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"Human beings...are very much at the mercy of the particular language which" they speak. This quote supports which of the following?
a. linguistic relativity
b. critical periods
c. language vs. communication distinction
d. prototype theory



Which of the following defines the concept of reaction range?

a. the general mental ability that underlies overall performance on all tests of mental ability

b. the variation in intelligence due to genetic differences

c. the inherited range of possibility that genes provide

d. ability to modify or change your behavior to best suit your environment



Tend to look for evidence that reinforces a decision or rule, but does not look for exceptions to the rule

a. Availability heuristic

b. Belief bias

c. Confirmation bias

d. Single feature model



Your definition of who you are which is made up of your past, present, and future selves is known as your _____.

A) self-concept

B) persona

C) self-esteem

D) self-efficacy



Which of the following is considered the best definition for stress?

A) Times when we are forced to make decisions, the outcome of which is unclear.

B) A process that includes the body’s response, what we tell ourselves, what we decide to do, and the outcomes.

C) Any life events that require change.

D) Having to choose between multiple options all of which have both pros and cons.



Tuesday morning, Tim woke up late, got stuck in traffic, and spilled his coffee on himself. In the span of a few hours Tim experienced many _____________, which are often the most harmful type of stress.

A) economic stressors

B) daily hassles

C) cataclysmic events

D) major life events



Which of the following terms is defined by the ways we think about stress and interpret all aspects of the stress process?

A) buffers

B) resources

C) explanatory style

D) perceptions



Stewart regularly exercises and eats well to ensure that when stressors do arise, they have a lower impact on his daily life. Which of the following coping styles fits what Stewart is doing?

A) proactive coping

B) preventive coping

C) emotion-focused coping

D) problem-focused coping



Yolanda is conducting a study on the effects of stress. As a physiological measure of stress, she will most likely choose to monitor __________ in the blood of her subjects.

A) Norepinephrine

B) Epinephrine

C) Cortisol

D) Dopamine



José's doctor tells him that his anxiety might be caused by errors in thinking that lead him to interpret ambiguous information negatively. His doctor is proposing which of the following as the cause of his problem?

A) Trauma

B) Genetics

C) Cognitive bias

D) Neurochemical imbalance



The Assertive Community Treatment approach for schizophrenia involve which of the following?

A) Intenstive hospitalization for a prolonged period of time.

B) A team of professionals who typically meet with the patient in his/her home.

C) A focus on biomedical treatment alone.



Which of the following is the 1st stage of the fertilized egg cell in prenatal development?

A) Zygote

B) Placenta

C) Embryo

D) Fetus



What is the essential question of this course?

A) How do psychological disorders develop?

B) How do we improve people's lives?

C) Why do people behave as they do?

D) What is psychology?



Dr. Rodriguez studies depression. He is currently conducting a drug trial where half of the participants in his study receive a new drug and the other half receive the placebo pill. He predicts that this new medication will have a greater impact on symptoms of depression. He is recording and analyzing the data for publication in a scientific journal. Which paradigm matches Dr. Rodriquez's approach?

A) Constructivism

B) Logical positivism



Roberto is taking a test on neuron structure. He is asked to label the parts and can't remember the name of the tree-like branches that extend from the cell body that receive information from other neurons. What is the correct label that Roberto is forgetting?

A) Axon terminals

B) Axon

C) Vesicles

D) Dendrites



Marie dances to the music of her favorite band. This auditory information is primarily being processed by which lobe of Marie's brain?

A) Temporal lobe

B) Parietal lobe

C) Occipital lobe

D) Frontal lobe



Transduction for the kinesthetic sense occurs in the _____

A) Cerebellum

B) Somatosensory cortex

C) Semicircular canals

D) Proprioceptors



When looking out over the auditorium, Darnell see that some of the chairs are different colors. He realizes that he sees a group of three red chairs, next to two blue chairs, followed by three more red chairs. The way his mind groups the chairs based on their similar color is because of the organizing principles known as _____.

A) Binocular cues

B) Gestalt principles

C) Monocular cues

D) Illusions



CCK is a signal for safety of _____ hunger, and leptin is a signal for safety of __________ hunger.

A) Long-term; short-term

B) Short-term; long-term

C) Long-term; long-term

D) Short-term; short-term

E) None of the above



Which of the theories of emotion suggests that we experience the physiological sensation and then label it?

