Chapter 34: Chordates

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1

Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic feature of the Chordata?

A) a hollow dorsal nerve cord

B) pharyngeal slits or clefts

C) notochord

D) a muscular, post-anal tail

E) vertebrae

E

2

Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as

A) portions of the inner ear.

B) components of the jaw.

C) gill slits for respiration.

D) the digestive system's opening.

E) suspension-feeding devices.

E

3

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

A) lancelets

B) adult tunicates

C) amphibians

D) reptiles

E) chondrichthyans

A

4

At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.

A) FOXP2

B) Otx

C) Hox

D) Dlx

E) more than one of these

C

5

A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?

A) no jaws

B) endothermy

C) an amniotic egg

D) legs

A

6

What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?

A) brain

B) vertebrae

C) partial or complete skull

D) bone

E) cartilaginous pipe surrounding notochord

C

7

Terry catches a ray-finned fish from the ocean and notices that attached to its flank is an equally long, snakelike organism. The attached organism has no external segmentation, no scales, a round mouth surrounded by a sucker, and two small eyes. Terry thinks it might be a marine leech, a hagfish, or a lamprey.

Which feature excludes the organism from possibly being a leech?

A) anterior sucker

B) lack of external segmentation

C) round mouth

D) lack of scales

E) elongated shape

B

8

The diagnostic feature of Chondrichthyes is _____.

A) a streamlined, torpedo-shaped body

B) a lateral line system

C) jaws

D) an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage

E) a swim bladder

D

9

Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. lobe-fins
2. amphibians
3. gnathostomes
4. osteichthyans
5. tetrapods

A) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2

B) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2

C) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1

D) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1

E) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2

B

10

Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of

A) amphibians.

B) chondrichthyans.

C) mammals.

D) birds.

E) nonbird reptiles

E

11

Most members of which of the following groups are most closely associated with a wet or moist environment?

A) birds

B) dinosaurs

C) pterosaurs

D) mammals

E) amphibians

E

12

What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?

A) They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.

B) They should be transitional forms with the fossils of chondrichthyans that lived at the same time.

C) They should feature the earliest indications of the appearance of jaws.

D) They should show evidence of internal fertilization.

E) They should show evidence of having produced shelled eggs.

A

13

In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?

A) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles

B) reptiles and amphibians

C) amphibians, mammals, and reptiles

D) reptiles and mammals

E) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and mammals

D

14

Which of these are amniotes?

A) placental mammals

B) egg-laying mammals

C) fishes

D) amphibians

E) More than one of these is correct.

E

15

Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?

A) snakes

B) crocodiles

C) lizards

D) birds

E) tuataras

D

16

What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?

A) an amniotic egg

B) endothermy

C) a four-chambered heart

D) flight

E) feathers

E

17

Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is false?

A) All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.

B) All deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development.

C) All deuterostomes are triploblastic and have three tissue layers.

D) All deuterostomes have a coelom.

A

18

Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?

A) Jaws

B) Exoskeleton

C) Bone

D) Amniotic egg

B

19

True or false?

An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.TrueFalse

False

20

Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?

A) The presence of an endoskeleton

B) Their ability to move

C) Their habitat

D) Their body plan

D

21

Which of the following statements about vertebrates is true?

A) The development of more efficient surfaces for gas exchange in reptiles stimulated expansion into terrestrial habitats.

B) Birds are more related to mammals than to dinosaurs.

C) The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.

D) All vertebrates have jaws with which to catch their prey.

C

22

Which characteristics define a chordate?

A) The development of an anus from the blastopore

B) The presence of four specific morphological traits

C) The presence of a well-developed circulatory system

D) The ability to live on land

B

23

Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?

A) Pharyngeal gill slit

B) Dorsal nerve cord

C) Notochord

D) Endoskeleton

A

24

There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.

A) size

B) habitat

C) method of locomotion

D) method of reproduction

E) presence or absence of hair

D

25

Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle?

A) post-anal tail

B) four-chambered heart

C) jaws

D) vertebrae

A

26

How did the evolution of the jaw contribute to diversification of early vertebrate lineages?

A) It increased the surface area for respiration and feeding.

B) It was the first stage in the development of a bony skull.

C) It made additional food sources available.

D) It allowed for smaller body size.

C

27

A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was _____.

A) the amniotic egg

B) the mineralization of the endoskeleton

C) feet with digits

D) the appearance of jaws

C

28

What is believed to be the most significant result of the evolution of the amniotic egg?

A) Tetrapods can now function with just lungs.

B) Newborns are much less dependent on their parents.

C) Embryos are protected from predators.

D) Tetrapods were no longer tied to the water for reproduction.

D

29

Mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. Which of the following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this habit?

A) amniotic egg

B) endothermy

C) terrestrial

D) ectothermy

B

30

Which of these are amniotes?

A) fishes

B) turtles

C) lungfish

D) amphibians

B

31

Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials _____.

A) are found in Australia and Africa

B) lack nipples

C) lay eggs

D) have some embryonic development outside the uterus

D

32

If a tunicate's pharyngeal gill slits were suddenly blocked, the animal would have trouble _____.

A) feeding

B) moving

C) respiring

D) respiring and feeding

D

33

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

A) lancelets

B) chondrichthyans

C) adult tunicates

D) amphibians

A

34

A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?

A) no jaws

B) an amniotic egg

C) legs

D) endothermy

A

35

Jaws evolved _____.

A) by modification of middle ear bones

B) from the rasping tongue

C) from arthropod jaws

D) from the bony armor of ostracoderms

E) by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal gill slits

E

36

The presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to stop swimming and still _____.

A) not sink

B) use its lateral line system

C) effectively circulate its blood

D) use its swim bladder as a respiratory organ

A

37

Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?

A) chondrichthyans

B) ray-finned fishes

C) placoderms

D) lampreys

A

38

Listed below are four adaptations of terrestrial vertebrates. Which is a characteristic only of truly terrestrial animals with no need to return to water at any stage of the life cycle?

A) tetrapod locomotion

B) lungs

C) amniotic eggs

D) hearts with more than two chambers

E) All of these are essential for a completely terrestrial existence.

C

39

Which structure of the amniotic egg most closely surrounds the embryo?

A) the allantois

B) the chorion

C) the amnion

D) the yolk sac

C

40

Suppose you traveled back in time and located the first animals to have evolved feathers. You found that these animals were tree-dwelling ectotherms, able to run quickly but unable to fly. You also noticed that only males had feathers. Which hypothesis of feather evolution would these data most support? Feathers initially evolved in a role associated with _____.

A) flight

B) gliding

C) sexual selection

D) insulation

C

41

Humans are _______.

A) Australopithecus

B) Homo erectus

C) Ardipithecus

D) Homo sapiens

E) Homo habilis

D

42

Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?

A) Human ancestors were virtually identical to extant chimpanzees.

B) The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved separately.

C) Human evolution has occurred within an unbranched lineage.

D) Modern humans are the only human species to have evolved on Earth.

B