Chapter 42- Circulatory & Respiratory Systems Flashcards
Which of the following best describes an artery?
Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have _____.
a closed circulatory system
In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?
The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the _____
Circulatory systems compensate for _____.
the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances
In an open circulatory system, blood is _____.
not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
Blood returns to the heart via the _____.
From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.
From the superior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.
From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.
inferior vena cava
What is the function of a circulatory system?
It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?
The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
True or false? The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
What is the function of the left ventricle?
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?
Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
Which event occurs first during diastole?
The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.
Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?
The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
Which statement about human blood vessels is correct?
Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart
Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?
vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary artery
You cut your finger, and after putting pressure on the wound for several minutes, you notice that it is still bleeding profusely. What may be the problem?
Platelets are not functioning properly, or there are too few to be effective
Voice sounds are produced by the _____.
The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.
The smallest airway through which inspired air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the _____.
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize _____.
During most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely linked to the blood levels of _____.
Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the
When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?
One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is
the number of circuits for circulation
Why does the velocity of blood slow greatly as blood flows from arterioles into capillaries?
Because capillary beds have a total cross-sectional area much greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arterioles.
How are gases transported in insect bodies?
in tracheal systems
Strokes occurs when _____.
a blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue
Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with _____.
increased activity of the immune system
Which of the following conditions would most likely be due to high blood pressure in a mammal?
bursting of blood vessels in capillary beds
Atria contract _____.
A species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of greater than 260 mm Hg is likely to be _____.
an animal that has a very long distance between its heart and its brain