A) James-Lange

B) Canon-Baird

C) Singer-Schacter

D) Freud-Jung

E) Cognitive appraisal



Kaitlin is a personality theorist who believes that a person's conscious thoughts in a particular situation are likely to influence his or her goals and behavior. Kaitlin is most likely to agree with which of the following perspectives on personality?

A) the social cognitive perspective

B) the behavioral genetic perspective

C) the neo-Freudian perspective

D) the psychoanalytic perspective



According to the Social-Cognitive theory your personality arises from

a) how your behaviors, personal factors, and experiences interact with one another.

b) your desire to be the best possible version of yourself.

c) your genetic history.

d) internal unresolved psychological conflicts.



In a memory study, subjects watched a film of a minor car accident. Sometime later, they were asked questions about the film. One group of subjects was asked, “how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” The other group was asked, “how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” The group that heard the words “smashed into ” estimated that the cars were going faster than did the group that heard the word “hit.” This experiment shows the effects of

A. elaboration.
B. suggestion.
C. memory storage.
D. memory retrieval.



If an adult was speaking to a baby, which of the following should he/she use?

a. infant directed speech

b. telegraphic speech

c. cooing

d. babbling



The ability to organize similar information together is called ______.

a. categorization

b. trial and error

c. problem solving

d. decision making



Which of the following is the main type of memory that includes all the others?

A. long-term memory
B. semantic memory
C. episodic memory
D. implicit memory
E. explicit memory



Which theory of emotion suggests that when you encounter a frightening situation you first feel the emotion of fear following shortly after by the physiological response like heart pounding and shaking hands?

a) two-factor theory

b) cognitive appraisal theory

c) Cannon-Bard theory

d) James-Lange theory



According to Freud, the successful resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual development involves the child's use of the defense mechanism of:

A) identification.

B) fixation.

C) reaction formation.

D) undoing.



In Freud's theory of personality, the _____ operates on the _____, which is the capacity to delay gratification until an appropriate time.

A) id; pleasure principle

B) superego; reality principle

C) ego; reality principle

D) superego; pleasure principle



The superego operates under the _______ principle, the main motivation of which is to engage in morally perfect behavior.

a) Religious

b) Realistic

c) Pleasure

d) Idealistic



Julia is driving home from school after a very stressful day. At a stoplight, she sees a billboard with a picture of a bottle of vodka that says, “Is this your problem?” She chuckles to herself and thinks, "No, that solves the problem!" It is most likely that Julia uses which of the following coping mechanisms?

A) planful problem solving

B) self-care

C) escape-avoidance coping

D) confrontive coping



Based on findings from Milgram's obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenters orders when:

A) They hear the "learner" cry out in pain

B) They merely administer the test while someone else delivers the shocks

C) The "learner" is an older person or mentions having some physical problem

D) They see another subject disobey instructions



In order for a pattern of thoughts or behaviors to be considered a psychological disorder which of the following must be true?

A) It must be a deviation from the social norm.

B) It must be a deviation from the statistical norm.

C) It must stem from an external cause.

D) It must cause personal distress and functional impairment



According to reconstruction theory, we forget because

A. implicit memories eventually become explicit memories.
B. explicit memories eventually become implicit memories.
C. we add inaccurate information when retrieving implicit memories.
D. we add inaccurate information when retrieving explicit memories.



Which of the following defines repression?

a. inability to remember things from first few years of life

b. deliberately pushing information out of your mind

c. information is not encoded so it is unable to be retrieved

d. unconscious forgetting



The inability to create new memories following an illness or injury is known as _______.

a. Alzheimer's disease

b. retrograde amnesia

c. dementia

d. anterograde amnesia



Putting on a sweater when shivering from the cold would be an example of ____.

a) incentive

b) arousal

c) sympathetic nervous system activation

d) drive-reduction



Luca disagrees with something that his boss is telling him. Although he knows that in this situation it would be inappropriate to express his frustration, he furrows his brow ever so briefly. This is an example of _____.

a) activation

b) a microexpression

c) arousal

d) a basic emotion



Learning from other people and changing your behavior as a result of your experiences fits best with which theory of personality?

a) Humanistic perspective

b) Social-Cognitive perspective

c) Psychodynamic perspective

d) Trait perspective



According to the Trait perspective, someone who is high in openness and low in conscientiousness would match which of the following?

a) Someone who is kind and honest but prefers routines and predictability.

b) Someone who is talkative and social but can also be suspicious and selfish.

c) Someone who is cool and calm but perfers to be in small groups.

d) Someone who is curious and open-minded but tends to be messy or unreliable.



