Microbiology Self tests Chapter 13, 14, 15, 16

Helpfulness: +5
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by jenkarmata
10,478 views
book cover
Microbiology
Chapters 13-15
Microbiology 205 Fall 2012
updated 8 years ago by jenkarmata
Grade levels:
College: Second year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

These have not been graded, if you see an error please let me know which notecard & what page you found the correction on. ~THANK YOU~

These have not been graded, if you see an error please let me know which notecard & what page you found the correction on. ~THANK YOU~

2

A complete, asembled virus

Virion
pg. 371

3

The subunits making up the protein outer coating of most viruses.

Capsomere

pg. 371

4

The protein outer coating of most viruses.

Capsid

5

A term derived from the word for poison.

Virus

pg. 370

6

A combination of lipids, proteins, & carbohydrates covering the protein coating of a virus.

Envelope

pg. 371

7

Infectious prion

PrPsc

pg. 395

8

Describes the morhology of the capsid of many viruses.

Icosahedral

pg. 373

9

A method by which a virus enters an animal host cell.

Endocytosis

pg. 385

10

A cell line derived from tissue that normally reproduces for relatively few generations.

Primary cell line

pg. 379

11

The HeLa cell line would be placed in this group.

Continous

pg. 380

12

A clearing in a "lawn" of susceptible bacterial cells.

Plaque

pg. 376

13

The number of bacteriophages produced by one bacterial host cell.

Burst size

14

Presumed agent causing diseases such as sheep scrapie.

Prion

pg. 395

15

A bacterial virus.

Phage

*found in the glossary

16

A short strand of RNA virus without a capsid.

Viroid

pg. 396

17

PrP

prion

18

Describes a method by which an enveloped virus leaves the host cell while acquiring the envelope.

Budding

pg. 392

19

Describes growth characteristics of normal cell cultures in glass or plastic containers

Monolayer

20

A term meaning cancer-causing.

Oncogenic

21

Observable changes in a virus infected cell.

Cytopathic effect

22

The time during which the capsids & DNA of a phage, already formed, are now assembled into complete viruses.

Maturation period

pg. 383

23

Cancer of connective tissue

Sarcoma

pg. 392

24

The clumping of RBC's due to adherence to spikes on viruses.

Hemagglutination

25

Equivalent to mRNA in a single-stranded RNA viruses.

+ or sense strand

pg. 388

26

RNA to DNA

Reverse transcription

pg. 390

27

Varicella virus

Human herpesvirus 3

28

Herpes simplex 2

Human herpesvirus 2

29

Epstein-Barr virus

Human herpesvirus 4

30

Cytomegalovirus

Human herpesvirus 4

31

Cause of Kaposi's sarcoma

Human herpesvirus 8

32

The virus, once inside the host cell, seperates the viral nucleic acid from the capsid; this is called _________.

uncoating

pg. 385

33

Another term for lysogenic phage is __________.

prophage

*see page 383 & 384

34

_______ are not solid tumors but an excessive production of white blood cells.

Leukcytosis

35

Many viruses can be grown in ______ eggs.

embryonated

pg. 379

36

The herpes simplex virus remains_______ in nerve cells or the host for long periods without causing disease.

latent

*got latent from powerpoint slide*

37

Counts of phage are made in terms of ________ units.

plaque forming

38

An oncogene might become active when placed on the chromosome in a position where normal controls are not active; this is termed _____________.

unknown

39

The term _____ refers to the spectrum of host cells the virus can infect.

Host range

pg. 370

40

When cells multiply in an uncontrolled way, the exess tissue is called a _________.

growth or tumor

41

Oncogenic viruses are those that __________ cells into tumor cells.

transformed

pg. 393

42

The type of virus implicated as a cause of AIDS is a(n) _______________.

Retroviridae
(lentivirus= genus)

pg. 390

43

The abbreviation of TSTA stands for tumor-specific ________ antigens.

transplant

44

For several minutes following infection by a phage, no complete phages can be found in the host cell; this is called the _____ period.

