Test 3

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1

Match the following

a. peristalsis

b. absorption

c. digestion

d. hydrolysis

e. Mucosa

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.

a. peristalsis

2

a. peristalsis

b. absorption

c. digestion

d. hydrolysis

e. Mucosa

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.

c. digestion

3

a. peristalsis

b. absorption

c. digestion

d. hydrolysis

e. Mucosa

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.

d. hydrolysis

4

a. peristalsis

b. absorption

c. digestion

d. hydrolysis

e. Mucosa

process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract through blood or lymph.

b. absorption

5

a. peristalsis

b. absorption

c. digestion

d. hydrolysis

e. Mucosa

Inner layer of the gastrointestinal tract

b. absorption

6

True or False a=true, b= false

The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chime to spiral, rather than move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine

a. True

7

As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrient are more readily available to the body.

a. True

8

Some of the microbes that often invade other organs of the body are rarely found in the stomach. The reason for this is the presence of HCl,

a. True

9

Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsilble for removing bacteria and worn-out cells.

a. True

10

The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.

b. False

11

Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells.

b. False

12

The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.

a. True

13

The major role of absorption in the ileum is to reclaim bile salts to be recycled back to the liver.

a. True

14

The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.

a. true

15

Peyer's patches are found in the submucosa of the distalb end of the small intestine

a. True

16

The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract and controls GI motility

a. True

17

The first teeth to appear are the deciduous teeth.

a.True

18

Dentin anchor the tooth in place.

b. False

19

The soft plate rise reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.

b. False

20

Mumps is an inflammation of the parotid glands a virus.

a. True

21

Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport.

a. True

22

Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.

a. True

23

Another term for swallowing is deglutition.

a. True

24

The pancreas is primarily an exocrine organ dominated by pancreatic acini as the main tissue type.

a. True

25

The major stimulus for the production of intestinal fluids is distention or irritation of the intestinal musoca by hypertonic or acidic chime.

a. True

26

Multiple Choice: Select the best answer to each question.

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located________..

a. in the grandular tissue that lines the ortan lumen.

b. in the walls of the tract organs

c. in the pons and meddulla

d. only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accomodate food passage

b. in the walls of the tract organs

27

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to__________.

a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.

b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

c. distribute hormones

d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

28

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabooic reactions whereby enzymes split the molecules. This series of reactions is called__________.

a. absorption

b. secretion

c. chemical digestion

d. mechanical digestion

c. chemical digestion

29

The sheets of the peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called_________.

a. mesemteries

b. lamina propria

c. serosal lning

d. mucosal lining

a. mesemteries

30

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layer. Arrange them in order from the lumen outward.

a. muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

b. serosa, mucos, submucosa, and muscularis externa

c.submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

d. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

d. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

31

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

a. thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus

b. tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

c. replacing of damged epithelial mucosa cells

d. rennin

d. rennin

32

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutriens lie in the_________.

a. muscularis mucosae

b. serosa

c. adventitia

d. lamina propria

d. lamina propria

33

Which hormone cause an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stmulates gallbladdern contraction to release bile?

a. gastrin

b. secretin

c. cholecystokinin

d. gastric inhibitor peptide

c. cholecystokinin

34

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

a. bile is both an excretory product and a digestiven secretion

b. bile functions to emulsify fats

c. bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from the breakdown of worn-out RBC's

d. bile contains enzymes for digestion

d. bile contains enzymes for digestion

35

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task.

a. plicae circulares, and intestinal villie

b. the vast array of digestive enzymes.

c. Brunner's glands

d. the rugae

a. plicae circulares, and intestinal villie

36

Which of the following is not true of saliva?

a. cleanses the mouth

b. contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

c. moistens food and aids the compacting of the bolus

d. dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted.

b. contains enzymes that begin the breakdwon of proteins

37

Chyme is created in the__________.

a. mouth

b. stomach

c. esophagus

d. small intestine

b. stomach

38

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach

a. chief cells

b.parietal cells

c. serous cells

d.mucous neck cells

b.parietal cells

39

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs________.

a. before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

b. immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients

c. At the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the cc

GI tract for a long period of time

d. When the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

a. before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

40

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of______.

a. starches and complex carbohydrates

b. protein and peptide fragments

c. simple carbohydrates and alcohols

d. fatty acids

b. protein and peptide fragments

41

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the_________.

a. chief cells of the stomach

b. partietal cells of the duodenum

c. Brunner's glands

d. Goblet cells of the small intestine

a. chief cells of the stomach

42

The enzymatic breakdown of any food molecule is called__________.

a. diffusion

b. active transport

c. hydrolysis

d. denatured

c. hydrolysis

43

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

a. rennin

b. persin

c. lipase

d. cholecystokinin

c. lipase

44

Hepatocytes do not _______.

a. produce digestive enzymes

b. process nutrients

c. store fat-soluble vitamins

d. detoxify

a. produce digestive enzymes

45

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the _______.

