The Psychology Book: Quiz 10 Flashcards

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The Psychology Book
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When it comes to making rational decisions humans tend to rely heavily on _____.



The Nobel Prize winning research of Tversky and Kahneman provided new insights about systematic and predictable __________ that influence individuals' judgments.



As a drive state intensifies, attention is directed toward certain elements to ensure the fulfillment of that drive. What is one form of narrowing of attention that occurs during this time?

Turning one's focus inward


Cognitive strategies that simplify decision-making by using mental short cuts are called __________. They are sometimes referred to as "rules of thumb."



Louisa and Ray are evaluating the amount of recess time that should be given in the next school year at a new combined school for children from School A and School B. Louisa has a report that says over the last year children had no recess time at School A. Ray has a report that children had 60 minutes of research time each day. Due to anchoring, Louisa is likely to give a recommendation that is:

Lower than Ray's


Susan ate a donut even though she is on a diet because they were at the morning meeting and she had skipped breakfast. Susan demonstrated bounded __________; the argument that we give greater weight to our immediate concerns, even when they are in opposition to our long-term goals.



Jason has been eating well and exercising regularly for the last six months in an attempt to live a healthier lifestyle. In that time his weight has dropped significantly. Now, he feels unable to lose any additional weight. He has increased his exercise and continues to eat well, but his weight remains stable. It is possible that Jason's __________ is at his current weight

Set point


Ilene is at the grocery store when she sees a gentleman she is very attracted to. As Ilene approaches him and starts talking, she is leaning in, pushing out her breasts slightly, and making a great deal of eye contact. A store clerk notices this and believes that Ilene is sexually interested in the gentleman. What has the store clerk noticed that he came to this conclusion?

He observed Ilenes lordosis behavior


After taking a 10 question pop quiz, John was confident that he got at least 9 questions correct. However, after grading he found that he actually only answered 6 questions correctly. John suffers from:



System 2 thinking is driven by ______ and is typically _______.

Conscious; slow


Homeostasis refers to:

The tendency to return to a balanced or stable internal state


Joseph is very focused on counting the number of acorns that have fallen from a tree in his front yard. He is concentrating so hard, in fact, that he fails to notice the obvious and important fact that there is dog poop underneath the tree as well. Failing to notice this available information leads Joseph to step in the mess. Which of the following is this an example of?

Bounded awareness


Bosay is at the electronics store trying to decide which new game system to buy. She takes her time, studies the features of each, and is very effortful in her decision. When she finally buys a system, she feels confident that she has made the right choice. Bosay has used ________ decision making to assist with this purchase.

System 2


Ebony is trying to decide what she is going to do for her philosophy class project. According to the rational decision making model of Bazerman and Moore, her first step would be to:

Define the problem that she is trying to solve


One of the key differences between many drive states is the extent to which they are triggered by internal stimuli, such as the ______ drive state, versus external stimuli, such as the ______ drive state.

Thirst; fear


In today's society, people are often very busy-- especially executives-- causing them to trust certain ways of thinking over others. However, this can lead to many biases and make poor decisions. Which of the following is the best way to reduce bias and improve decisions?

Stop trusting system 1 and instead engage system 2 more


When Oludapipo goes into a car dealership to shop for a new truck, the price sticker on the vehicle that he wants says $32,000 even though he thinks it should really be closer to $25,000. As he negotiates with the salesperson, Oludapipo offers 30,000 rather than starting at $25,000. In this example, the number on the price sticker has served as a(n) __________.



Bazerman and Moore outlined ______ steps that you should take in order to make a rational decision.



Marita is having difficulty deciding whether she should go on a date with Richard or with Lionel. She weighs the pros and cons of dating each gentleman, but according to the __________ framework, cognitive limitations will prevent her from making an optimal decision.

Bounded rationality