When there is overlap between the real self and the ideal self this is known as _____.

a) incongruence

b) actualizing tendency

c) self-actualization

d) congruence



The field of behavioral genetics studies the:

A) behaviors that are determined solely by genes.

B) influence of genes and heredity on behavior.

C) effects of behavior on genes and heredity.

D) influence of traits on genes and behavior.



Identify the correct way in which the social cognitive perspective on personality differs from both the psychoanalytic and the humanistic perspectives.

A) The social cognitive perspective stresses the importance of unconscious influences.

B) The social cognitive perspective stresses the importance of individual differences.

C) The social cognitive perspective emphasizes insights derived from case studies.

D) The social cognitive perspective emphasizes information derived from empirical research and experimental data.



After Jack's loan application for the new car was rejected, he told a friend that he was glad he had not gotten the loan because his old car was still very reliable and he really didn't want to make monthly car payments. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Jack's behavior?

A) repression

B) undoing

C) rationalization

D) reaction formatio



According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:

A) occurs in close relationships and friendships.

B) is responsible for the Oedipus complex.

C) is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.

D) is the source of sexual and aggressive instinctual drives.



The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

A) Emotional awareness precedes our physiological response to a stressful event

B) Emotional expression follows awareness of our physiological response to an arousing event

C) An arousing event simultaneously triggers both a cognitive awareness and a physiological response

D) The level of fear we first feel when we ride a roller coaster is reduced each time we experience the same event until thrill replaces it

E) When we are unaware of why we are feeling arousal, we take our cue from the environment



Two year old Abby knows that she has parents that she can turn to if she needs help with something. Erikson would say that she is successful in dealing with which of the following dilemmas?

A) Trust vs. mistrust

B) Intimacy vs. isolation

C) Identity vs. role confusion

D) Integrity vs. despair



Which of the following is true regarding correlations?

A) Correlations allow us to make predictions.

B) Correlations allow us to make changes.

C) Correlations allow us to determine cause.



How do drugs affect behavior and mental processes?

A) By blocking the neurotransmitters from binding to the next neuron

B) By blocking neurotransmitters from being released

C) By acting like neurotransmitters

D) All of the options listed here are ways that drugs interfere with information transfer



Language abilities tend to be controlled by structures in the left hemisphere while spatial abilities and emotional expression are controlled by the right hemisphere. This is known as____

A) Lateralization

B) Localization

C) Association cortex

D) Split-brain



Selena is having her vision tested. The doctor tells her to raise her hand when she first sees a white dot appear on the black screen in front of her. Her ability to see a small white dot appear means that it's size and brightness have reach her _____.

A) Blind spot

B) Difference threshold

C) Absolute threshold

D) Sensory adaptation



The ____ funnels sound while the ___ amplifies sound.

A) Auditory nerve; basilar membrane

B) Cochlea; eardrum

C) Middle ear; inner ear

D) Outer ear; middle ear



Which two sensory systems both process chemical energy?

A) Visual and vestibular

B) Tactile and gustatory

C) Gustatory and olfactory

D) Kinesthetic and vestibular



Which two senses both process mechanical energy?

A) Olfactory and auditory

B) Visual and olfactory

C) Touch and kinesthetic

D) Auditory and visual



Which of the following describes the bystander effect?

A) We learn by watching and imitating others.

B) Any behavior that is intended to harm or injure someone who does not want to be harmed or injured.

C) A form of prosocial behavior that is based on the apparently unselfish motivation to serve others above self.

D) An individual is less likely to provide assistance as the number of people around increases.



Three or more people engaged in common activities but having minimal direct interaction is known as a ______.

A) collective

B) social relationship

C) observer

D) group



Which of the following defines compliance?

A) Changing your behaviors or beliefs out of a desire to be right.

B) Changing your behaviors or beliefs out of a desire to be accepted or liked.

C) Performing an action in response to direct orders.

