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Which of the following is true regarding the distribution of intelligence in a population?
a. A larger proportion of the population scores above average than below average on tests of mental ability.
b. Half of the population is above average and exactly as many are below average in the capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activities.
c. A larger proportion of the population scores below average than above average on tests of mental ability.
d. We have not been able to come up with an accurate measure of the distribution of intelligence within a population because people vary too much from one another.



An equilateral triangle is a closed, three-sided figure in which all three sides are equal. If a shape does not meet these criteria, it is not an equilateral triangle. Therefore, according to our chapter, equilateral triangles are an example of a _____.

a. formal concept

b. fuzzy concept

c. natural concept

d. mathematical concept



Lydia, a married woman, is incredibily attracted to her physician. Her _____ decides that the only way to see her doctor more often is to have more frequent physicals and have even the slightest symptom investigated immediately.

A) id

B) ego

C) superego

D) eros



A girl drops her bag while crossing a busy street. Its contents spills all over the place. It is crowded during rush hour and no one stops to help her pick up her things. This is an example of which of the following?

A) stereotyping

B) bystander effect

C) prosocial behavior

D) frustration-aggression theory



Jacob brings his three-year-old daughter in for a research study on how children from age 3 to 5 develop understanding of numbers. He is told that his child will either be assigned to an experimental or control group and that he will need to bring her back to the lab every six months for the next two years. Which type of study is Jacob's daughter participating in?

A) Correlational

B) Cross-sectional

C) Descriptive

D) Longitudinal



The mental processes that we use to acquire, retain, and use knowledge defines which of the following?
a. intelligence

b. cognition

c. categorization

d. problem solving



Which of the following is the definition of cooing?

a. The way children talk to each other.

b. The sounds that adults make when speaking to infants to get their attention.

c. Infants' first language-like sounds that consist of mainly vowel sounds.

d. The sounds that birds make.



Barbara looked in her rear-view mirror and saw a police car turn behind her. She realized that the officer was chasing a different car and was able to relax. This order of occurrences fits with which theory of emotion?

a) cognitive appraisal theory

b) James-Lange theory

c) two-factor theory

d) Cannon-Bard theory



Jenna enjoys meeting new people and, in general, is very outgoing. She would be classified as being high in which of the following?

a) extraversion

b) openness

c) neuroticism

d) agreeableness



Step-by-step strategies that, if followed correctly, will guarantee you a solution to the problem.

a. Trial and error

b. Algorithm

c. Heuristic

d. Insight



What is the approximate 12-month prevalence rate of psychological disorders in college students, age 19-25?

A) 70%

B) 5%

C) 45%

D) 20%



Theo's parents let him eat whatever he wants for dinner even if he chooses cookies and ice cream. They are displaying which style of parenting?

A) Indifferent

B) Authoritative

C) Authoritarian

D) Permissive



Which of these describes a negative correlation?

A) As one variable increases there is no consistent pattern in what the other variable does.

B) As one variable increases, the other variable also increases.

C) As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

D) As one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases.



Transduction for vision occurs in the

A) Lens

B) Retina

C) Pupil

D) Optic disc



The cognitive approach in psychology also is known as the

A. information-processing approach.
B. gestalt approach.
C. structuralist-functionalist approach.
D. behavioral approach.



According to Freud, _______ is the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their _____.

A) reaction formation; superegos

B) reaction formation; egos

C) identification; superegos

D) identification; egos



We tend to make decisions based on how the question is asked

a. Belief bias

b. Framing effect

c. Confirmation bias

d. heuristic



Olfactory receptor cells are

A) Chemical molecules floating in the air which we smell or dissolved in the saliva which we taste

B) Tiny neurons in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity where odorants bind and result in transduction.

C) In the area of the brain which collects information and passes it on to other brain areas for processing in the limbic system.

D) Tiny molecules of substances that have been released into the air.



Amy is generally a well-behaved, polite person, and an avid hockey fan.When her favorite team lost the Stanley Cup, and rioting took to the streets, she participated by engaging in bottle throwing and vandalism.There were thousands of people and Amy's actions went generally unnoticed. What could explain her out-of-character behavior?

