.

A) amphibians

B) fishes

C) mammals

D) reptiles

B

5

Circulatory systems compensate for _____.

A) temperature differences between the lungs and the active tissue

B) the need to cushion animals from trauma

C) the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances

D) the problem of communication systems involving only the nervous system

C

6

In an open circulatory system, blood is _____.

A) not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems

B) always inside of vessels and is under higher pressure than in closed circulatory systems

C) not always confined to blood vessels and is under higher pressure than in closed circulatory systems

D) always inside of vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems

A

7

Blood returns to the heart via the _____.

A) aorta

B) pulmonary arteries

C) pulmonary veins

D) aorta and pulmonary arteries

E) aorta and pulmonary veins

C

8

From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.

A) right atrium

B) left atrium

C) aorta

D) capillaries of the lungs

E) inferior vena cava

B

9

From the superior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.

A) right atrium

B) left atrium

C) aorta

D) capillaries of the lungs

E) inferior vena cava

A

10

From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.

A) right atrium

B) left atrium

C) aorta

D) capillaries of the lungs

E) inferior vena cava

E

11

What is the function of a circulatory system?

A) It acts as a reservoir for the storage of blood.

B) It exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the outside air.

C) It is the site of blood cell production.

D) It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.

D

12

Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?

A) Land vertebrates are bigger and require more tubing to reach all areas of the body.

B) The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.

C) The circuits increase the amount of surface area available for the diffusion of gases and nutrients in the body.

D) Blood is pumped to the lungs to be oxygenated before being pumped to the rest of the body.

B

13

True or false?

The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.

False

14

What is the function of the left ventricle?

A) It pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary circulation.

B) It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.

C) It receives deoxygenated blood from the lungs.

D) It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

B

15

Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?

A) During one cardiac cycle, the two ventricles contract first, and then the two atria contract.

B) Deoxygenated blood flowing through the pulmonary veins is carried to the right atrium.

C) Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.

D) As the right ventricle contracts, it sends oxygenated blood through the aorta to all tissues of the body.

C

16

Which event occurs first during diastole?

A) The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

B) The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.

C) The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.

D) Blood flows into the relaxed atria while the ventricles contract.

A

17

Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?

A) The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.

B) The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.

C) The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

D) The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.

B

18

Which statement about human blood vessels is correct?

A) The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.

B) Arteries carry oxygenated blood; veins carry oxygen-poor blood.

C) Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.

D) Veins transport blood from the heart to the capillaries.

E) Arteries carry blood toward the atria of the heart.

C

19

Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?

A) left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemic circulation

B) vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle --> pulmonary vein

C) pulmonary vein → left atrium → left ventricle --> pulmonary circuit

D) vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle --> pulmonary artery

D

20

You cut your finger, and after putting pressure on the wound for several minutes, you notice that it is still bleeding profusely. What may be the problem?

A) Mast cells are not releasing their chemical messengers.

B) There are too many antigens to allow clotting.

C) Hemoglobin levels are too high to allow clotting.

D) Platelets are not functioning properly, or there are too few to be effective.

D

21

Voice sounds are produced by the _____.

A) trachea

B) diaphragm

C) bronchioles

D) larynx

E) lungs

D

22

The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.

A) lungs

B) trachea

C) bronchus

D) nasal cavity

E) alveoli

D

23

The smallest airway through which inspired air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the _____.

A) bronchus

B) bronchiole

C) trachea

D) pharynx

E) larynx

B

24

Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize _____.

A) active transport

B) osmosis

C) blood pressure

D) diffusion

D

25

During most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely linked to the blood levels of _____.

A) oxygen

B) carbon monoxide

C) carbon dioxide

D) nitrogen

C

26

Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the

A) left atrium.

B) right atrium.

C) left ventricle.

D) right ventricle.

E) vena cava.

A

27

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?

A) rising O2

B) rising CO2 and falling O2

C) falling CO2

D) falling O2

E) rising CO2

E

28

One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is

A) a complete separation of circuits for circulation.

B) the type of gas exchange tissues.

C) the number of heart chambers.

D) the number of circuits for circulation.

E) a low blood pressure in the systemic circuit.

D

29

Why does the velocity of blood slow greatly as blood flows from arterioles into capillaries?

A) Because capillary beds have a total cross-sectional area much greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arterioles.

B) Because capillary beds are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues.

C) Because the narrow capillaries offer great resistance to blood flow.

A

30

How are gases transported in insect bodies?

A) In tracheal systems

B) In closed circulatory systems

C) In open circulatory systems

A

31

Stroke occurs when _____.

A) a blood clot dislodges from a vein and moves into the lung, where it blocks a pulmonary artery

B) a blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue

C) a blood clot enters and blocks one of the coronary arteries

D) the walls of an artery in the leg accumulate deposits and lose their flexibility and elasticity

E) the pacemaker of the heart becomes defective, producing an irregular heartbeat

B

32

Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with _____.

A) increased activity of the immune system

B) dehydration

C) sodium depletion

D) blood sugar that is abnormally high

A

33

Which of the following conditions would most likely be due to high blood pressure in a mammal?

A) reversal of normal blood flow direction in arteries

B) inability of the right ventricle to contract

C) destruction of red blood cells

D) bursting of blood vessels in capillary beds

D

34

Atria contract _____.

A) just prior to the beginning of diastole

B) during systole

C) immediately after systole

D) during diastole

B

35

A species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of greater than 260 mm Hg is likely to be _____.

A) an animal that has a very long distance between its heart and its brain

B) a species that has very wide diameter veins

C) an animal that is small and compact, without the need to pump blood very far from the heart

D) an animal that makes frequent, quick motions

A