D) Being asked to do something and agreeing.



Which of the following defines prejudice?

A) feelings – usually negative – toward people based on their membership or affiliation with a particular social group

B) fear that one’s performance will confirm stereotypes about one’s ingroup

C) attempts by others to change our behavior

D) behavior directed against people because of their membership or affiliation with a particular social group



We refer to stress as an adaptation because

A) it is important for our bodies to get used to or adapt to the feeling of stress as we will experience it our whole lives.

B) it is an essential part of our survival, as it keeps us alive and can even help us to thrive.

C) we would not really be able to experience relaxation if we didn't also feel stress.

D) when we feel stress, it is necessary to modify or adapt the feelings into something useful and productive.



Another word for diathesis is ______.

A) Predisposition

B) Prevalence

C) Prognosis

D) Stressor



A mental set is

a. a step-by-step strategy that, if followed correctly, will guarantee a solution to a problem.

b. a problem-solving technique that is like a shortcut to a solution.

c. a way of solving a problem based on a method that has worked in the past.

d. trying and testing different possibilities until a successful solution is reached.



Susan was in a horrible car accident when she was a young child — an accident in which her mother was killed. She claims that she always has been able to remember this accident. Which of the following statements about Susan’s claim is most likely to be true?

A. It is unlikely that Susan would be able to remember such a traumatic event because of the effects of repression.
B. It is unlikely that Susan would be able to forget such a traumatic event because of the effects of flashbulb memories.
C. Her memory probably is inaccurate in broad terms, although at least some details probably are accurate.
D. Her memory probably is accurate in broad terms, although at least some details probably are inaccurate



The LONGEST duration of unrehearsed information in the short-term store is about

A. 1-5 seconds.
B. 5-10 seconds.
C. 15-20 seconds.
D. 10 minutes.



Which of the following defines memory consolidation?

a. functions are spread throughout the brain

b. specific brain areas are responsible for specific functions

c. establishing memories over the long term

d. flexibility in the brain



The static vs. dynamic dialectic pair focuses on which of the following issues?

a) the extent to which people have the freedom to choose their behaviors

b) the extent to which everyone’s personality is the same

c) the extent to which behavior is driven by inner or outer forces

d) the extent to which people change over time



NEO-PI and the MMPI are

a) projective tests used to evaluate personality.

b) objective tests used to measure personality.

c) self-report tools typically used by Humanistic psychologists.

d) observational techniques used by the Psychodynamic approach to evaluate personality.



According to Freud, the sexual urges of children during the latency stage of psychosexual development:

A) are directed toward playmates of the opposite sex.

B) intensify and cause great anxiety.

C) become repressed, and the child prefers to play with same-sex friends.

D) produce catharsis.



Which theory suggests that emotions is a result of applying a cognitive label to explain a physiological reaction?

A) Cannon-Bard theory

B) James-Lange theory

C) Two-factory theory of emotion

D) Cognitive-mediational theory of emotion

E) Facial-feedback hypotheses



The learning process is most central to which personality theory?

A) psychodynamic

B) trait

C) social-cognitive

D) big-five



Doing something that helps someone else is called

A) self-regulation.

B) intimacy.

C) social learning.

D) prosocial behavior.



Lola was trying to fit a new piece of furniture into her room. She could not figure out how to get it through the door. Then, all of a sudden, she realized that if she turned it upside down and on its side, it would fit. Lola experienced which of the following?
a. intuition
b. algorithm
c. functional fixedness
d. insight



Which of the following are the photoreceptors that are activated by daytime brightness, allow us to see color, and are specialized for acuity?

A) Pupil

B) Rods

C) Retina

D) Cones



The misperception of physical reality is the definition of which of the following?

A) Binocular cues

B) Perceptual constancies

C) An illusion

D) A perceptual set



Marlene notices that her hands are much more sensitive to touch than her leg. Which of the following explains this finding?

A) Fingers contain myelinated A-delta fibers while legs contain unmyelinated C fibers which explains the difference in sensation.

B) Sensory receptors for touch are unevenly distributed throughout the body

C) The gate control theory explains why some areas of our body are more sensitive to touch than others

D) Marlene has a problem with her somatosensory cortex where touch is processed



Charity and her friends are discussing movie stars and they comment that a lot of young stars who made it big end up getting into lots of trouble with drugs. Charity suggests that movie stars often have to be a little self-absorbed and extroverted to make it big. This is an example of

A) a self-serving bias.

