Chapter 10 Open Staxx

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Mitosis
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1

Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?

Anaphase

2

Chromosomes are duplicated during what portion of the cell cycle?

S phase

3

What is the correct order of the events in mitosis

The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. Sister chromatids lineup at the metaphase plate. The Kinetochore breaks apart and the sister chromatids separate. The nucleus reforms and the cell divides.

4

An organisms traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited......

Genes

5

Many of the negative regulator proteins of the cell cycle were discovered in what type of cells?

cancer cells

6

Which negative regulatory molecule can trigger cell suicide (apoptosis) if vital cell cycle events do not occur?

p53

7

Which protein is a positive regulator that phosphorylates other proteins when activated?

cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)

8

If the M checkpoint is not cleared, what stage of mitosis will be blocked?

anaphase

9

What is the main prerequisite for clearance at the G2 checkpoint?

accurate and complete DNA replication

10

At which of the cell cycle checkpoints do external forces have the greatest influence?

G1 checkpoint

11

Which of the following events does not occur during some stages of interphase?

separation of sister chromatids

12

The mitotic spindles arise from which cell structure?

centrosome

13

Attachment of the mitotic spindle fibers to the kinetochores is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?

prometaphase

14

The chromosomes become visible under a light microscope during which stage of mitosis?

prophase

15

The fusing of Golgi vesicles at the metaphase plate of dividing plant cells forms what structure?

cell plate

16

stage of mitosis during which sister chromatids are separated from each other

anaphase

17

ordered series of events involving cell growth and cell division that produces two new daughter cells

cell cycle

18

structure formed during plant cell cytokinesis by Golgi vesicles, forming a temporary structure (phragmoplast) and fusing at the metaphase plate; ultimately leads to the formation of cell walls that separate the two daughter cells

cell plate

19

centriole

rod-like structure constructed of microtubules at the center of each animal cell centrosome

20

constriction formed by an actin ring during cytokinesis in animal cells that leads to cytoplasmic division

cleavage furrow

21

proteins that help sister chromatids coil during prophase

condensin

22

distinct from the G1 phase of interphase; a cell in G0 is not preparing to divide

G0 phase

23

division of the cytoplasm following mitosis that forms two daughter cells.

cytokinesis

24

(also, first gap) first phase of interphase centered on cell growth during mitosis

G1 phase

25

(also, second gap) third phase of interphase during which the cell undergoes final preparations for mitosis

G2 phase

26

period of the cell cycle leading up to mitosis; includes G1, S, and G2 phases (the interim period between two consecutive cell divisions

interphase

27

mitotic nuclear division

karyokinesis

28

kinetochore

protein structure associated with the centromere of each sister chromatid that attracts and binds spindle microtubules during prometaphase

29

metaphase plate

equatorial plane midway between the two poles of a cell where the chromosomes align during metaphase

30

stage of mitosis during which chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate

metaphase

31

mitosis

(also, karyokinesis) period of the cell cycle during which the duplicated chromosomes are separated into identical nuclei; includes prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

32

period of the cell cycle during which duplicated chromosomes are distributed into two nuclei and cytoplasmic contents are divided; includes karyokinesis (mitosis) and cytokinesis

mitotic phase

33

mitotic spindle

apparatus composed of microtubules that orchestrates the movement of chromosomes during mitosis

34

stage of mitosis during which the nuclear membrane breaks down and mitotic spindle fibers attach to kinetochores

prometaphase

35

prophase

stage of mitosis during which chromosomes condense and the mitotic spindle begins to form

36

quiescent

refers to a cell that is performing normal cell functions and has not initiated preparations for cell division

37

S phase

second, or synthesis, stage of interphase during which DNA replication occurs

38

stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at opposite poles, decondense, and are surrounded by a new nuclear envelope

telophase

39

A diploid cell has_______ the number of chromosomes as a haploid cell.

twice

40

An organism’s traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited _____.

genes

41

The first level of DNA organization in a eukaryotic cell is maintained by which molecule?

histone

42

Identical copies of chromatin held together by cohesin at the centromere are called _____.

sister chromatids.

43

ordered sequence of events that a cell passes through between one cell division and the next

cell cycle

44

region at which sister chromatids are bound together; a constricted area in condensed chromosomes

centromere

45

single DNA molecule of two strands of duplicated DNA and associated proteins held together at the centromere

chromatid

46

cell, nucleus, or organism containing two sets of chromosomes (2n)

diploid

47

haploid reproductive cell or sex cell (sperm, pollen grain, or egg)

gamete

48

physical and functional unit of heredity, a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein.

gene

49

total genetic information of a cell or organism

genome

50

cell, nucleus, or organism containing one set of chromosomes (n)

haploid

51

one of several similar, highly conserved, low molecular weight, basic proteins found in the chromatin of all eukaryotic cells; associates with DNA to form nucleosomes

histone

52

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes of the same morphology with genes in the same location; diploid organisms have pairs of homologous chromosomes (homologs), with each homolog derived from a different parent

53

locus

position of a gene on a chromosome

54

subunit of chromatin composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins

nucleosome

55

___________ are changes to the order of nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.

Gene mutations

56

A gene that codes for a positive cell cycle regulator is called a(n) _____.

proto-oncogene.

57

A mutated gene that codes for an altered version of Cdk that is active in the absence of cyclin is a(n) _____.

oncogene.

58

Which molecule is a Cdk inhibitor that is controlled by p53?

p21

59

mutated version of a normal gene involved in the positive regulation of the cell cycle

oncogene

60

proto-oncogene

normal gene that when mutated becomes an oncogene

61

tumor suppressor gene

segment of DNA that codes for regulator proteins that prevent the cell from undergoing uncontrolled division

62

Which eukaryotic cell cycle event is missing in binary fission?

karyokinesis

63

FtsZ proteins direct the formation of a _______ that will eventually form the new cell walls of the daughter cells.

cell plate