Eclipse

pg. 383

45

The ________ of the phage is adsorbed to the host cell.

(ad or absorbed)???

replication

46

The phage forms a hole in the cell wall using phage _________ & drives the tail core through the cell wall.

Lysozyme
(penetration)

pg. 381

47

Sometimes the lytic cycle does not occur upon phage infection of a host bacterium. The phage DNA becomes incorporated as a(an)____ into the host's DNA.

lytic

pg. 383

48

When the phage DNA is incorporated into the host's DNA, this state is called ____________.

Lysogeny (lysogenic cycle)

pg. 383

49

Transformed cells lose _________; that is, they do not stop reproduction when in contact w/neighbor cells.

unknown

50

The hepadnavirus has genetic material called ________.

DNA

51

Picornaviruses have genetic material called _____.

RNA

52

Tumors are malignant when cancerous & ______ when not cancerous.

benign

53

14
Invasion or colonization of the body by potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

Infection

54

14
The cause of a disease.

Etiology

55

14
A change from a state of health, in which the body is not properly adjusted or capable of performing its normal functions.

Disease

56

14
The manner in which a disease develops.

Pathogenesis

57

14
One organism is benefited at the expense of another.

Parasitism

58

14
The general relationship between the normal microbiota & the host.

Symbiosis

59

14
One of the organisms is benefited & the other unaffected.

Commensalism

60

14
A symbiosis that benefits both organisms.

Mutualism

61

14
Live bacterial cultures intended to exert a beneficial effect.

Probiotics

62

14
First mild symptoms appear.

Period of incubation

63

14
The individual regains strength, & the body returns to it prediseased state.

Period of convalescence

64

14
The time between infection & the first appearance of signs & symptoms.

Prodromal period

65

14
Easily spread from one person to another person.

Contagious disease

66

14
Tetanus is an example.

Noncommunicable disease

67

14
An inanimte object that may transmit disease.

Fomite

68

14
A group of symptoms associated w/a disease.

Syndrome

69

14
Identification of a disease.

Diagnosis

70

14
Objective changes caused by a disease that the physician may observe.

Sign

71

14

An arthropod, for example, that carries malaria.

Vector

72

14
A toxic, inflammatory condition arising from spread of bacteria or bacterial toxins from a focus of infection.

Sepsis

73

14
People who transmit diseases, but who do not exhibit any symtoms of illness.

Carriers

74

14
A disease that occurs only occasionally.

Sporadic

75

14
A worlwide epidemic.

Pandemic

76

14
Diseases acquired in a hospital.

Nosocomial

77

14
Diseases that occur in animals & can be transmitted to humans.

Zoonoses

78

14
In ______ transmission of disease, an insect such as a fly carries that pathogen on its body to human food.

mechanical

79

14
The _____ of a disease is the fraction of the populatio that contracts it during a particular period of time.

incidence

80

14
____ disease is one that develops rapidly but lasts only a short time.

acute

81

14
A simple presence of bacteria in the blood is known as __________.

bacteremia

82

14
A(n) __________ infection is one caused by an opportunist after the primary infection has weakened the body's defenses.

secondary

83

14
_____ are changes in body function felt by the patient & subjective in nature, such as pain.

Symptom

84

14
The science that deals w/transmission of diseases in the human population, & when & where they occur, is called _______.

epidemiology

85

14
The abbreviation CDC stands for ________ & prevention.

Centers for disease control

86

14
An abscess is an example of a(n) ________ type of infection.

local infection

87

14
An infection in which the microorganisms or their products are spread through the body in the blood or lymphatic system is known as a(n)________ infection.

Systemic

88

14
An inapparent, or _____________, disease is one that does not cause any noticable illness.

subclinical

89

14
The __________ of a disease is the fraction of the population having the disease at a given time.

prevalence

90

14

Diseases intermediate between acute & chronic are described as _______.

subacute

91

Produced by some members of the genus Staphylococcus(italics); forms a fibrin clot around the bacterium.
15

Coagulase

92

A substance produced by some bacteria that destroys certain phagocytic cells.