B) an external attribution.

C) a fundamental attribution error.

D) an actor-observer bias.



Because Ramona identifies with her politically conservative parents, she chose to enroll in a conservative school. After 4 years in this environment, Ramona's politics have become even more conservative. Which perspective best accounts for the mutual influences of Ramona's upbringing, choice of school, and political viewpoint?

A) psychoanalytic

B) trait

C) humanistic

D) social-cognitive



In contrast to Freud, Carl Jung believed that:

A) there were eight stages of psychosexual development.

B) people are driven to overcome feelings of inferiority.

C) men often suffer from womb envy.

D) personality continues to develop throughout the lifespan.



We know that an association has developed in classical conditioning when

A. there is a decrease in the UCR.
B. there is a decrease in the CR.
C. there is an increase in the UCR.
D. there is an increase in the CR.



Forgetting from short-term memory is best explained by all of the following theories EXCEPT:

A. decay theory
B. displacement theory
C. defensive theory



I write the word “proprium” on the chalkboard. If you encode this word in terms of its definition, you are encoding it ___; if you encode it by saying it rhymes with “throw thee, bum,” you are encoding it ___; if you encode it by noting that it is written in lower-case letters, you are encoding it ___.

A. semantically; phonemically; structurally
B. structurally; phonemically; semantically
C. phonemically; structurally; semantically
D. semantically; structurally; phonemically



Jasper was in a car accident and has trouble remembering things that happened a few days after the accident. He is experiencing ______.

a. proactive interference

b. retrograde amnesia

c. source confusion

d. anterograde amnesia



Holly's aunt died when she was a teenager. They were very close, spent a lot of time together, and Holly considered her like a second mother. Now however, she doesn't even talk about her. Which defense mechanism is she using?

a) projection

b) reaction formation

c) repression

d) sublimation



In what way is the social cognitive perspective on personality similar to the humanistic perspective on personality?

A) Both perspectives stress unconscious influences.

B) Both perspectives stress the importance of conscious thoughts about the self.

C) Both perspectives stress the importance of genetic influences.

D) Both perspectives stress case studies and insights derived from individual psychotherapy.



Irrational and chaotic is to the _____ as rational and reality-oriented is to the _____.

A) id; ego

B) id; superego

C) ego; superego

D) superego; id



People who feel oppressed and so perceive control as external may develop

A) an internal locus of control

B) a reaction formation

C) learned helplessness

D) self-serving bias



The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n)

A) projective personality test

B) empirically derived and objective personality test

C) personality test developed mainly to assess job applicants

D) personality test used primarily to assess locus of control



A psychologist at the local mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist MOST LIKELY administer?

A) the MMPI

B) the TAT

C) the Rorsahach

D) the Locus of Control Scale



When you are persuaded to do something because you are influenced by the convincing data quality argument this is known as ______.

A) cognitive dissonance

B) normative social influence

C) the peripherial route.

D) the central route.



Giselle's friends wear Juicy Couture clothing, and although she isn't particularly a fan of this designer, Giselle starts wearing Juicy Couture as well so that she can fit in. What is the reason for this behavior?

A) normative social influence

B) obedience

C) compliance

D) informational social influence



Which of the following is secreted during periods of prolonged stress?

A) norepinephrine

B) epinephrine

C) adrenaline

D) coritsol



Which of the following is the multidisciplinary study of how the immune system interacts with psychological stress, behavior, the nervous system, and the endocrine system?

A) maladaptation

B) psychoneuroimmunology

C) psychosis




Which of the following defines confrontive coping?

A) addressing a problem head on

B) emotion-focused coping strategy that looks for positive meaning in adversity

C) hoping that the situation will improve on its own

D) a toxic form of emotion-focused coping, includes denial and substance use



Rebekah was feeling distressed about her upcoming midterms. She decided to go to the gym for an hour to work out. This type of beneficial stress is called:

A) Hassle.

B) Stressor.

C) Hardiness.

D) Eustress.



Amber failed her math test. She blames herself, thinks that there is no way to improve her grade, and is worried that now she will never get into her nursing school. Amber is demonstrating an internal, stable, global ________ style.

