Activity 1: Gross Anatomy of the Human Heart and Using the Heart Model to Study Heart Anatomy

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1

What is the major function of the cardiovascular system?

Transportation

2

What is used as the transport vehicle in the cardiovascular system?

Blood

3

Blood can carry what 4 essential substances?

1. Oxygen

2. Digested foods

3. Cell wastes

4. Electrolytes

4

What is the cardiovascular system's propulsive force?

Heart

5

The heart can be compared to what type of pump with what type of valves?

One-way pump with one-way valves

6

When the heart contracts, where does it force the blood?

It forces the blood into the blood vessels

7

The heart is about the size of what body part?

A closed fist

8

Where is the heart located?

Within the mediastinum of the thorax

9

The heart is flanked laterally by the ____, posteriorly by the ____, and anteriorly by the ____.

1. Lungs

2. Vertebral column

3. Sternum

10

Describe the apex of the heart. (Hint: How it looks like?)

It is sharp.

11

The apex slightly extends to which side of the body and rests on what organ?

Slightly extends to the left and rest on the diaphragm

12

The apex is approximately aligned at which intercostal space?

The 5th intercostal space

13

What emerges from the base of the heart?

The great blood vessels

14

The base of the heart lies beneath what rib and points toward what body feature ?

Lies beneath the second rib and points toward the right shoulder

15

The heart is enclosed within what structure?

Pericardium

16

What type of sac is the pericardium?

Double-walled sac

17

The pericardium has how many layers?

3

18

What are the 3 layers of pericardium covering the heart? (Hint: from most external to most internal)

1. Fibrous pericardium

2. Parietal pericardium

3. Visceral pericardium

19

The visceral pericardium is also called by what name?

Epicardium

20

How is the epicardium adhered to the heart muscle?

Closely adhered to the heart muscle

21

How loose is the parietal pericardium adhered to the heart muscle?

Loosely adhered

22

The parietal pericardium is attached at the heart apex to what structure?

Diaphragm

23

Which layer of the pericardium produces serous fluid?

Parietal pericardium

24

What is the function of the serous fluid produced by the parietal pericardium?

Allow the heart to beat without friction

25

The serous parietal pericardium lines what layer of the pericardium?

Fibrous pericardium

26

The fibrous pericardium is composed of what type of tissue?

dense connective tissue

27

How is the fibrous pericardium adhered to the heart muscle?

Loosely adhered

28

The walls of the actual heart are composed of how many layers?

3

29

What are the 3 walls of the actual heart (from outermost to innermost)?

1. Epicardium aka visceral pericardium

2. Myocardium

3. Endocardium

30

What wall of heart is the thickest layer?

Myocardium

31

The myocardium is composed mainly of what muscle type?

Cardiac muscle

32

The myocardium is then reinforced with what type of tissue?

Dense irregular connective tissue

33

The dense irregular connective tissue that lines the myocardium is also called what?

Cardiac skeleton

34

The cardiac skeleton (comprised of dense irregular connective tissue) that lines the myocardium is thicker around which 2 features of the heart?

1. Heart valves

2. Base of the great vessels

35

The endocardium covers what and is continuous with what?

Covers the heart valves and is continuous with the inner lining of the great vessels

36

The endocardium is composed of what epithelium?

Simple squamous epithelium

37

The endocardium rests on what type of tissue?

Areolar connective tissue

38

The heart is divided into how many chambers?

4

39

What are the 4 chambers of the heart?

2 atria and 2 ventricles

40

What structure divides the heart longitudinally?

Interventricular or interatrial septum

41

The interventricular septum divides what 2 chambers?

The 2 ventricles

42

The interatrial septum divides what 2 chambers?

The 2 atria

43

Functionally, the atria act as what type of chambers and are ineffective as what?

Act as receiving chambers and are ineffective as pumps

44

Which 2 chambers form the bulk of the heart?

The 2 ventricles

45

The 2 ventricles act as what type of chambers functionally?

Discharging chambers

46

What is the function of the ventricles in regards to blood?

They force blood out of the heart and into the large arteries that emerge from the base.

47

The heart has how many valves?

4

48

The 4 valves of the heart enforce what type of blood flow?

One-way blood flow

49

The atrioventricular (AV) valves are located between what chambers?

Between atria and ventricles

50

What are the 2 atrioventricular (AV) valves?

1. Tricuspid valve

2. Mitral or bicuspid valve

51

The semilunar (SL) valves are located between what 2 features of the heart?

1. Ventricles

2. Great vessels

52

What are the 2 semilunar (SL) valves?

1. Pulmonary (SL) valve

2. Aortic (SL) valve

53

What is the right atrioventricular (AV) valve?

Tricuspid valve

54

The tricuspid valve has how many flaplike cusps?

3

55

The 3 flaplike cusps of the tricuspid valve are anchored to what type of muscles?

Papillary muscles

56

Which chambers are papillary muscles found?

In the 2 ventricles

57

The tricuspid valve anchored to the papillary muscles by what structure?

By chordae tendineae

58

What is left atrioventricular (AV) valve called?

Mitral valve or bicuspid valve

59

The bicuspid valve has how many flaplike cusps?

2

60

The bicuspid valve anchored to the papillary muscles by what structure?

Chordae tendineae

61

When the AV valves are open and hang into the ventricles, and the ventricles are relaxed, blood is permitted to flow into which chambers?

The 2 atria and the 2 ventricles

62

When does the ventricles contract?

When they fill up with blood

63

When the ventricles contract, what happens to the atrioventricular (AV) valves?

They move superiorly to separate the atria and ventricles.

64

How does the papillary muscles and chordae tendineae prevent the backlow of blood?

The chordae tendineae are pulled tight by the contracting papillary muscles to anchor the cusps in the closed position. This prevents the backflow of blood from the ventricles back into the atria.

65

The pulmonary (SL) valve has how many cusps?

3 cusps

66

The pulmonary (SL) valve is located between what 2 heart structures?

1. Right ventricle

2. Pulmonary trunk

67

The aortic (SL) valve has how many cusps?

3

68

The aortic (SL) valve is located between what 2 heart structures?

1. Left ventricle

2. Aorta

69

When are the SL valves opened and flattened against the wall of the vessel?

During contraction of the ventricles that pushes blood into the great vessels

70

1. When do the SL valves close and their cusps fill up with blood?

2. How do the SL valves close?

1. When the ventricles relax

2.The flow of blood back toward the ventricle creates pressure that closes the cusps, closing the valves as well.

71

The closing of the SL valves prevents backflow of blood from what 2 heart features?

Prevents backflow of blood from the great vessels into the ventricles.

72
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Name the missing parts.

Heart external anterior view

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73
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Name the missing parts.

Heart frontal section

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74
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Name the missing parts.

Heart external posterior view

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75
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Name the missing parts.

External posterior view

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76
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Name the missing parts.

External posterior view

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77
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Name the missing parts.

External posterior view

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78
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Name the missing parts.

External anterior view

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79
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Name the missing parts.

Frontal section

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