A) compliance

B) social loafing

C) informational social influence

D) deindividuation



Which of the following explains self-regulation theory?

a) Unconscious forces drive people to behave certain ways without their awareness.

b) People modify their behavior to fit a situation.

c) Human behavior is organized around goals that motivate and direct behaviors and give meaning to people’s lives.

d) People are motivated to acheive self-actualization



Graham has debilitating back pain. It has lasted for many months and after seeing several different doctors, no one can determine the cause. Which of the following is Graham experiencing?

A) anxiety

B) depression


D) chronic pain



In which structure of a neuron does the action potential take place?

A) Glial cells

B) Dendrites

C) Axon

D) Cell body



The process by which unused connections are eliminated to allow for more efficient transfer of information throughout the nervous system is known as____

A) Programmed cell death

B) Synaptic pruning

C) Neurogenesis

D) Synaptogenesis



Which of the following is an example of a test of non-verbal ability?
a. reasoning
b. reading comprehension
c. vocabulary
d. memory capacity



Allan is trying to hang a picture on the wall. He opens his tool box but only sees a screw driver, not his hammer. He spends the next 20 minutes looking all over his house for the hammer. Failing to realize that he could have used the handle of the screw driver to pound the nail into the wall is an example of which of the following?
a. intuition
b. trial and error
c. functional fixedness
d. insight



Which of the following is true regarding the distribution of intelligence in a population?

a. A larger proportion of the population scores below average than above average on tests of mental ability.

b. Half of the population is above average and exactly as many are below average in the capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activities.

c. A larger proportion of the population scores above average than below average on tests of mental ability.

d. We have not been able to come up with an accurate measure of the distribution of intelligence within a population because people vary too much from one another.



Which of the following is true regarding critical periods?

a. The critical period for language is up until about 6 years of age.

b. Research on critical periods suggests that language learning becomes easier as we get older.

c. If we are exposed to something during a special time period, we are more sensitive to it.

d. Critical periods apply only to language.



Which of the following terms describes your ability to modify or change your behavior to best suit your environment?

a. g factor theory

b. adaptation

c. multiple intelligences

d. s factor theory



Paul’s girlfriend believes that he keeps forgetting the dates of his algebra exams because simply thinking about algebra causes him to become very upset. Which theory of forgetting is his girlfriend using to explain Paul’s inability to remember the dates of his algebra exams?

A. encoding-specificity theory
B. interference theory
C. defensive theory
D. reconstruction theory



Emotions are a mix of consciously experienced thoughts, expressive behaviors, and physiological arousal. Which theory emphasized the importance of the consciously experienced thoughts?

A) Facial feedback theory

B) James-Lange theory

C) Arousal and performance theory

D) Fight-or-flight theory

E) Schachter-Singer two-factor theory



The Oedipus and Electra complexes have their roots in the

A) anal stage

B) oral stage

C) latency stage

D) phallic stage



The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to similar others is known as _______.

A) Terror Management theory

B) social comparisons

C) self-serving bias

D) Sociometer hypothesis



Which of the following terms means the likely course over time or outcome of a disease?

A) Predisposition

B) Prevalence

C) Prognosis

D) Etiology



Which of the following is true regarding mental health on college campuses?

A) Nearly half of college students will experience a mental health issue each year.

B) The majority of college students who experience a psychological illness seek treatment.

C) The number of college students with serious psychological problems has declined in recent years.

D) Psychological disorder are rare among college students as they typically develop later in life.



The life-support system for developing embryo and fetus is known as the _______.

A) Myelin

B) Placenta

C) Zygote

D) Fetus



Mikayla's parents tell her that she is not allowed to have a cell phone. When she asks why they say, "Because we said so!" They are displaying which style of parenting?

A) Permissive

B) Authoritative

C) Authoritarian

D) Uninvolved



A student is trying to teach herself to focus on her homework. After every third homework question she answers correctly, she rewards herself with a gummy bear. What kind of reinforcement schedule is this?

a. variable ratio

b. fixed ratio

c. fixed interval

d. variable interval



The idea that the language you speak influences the way that you understand and perceive the world is known as which of the following?

a. cognition

b. displacement

c. language vs. communication distinction

d. linguistic relativity



Which of the following is true regarding language and communication?
a. Languages are more general then communication.
b. Language is a specific form of communication.
c. Language and communication are synonymous, that is, they are two words to refer to the same thing.
d. Communication systems use rules but languages may not



Making a list of features that you consider important (rank on scale of 1-5 for each feature, add up score for each option and decide which one reached the highest score)

a. Representativeness heuristic

b. Confirmation bias

c. Additive model

d. Availability heuristic



Marco needed a new pair of shoes but only had $45 to spend. He went to the store and chose the only pair that fit within his budget. Which decision making method did Marco use?

a. elimination by aspects

b. additive model

c. single feature model

d. framing effect



Elaborative rehearsal is MOST important for

A. moving information from long-term to sensory memory.
B. moving information from short-term to long-term memory.
C. moving information from sensory to short-term memory.