a. duodenum

b. ileum

c. jejunum

d. pyloric sphincter

b. ileum

46

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?

a. incisor tooth

b. molar tooth

c. premolar tooth

d. canine tooth

d. canine tooth

47

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

a. lipids

b. carbohydrates

c. proteins

d. starches

a. lipids

48

Which of the following is an essential role played by the large intestine bacteria?

a. produce gas

b. absorb bilirubin

c. synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

d. synthesize vitamins C and D

c. synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

49

What stomach secretion in necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBC's

a. HCl

b. Pepsinogen

c. Intrinsic factor

d. Gastric lipase

c. Intrinsic factor

50

In order to receive a customized diet from ChooseMyPlate.gov., you must provide your:

a. age

b. gender

c. the amount you exercise

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

51

ChooseMyPlate.gov is a website managed by

a. the USDA

b. the Food and Drug Administration

c. The FFA

d. The U.S. Department of Health and Welfare

a. the USDA

52

Which of the following are not considered human nutrient?

a. carbohydrates

b. lipids

c. vitamins

d. minerals

e. all are considered nutrients

e. all are considered nutrients

53

Which of the following is not a pathway for carbohydrate metabolism

a. Glycolysis

b. Krebs Cycle

c. Electron Transport Chain

d. Deamination

d. Deamination

54

In the human body, glucose is stored primarily as _______.

a. fat

b. glycogen

c. ketones

d. glucose cannot be stored

b. glycogen

55

Diabetes mellitus is a consequence if inadequate ______ production.

a. amino acids

b. fatty acids

c. insulin

d. triglycerides

c. insulin

56

From which nutrient does the body receive the most concentrated source of energy?

a. lipids

b. carbohydrates

c. proteins

d. vitamins

a. lipids

57

Where does the Kreb's Cycle occur?

a. blood

b. liver

c. cytosol of cells

d. mitochondrial matrix

d. mitochondrial matrix

58

A toxic waste product of protein metabolism that must be removed from the body is _______.

a. carbon dioxide

b. urea

c. uric acid

d. ammonia

d. ammonia

59

The carbon dioxide of cellular respiration is formed during_________.

a. glycolysis

b. Kreb's cycle

c. Electron transport

d. The formation of pyruvic acid

b. Kreb's cycle

60

The function of the citric acid cycle is to _________.

a. remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to co-enzymes

b. transfer the acetyl group

c. hydrolyze glucose

d. produce carbon dioxide

a. remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to co-enzymes

61

Cells must synthesize new organic compounds

a. to support growth

b. to perform structural maintenance or repairs

c. to produce secretions

d. to store nutrient reserves

e. all of the above

e. all of the above

62

Poisons like cyanide bind to _______ and prevent electron transfer.

a. enzymes

b. the endoplasmic reticulum

c. acetyl-CoA

d. cytochromes

e. mitochondria

d. cytochromes

63

Catabolism of all the following is fairly common for energy production except.

a. carbohydrates

b. lipids

c. glucose

d. protein

d. protein

64

Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle _______ yields energy the quickest.

a. glycogen

b. glucose

c. protein

d. fat

e. all of the above have the same rate

b. glucose

65

In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is_______ yielding a different amino acid.

a. converted to ammonia

b. converted to urea

c. transferred to another molecule

d. absorbed by water

e. transferred to acetyl-CoA

c. transferred to another molecule

66

When the body is relying on internal energy reserves to continue meeting its energy demands, it is in the.

a. post-absorptive state

b. absorptive state

c. starvation state

d. deprivation state

a. post-absorptive state

67

Deficiency in this vitamin can result in a condition called scurvy.

a. A

b. C

c. D

d. B12

b. C

68

What is the name of the compound that enters the Citric Acid Cycle series of reactions?

a. Pyruvic Acid

b. Acetyl-CoA

c. Citric Acid

d. NADH

b. Acetyl-CoA

69

Inadequate exposure to sunlight could result in decreased amounts of vitamin_____ in the body.

a. A

b. C

c. D

d. E

c. D

70

A balanced diet should

a. include adequate substrates for the production of energy

b. provide essential amino acids and fatty acids

c. contain adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

d. all of the above

71

A high uric acid level can lead to the painful condition known as.

a. gout

b. rheumatoid arthritis

c. anorexia nervosa

d. lupus

a. gout

72

The energy of food is commonly given in units called.

a. Calories

b. Calories or kilocalories

c. Oxidation units

d. Grams

b. Calories or kilocalories

73

Glycolysis is the first step in glucose metabolism, and does not require ______.

a. Pyruvate

b. Acetyl-Coa

c. Oxygen

d. Carbon dioxide

c. Oxygen

74

Anaroebic respiration respiration results in the build up of

a. lactic aids

b. carbon dioxide

c. Acetyl-CoA

d. Citric acid

a. lactic aids

75

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) refers to.

a. the rate of respiration of a resting person

b. the recovery time for a person who has exercised for 1 hour

c. the minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person

d. the amount of energy it will take to exercise for one hour

c. the minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person