15

Leukocidins

pg. 439

93

Enzymes that cause lysis of RBC's.

15

Hemolysins

94

Enyzmes that break down fibrin & dissolve clots.

15

Kinases

*can be used more than once*
pg. 434

95

The fibrinolysins produced by the streptococci.

15

Kinases

*can be used more than once*
pg. 434

96

May cause hallucinations or gangrene.

15

Ergot

97

Virulence factor that improves adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae(italics).

15

Opa

pg. 433

98

Tumor necrosis factor.

15

Cachetin

*see glossary

99

A protein secreted by a bacterium.

15

Exotoxin

100

The tetanus toxin is a good example.

15

Exotoxin

101

A lipopolysaccharid component of the cell wall of may gram-negative bacteria.

15

Endotoxin

102

Released upon lysis of the cell.

15

Endotoxin

103

Detected by Limulus(italics) amoebocyte lysate assay

15

Endotoxin

104

The capacity to form toxins.

15

Toxigenicity

105

Provides immunity to exotoxins.

15

Antitoxin

106

The presence of a toxin in the bloodstream.

15

Toxemia

107

A way to measure virulence.

15

LD50

108

The degree of pathogenicity.

15

Virulence

109

The ability of a pathogen to cause disease in a host.

15

Pathogenicity

110

Confers some resistance to phagocytosis.

15

Capsule

111

Entrance through skin & mucous membranes to gain access to body tissues.

15

Parenteral

112

Very large multinucleated cells caused by viral infection.

15

Syncytia

113

An important component of the cell's cytoskeleton that aids in entrance of pathogens into the cell.

15

Actin

pg 435

114

Produced by virus-infected cells; helps prevent infection of uninfected neighboring cells.

15

Interferon

pg. 444

115

Portion of the outer wall of gram-negative bacterium that is the endotoxin.

15

Lipid A

116

Formerly called endogenous pyrogen.

15

Interleukin-1

pg. 440

117

Membrane-disrupting toxin such as a leukocidin.

15

Streptolysin O

pg. 438-439

118

Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by superantigens.

15

Type III toxin (Superantigens)

pg. 438,439

119

An example is diphtheria toxin, which inhibits protein synthesis & kills the cell.

15

Type I toxin (A-B toxins)

pg. 438

120

An example is the cell-lysing exotoxin Staphylococcus aureus(italics).

15

Type II toxin (Membrane-Disrupting toxins)

pg. 438

121

The term LD50 refers to the dose of pathogen that will kill half of the test _____.

15

population

122

Hyaluronidase is an enzyme secreted by certain bacteria that digests ___________acid.

15

hyaluronic

123

A disease associated with _____-toxins is septic shock (supply prefix).

15

endo

124

The limulus(italics) amoebocyte lysate assay is intended to detect _____.

15

Endotoxin

125

One effect of a viral infection is unregulated cell growth due to loss of _____ inhibition.

15

contact

126

Contributing to invasiveness by Streptococcus pyogenes(italics) is a cell protein called __ protein.

15

M

pg. 433

127

With few exceptions, microorganisms cannot penetrate unbroken skin; however some fungi grow on the ________ component of the skin.

15

keratin

128

The avenue by which a microorganism gains acciess to the body is called its ________.

15

parental route

pg. 430

129

If the pathogen causes a nonfatal disease, the equivalent to the LD50 test is referred to as ____ (infective dose).

15

ID50

pg. 432

130

The toxin ergot is contained in resistant mycelia called _________.

15

sclerotia

pg. 445

131

A microbe is pathogenic only if its characteristics are changed due to a prophage. This is called __________.

15

lysogenic conversion

*this answers #2 on self-test 14*

132

Explain the relationship between the waxy cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (italics) and virulence.

15

The waxy lipid cell wall increases the virulence by resisting digestion by phagocytes & can multiply inside phagocytes.

133

Hi.......... :-)

Hi........... :-)

134

Produces tears

16

Lacrimal apparatus

135

The outer layer of skin

16

Epidermis

136

An oily substance forming a protective film over the skin surface.