In operant conditioning, a(n) _____ is associated with a _____.

A. reflexive response; consequence of that response
B. nonreflexive response; consequence of that response
C. environmental event; reflexive response
D. environmental event; consequence of that event



Dr. Hendricks tells his class that their exam will be a recognition test. Given this information, Marcus should prepare for which of the following kinds of exams?

a. all of these are possible on a recognition test

b. essay

c. matching

d. fill in the blank



Christie believes that she is good at science and knows that if she puts forth the effort, she can become a doctor as she has always dreamed. A social-cognitive theorist would say which of the following about Christie?

a) She is low in conscientiousness.

b) She has high self-efficacy.

c) She is working on the fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

d) She successfully passed all psychosexual stages of development.



Which of the following is referred to as “the brain in the body” and includes nerves from spinal cord to organs?

A) sympathetic nervous system

B) parasympathetic nervous system

C) central nervous system

D) peripherial nervous system



According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

A) A person's behavior is not based on strongly held attitudes

B) Two people have conflicting attitudes and find themselves in disagreement

C) An individual does something that is personally disagreeable

D) An individual is coerced into doing something that he or she does not want to do



Which of the following defines the diathesis-stress model?

A) Explains that dysfunctional state occur when a person is unable to fulfill school or work obligations, sustain social relationships, or take care of oneself or children.

B) A model suggesting that biological predispositions play the largest component in determining whether a psychological disorder will develop.

C) A mechanism for explaining how psychological disorders can develop, wherein a predisposition and stress are both necessary elements.

D) Explains that the origin of psychological problem is within the person, not an expected response to an event



Whenever Rafael is in class he immediately starts thinking that his professor doesn't like him and that other people think he is dumb. These are examples of

A) Automatic negative thoughts.

B) Ruminative coping.

C) Neurochemical deficiencies.

D) Cognitive restructuring.



What is experimental research?

A) Focuses on how a behavior of one group of people varies in relation to a behavior of another group of people

B) Focuses on what is going on at each age

C) Can determine the cause, uses random assignment of participants to groups

D) Design that compares the behavior of one age group at multiple points across time

E) Design that compares the behavior of multiple age groups at one point in time



Which parenting style involves high degrees of warmth but low levels of control?

A) Indifferent

B) Authoritarian

C) Authoritative

D) Permissive



In the equation B = f (P + E + PE), what does B stand for?

A) behavior

B) brain

C) background

D) biological



Which of the following describes the independent variable?

A) a method of placing participants in either the control group or experimental group to make sure the groups are not different in any way other than the treatment condition

B) the outcome or the predicted variable

C) the variable that the researcher has control over and actually manipulates; the cause

D) the group that participates in the manipulation or “treatment” in an experiment



Jasmine was fully potty-trained years ago, but after her mom had a new baby, she started wetting the bed again. Freud would say she was experiencing _____.

a) identification

b) regression

c) latency

d) psychic conflict



Which of the following chemical signals is released by fat cells and, when present at increased levels, suppresses appetite?

a) neuropeptide Y (NPY)

b) leptin

c) insulin

d) ghrelin



Which theory of emotion suggests that the sympathetic nervous system is activated first followed by perception of this as fear?

a) cognitive appraisal theory

b) two-factor theory

c) Cannon-Bard theory

d) James-Lange theory



Vlad is asked to describe what he sees in a series of ink marks. This is an example of a _______.

a) Thematic Apperception Test

b) objective test

c) self-report

d) projective test



The two basic types of personality tests are:

A) aptitude and achievement tests.

B) trait and intelligence tests.

C) normal and abnormal functioning tests.

D) projective tests and self-report inventories.



Which of the following defines proactive coping?