A) Ruminative

B) Attributional

C) Stressful

D) Heritable



Which of the following is characterized by chronic, low-grade depression?

A) Mania

B) Bipolar disorder

C) Dysthymia

D) Major depression



What is descriptive research?

A) Focuses on how a behavior of one group of people varies in relation to a behavior of another group of people

B) Focuses on what is going on at each age

C) Can determine the cause, uses random assignment of participants to groups

D) Design that compares the behavior of one age group at multiple points across time

E) Design that compares the behavior of multiple age groups at one point in time



What is cross-sectional research?

A) Focuses on how a behavior of one group of people varies in relation to a behavior of another group of people

B) Focuses on what is going on at each age

C) Can determine the cause, uses random assignment of participants to groups

D) Design that compares the behavior of one age group at multiple points across time

E) Design that compares the behavior of multiple age groups at one point in time



In which of Piaget's stages of development is a child capable of reasoning about hypothetical situations?

A) Sensorimotor

B) Preoperational

C) Formal operational

D) Concrete operational



The period from age 40 to age 59 is known as

A) Menarche

B) Young adulthood

C) Senior years

D) Midlife



Marta is a first grade teacher. She believes that the interpersonal relationships she forms with her students are important because they affect the development of thinking. She would favor which of the following?

A) Vygotsky's Social-cultural theory

B) Ainsworth's Attachment theory

C) Piaget's Stage theory

D) Information Processing theory



Which of the following is one of the four main concepts in the Life-span Perspective, stating that change occurs in more than one direction meaning that gains and losses occur across the lifespan?

A) Multiple causes

B) Historical context

C) Plasticity

D) Multiple directions



Which of the following is NOT an example of a sociocultural variable?

A) your high blood pressure

B) your nationality

C) your ethnicity

D) your religion



Dr. Hamstra is interested in how cell phone use affects family interaction. She brings multiple families into her lab and has them sit around a table with snacks. One group of family participants are asked to place their cell phones on the table and are allowed to interact with their phones as much as they would like during the task. The other group is told that they cannot use their cell phones during the task and are required to hand them over to Dr. Hamstra upon entering the lab. Dr. Hamstra records the duration of conversations among the family members in both groups. Which research method is Dr. Hamstra using?

A) correlational methods

B) survey

C) experiment

D) case study



The outcome or the predicted variable is known as the

A) Measured variable

B) Dependent variable

C) Correlational variable

D) Independent variable



The major function of the hypothalamus is to

A) Process visual information

B) Encode long term memories

C) Control language processing

D) Link the nervous system to the endocrine system



The slowed reaction time and slurred speech that Aileen experiences when she drinks alcohol happen because alcohol is a _____

A) Hallucinogen

B) Stimulant

C) Opiate

D) Depressant



Which of the following defines perception?

A) Process of structural and functional changes in the brain caused by life experiences

B) Involves the detection of information from the environment

C) Communication system that is made up of a set of glands that release chemical messengers into the blood

D) Process by which the brain organizes and interprets information



Transduction for hearing occurs in the ____

A) Auditory cortex

B) Cochlea

C) Outer ear

D) Middle ear



Transduction for the gustatory system occurs in the _____

A) Thalamus

B) Taste buds

C) Somatosensory cortex

D) Tastants



Xander turns off the light in his bedroom and he can't see anything. After a few moments though, he is able to make out his night table, bookshelf, and the chair covered in his dirty clothes. Which of the following is primarily responsible for his ability to see in dim light?

A) Cones

B) Rods

C) Optic disc

D) Lens



Dr. Fisher explains that as sound waves enter the ear, we are able to detect differences in pitch based on the speed of vibration of the basilar membrane. Which theory is Dr. Fisher discussing?

A) Frequency theory

B) Opponent-process theory

C) Cochlear theory

D) Place theory



A person who has had damage to both hippocampi is least likely to show impairments in the development of new

A. explicit memories.
B. episodic memories.
C. implicit memories.
D. long-term memories.



I cannot remember ever experiencing before the song that is written on the sheet music I’m looking at because my memory of the song is encoded as a melody that I once heard. Which theory of forgetting best explains my inability to remember the song?

A. encoding-specificity theory
B. interference theory
C. defensive theory
D. reconstruction theory