Chapter 10 Open Staxx Flashcards
Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
Chromosomes are duplicated during what portion of the cell cycle?
What is the correct order of the events in mitosis
The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. Sister chromatids lineup at the metaphase plate. The Kinetochore breaks apart and the sister chromatids separate. The nucleus reforms and the cell divides.
An organisms traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited......
Many of the negative regulator proteins of the cell cycle were discovered in what type of cells?
Which negative regulatory molecule can trigger cell suicide (apoptosis) if vital cell cycle events do not occur?
Which protein is a positive regulator that phosphorylates other proteins when activated?
cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)
If the M checkpoint is not cleared, what stage of mitosis will be blocked?
What is the main prerequisite for clearance at the G2 checkpoint?
accurate and complete DNA replication
At which of the cell cycle checkpoints do external forces have the greatest influence?
Which of the following events does not occur during some stages of interphase?
separation of sister chromatids
The mitotic spindles arise from which cell structure?
Attachment of the mitotic spindle fibers to the kinetochores is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
The chromosomes become visible under a light microscope during which stage of mitosis?
The fusing of Golgi vesicles at the metaphase plate of dividing plant cells forms what structure?
stage of mitosis during which sister chromatids are separated from each other
ordered series of events involving cell growth and cell division that produces two new daughter cells
structure formed during plant cell cytokinesis by Golgi vesicles, forming a temporary structure (phragmoplast) and fusing at the metaphase plate; ultimately leads to the formation of cell walls that separate the two daughter cells
rod-like structure constructed of microtubules at the center of each animal cell centrosome
constriction formed by an actin ring during cytokinesis in animal cells that leads to cytoplasmic division
proteins that help sister chromatids coil during prophase
distinct from the G1 phase of interphase; a cell in G0 is not preparing to divide
division of the cytoplasm following mitosis that forms two daughter cells.
(also, first gap) first phase of interphase centered on cell growth during mitosis
(also, second gap) third phase of interphase during which the cell undergoes final preparations for mitosis
period of the cell cycle leading up to mitosis; includes G1, S, and G2 phases (the interim period between two consecutive cell divisions
mitotic nuclear division
protein structure associated with the centromere of each sister chromatid that attracts and binds spindle microtubules during prometaphase
equatorial plane midway between the two poles of a cell where the chromosomes align during metaphase
stage of mitosis during which chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate
(also, karyokinesis) period of the cell cycle during which the duplicated chromosomes are separated into identical nuclei; includes prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
period of the cell cycle during which duplicated chromosomes are distributed into two nuclei and cytoplasmic contents are divided; includes karyokinesis (mitosis) and cytokinesis
apparatus composed of microtubules that orchestrates the movement of chromosomes during mitosis
stage of mitosis during which the nuclear membrane breaks down and mitotic spindle fibers attach to kinetochores
stage of mitosis during which chromosomes condense and the mitotic spindle begins to form
refers to a cell that is performing normal cell functions and has not initiated preparations for cell division
second, or synthesis, stage of interphase during which DNA replication occurs
stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at opposite poles, decondense, and are surrounded by a new nuclear envelope
A diploid cell has_______ the number of chromosomes as a haploid cell.
An organism’s traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited _____.
The first level of DNA organization in a eukaryotic cell is maintained by which molecule?
Identical copies of chromatin held together by cohesin at the centromere are called _____.
ordered sequence of events that a cell passes through between one cell division and the next
region at which sister chromatids are bound together; a constricted area in condensed chromosomes
single DNA molecule of two strands of duplicated DNA and associated proteins held together at the centromere
cell, nucleus, or organism containing two sets of chromosomes (2n)
haploid reproductive cell or sex cell (sperm, pollen grain, or egg)
physical and functional unit of heredity, a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein.
total genetic information of a cell or organism
cell, nucleus, or organism containing one set of chromosomes (n)
one of several similar, highly conserved, low molecular weight, basic proteins found in the chromatin of all eukaryotic cells; associates with DNA to form nucleosomes
chromosomes of the same morphology with genes in the same location; diploid organisms have pairs of homologous chromosomes (homologs), with each homolog derived from a different parent
position of a gene on a chromosome
subunit of chromatin composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins
___________ are changes to the order of nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.
A gene that codes for a positive cell cycle regulator is called a(n) _____.
A mutated gene that codes for an altered version of Cdk that is active in the absence of cyclin is a(n) _____.
Which molecule is a Cdk inhibitor that is controlled by p53?
mutated version of a normal gene involved in the positive regulation of the cell cycle
normal gene that when mutated becomes an oncogene
tumor suppressor gene
segment of DNA that codes for regulator proteins that prevent the cell from undergoing uncontrolled division
Which eukaryotic cell cycle event is missing in binary fission?
FtsZ proteins direct the formation of a _______ that will eventually form the new cell walls of the daughter cells.