16

Sebum

137

Secreted by cells in mucous membrane; prevents the cavities from drying out.

16

Mucus

138

Covers larynx during swallowing.

16

Epidermis

139

The inner portion of the skin, composed of connective tissue.

16

Dermis

140

The blood fluid.

16

Plasma

p456

141

Cells & cell fragments of the blood.

16

Formed elements

p456

142

Immunity based on antibodies.

16

Opsonization

p461/462

143

Movement by a microorganism toward an attractant chemical.

16

Chemotaxis

p460

144

An increase in the diameter of blood vessels.

16

Vasodilation

145

A collection of dead phagocytic cells & fluids.

16

Pus

p465

146

Vulnerability to a pathogen.

16

Susceptibility

p451

147

Neutrophils:

16

are granulocytes

p456

148

Monocytes:

16

Mature into macrophages

p 456

149

Lymphocytes:

16

No granules in cellular cytoplasm; important to specific immunity.

150

An increase in the number of while blood cells.

16

Leukocytosis

p458

151

Projections of the cell membrane of phagocyte.

16

Pseudopods

p462

152

A larger structure formed when lysosome & phagosome fuse.

16

Phagolysosome

p462

153

A decrease in the number of white blood cells.

16

Leukopenia

p458

154

Blood flow decreases as phagocytes stick to the inner lining of blood vessels.

16

Margination

p465

155

Complement reacts w/mast cells & attached antibodies to release this compound.

16

Histamine

p464

156

A protein in blood that inhibits microbial growth by reducing the amount of available iron.

16

Transferrin

p473

157

Controls body temperature.

16

Hypothalamus

158

Emigration of phagocytes through the vessel wall to damaged tissue.

16

Diapedesis

p465

159

Protein secreted by bacteria to obtain iron.

16

Siderophore

p473

160

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

16

Neutrophils

p456

161

Most numverous granulocytes in blood.

16

Neutorphils

*per Ms. Edleman

162

Stain red or organge w/the acidic dye eosin.

16

Eosinophils

p456

163

Attach externally to large parasites such as worms & lyse them by discharge of peroxides.

16

Eosinophils

p456

164

Granulocytes that stain w/basic methylene blue dyes.

16

Basophils

p456

165

Become macrophages.

16

Monocytes

p456

166

Kupffer cells in the liver, for example.

16

Macrophages

p460

167

Innate immunity.

16

Refers to defenses that tend to protect us from any kind of pathogen.

p452

168

Adaptive immunity.

16

Immunity based on antibody production, for example.

p452

169

Toll-like receptors.

16

Attach to components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.

p452

170

Cytokines.

16

Proteins that regulate the intensity & duration of immune responses.

p452

171

Dermicidin.

Example of an antimicrobial peptide.

p.473

172

Some cells of the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract contain ________, which are microscopic, hairlike projections.

16

Cilia

173

The ____________glands produce perspiration.

16

Sweat

*Known as Sudoferous glands
p455

174

Complement acts in a sequence call a(n)

16

Compliment activation

*picked this because it's a matter of sequence, BUT, CASCADE is another good choice. SEE page 467 for both.

175

In the membrane attack complex associated w/the action of complement, circular lesions called ________ channels are formed.

16

transmembrane

p467

176

_________is a group of more than 30 proteins found in blood serum.

16

Complement system

p466

177

Lymphocytes & monocytes do not have _______ in their cytoplasm.

16

visible granules

p456
???not sure about this one

178

The coating of micoorganism w/plasma proteins such as antibodies & complement is called _________ & promotes phagocytosis.

16

Opsoniztion

p460

179

Scar tissue results from ____________-type repair.

Fibrosis......

*tissue-type repair or regeneration-type repair are some other options????
*not sure see 465

180

The complement pathway that does not involve antibodies is called the ____________ pathway.

16

Alternative

p467

181

Another name for cellular self-destruction is _______.

16

apoptosis

p458 *bottom of 3rd paragraph.