A) occurs before the stressor and includes health behaviors like sleep, eating right, and exercise

B) occurs after the stressor and includes complementary and alternative medicine.

C) type of coping with a long-term view in which we envision our desires for the future and anticipate different obstacles we might encounter



While hiking with her boyfriend, Susan thinks she sees a bear on the trail ahead of her. Immediately, her heart starts pounding rapidly and her palms begin to sweat. Susan is experiencing which of the following?

A) eustress

B) Tend and Befriend

C) exhaustion

D) fight or flight response



Which type of coping entails reflecting on options and creating a guide going forward?

A) seeking social support

B) emotion focused coping

C) planful problem solving

D) escape-avoidance coping



Ahmed has finally saved enough money for his dream vacation. He must decide between a trip to London or Paris. Which type of conflict is he experiencing?

A) Approach-approach

B) Avoidance-avoidance

C) Approach-avoidance

D) This choice presents no conflict.



Which of the following defines when a problem behavior becomes a disorder?

A) Behavior causes functional impairment and personal distress

B) All of the options provided are necessary for something to be considered a disorder

C) Deviation from the statistical norm

D) Deivation from the social norm



The tastes you experience when you bite into an apple occur when ____, the sensory receptors for the gustatory system, are activated.

A) Tastants

B) Gustatory receptor cells

C) Taste buds

D) Epithelial receptor cells



The ______ runs the length of the cochlea and is embedded with hair cells.

A) Auditory nerve

B) Middle ear

C) Eardrum

D) Basilar membrane



Which senses process touch and pain?

A) Body sense

B) Gustatory system

C) Tactile sense

D) Olfactory system



I was just recalling the day that I married my first wife. I remembered that it occurred in the rabbi’s house on a very hot day in August. This type of memory is called a(n)

A. episodic memory.
B. procedural memory.
C. implicit memory.
D. semantic memory.



When a memory task requires consciously recalling one’s long-term memories, the task involves the retrieval of ___ memories.

A. state-dependent
B. mood-congruent
C. implicit
D. explicit



Amy became very sick after eating cream cheese that had gone bad. Now, she can’t stand the taste of cream cheese. In this example, the taste of cream cheese is a(n)

B. CR.
D. CS.



I do not like asparagus because I once saw someone throw up after he ate asparagus. Which of the following types of learning best explains how I acquired my current attitude about asparagus?

A. operant conditioning
B. vicarious conditioning
C. latent learning
D. taste-aversion learning



An example of intrinsic motivation is

A) I exercise because I get a dollar for each pound I lose

B) I exercise because it makes me feel good

C) I exercise people say I look good

D) I exercise because my clothes look better on me

E) I exercise because others do it and I want to fit in



An example of the Yerkes-Dodson law is

A) The need to remain calm and relaxed while taking an SAT

B) Performing at the highest level of arousal in order to obtain a primary reinforcer

C) A task designed to restore the body to homeostasis

D) The need to remain calm and peaceful while addressing envelopes for a charity event

E) Working at maximum arousal on a challenging project



Which theory of emotion suggests that we experience the emotion first and then have the physiological response?
A) James-Lange

B) Canon-Baird

C) Singer-Schacter

D) Freud-Jung

E) Cognitive appraisal



Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment in shaping personality?

A) Psychoanalytic

B) Trait

C) Humanistic

D) Social-Cognitive



Darrell Minton believes that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies. Evidently, Mr. Minton is a proponent of

A) trait theory

B) psychodynamic theory

C) the humanistic perspective

D) the social-cognitive perspective



Self-efficacy is

A) our collection of learned expectancies for success in given situations

B) the efficiency with which we resolve unconscious conflicts

C) a secondary trait

D) a role of the ego



Toni describes her best friend as intelligent, caring, extraverted, and lots of fun to be with. Which type of theorist would use the same type of description that Toni does?

A) trait

B) social-cognitive

C) psychodynamic

D) humanistic



If you have ever tried to answer the question, "Who am I?" your answer would describe your _____.

A) self-efficacy

B) self-serving bias

C) self-esteem

D) self-concept



You are a member of a group project wherein members are not graded on their individual performance. Most of the group is contributing equally,though one member has barely contributed at all. This can be explained by which psychological phenomenon?

A) social learning theory

B) social loafing

C) bystander effect

D) groupthink



Maple is just starting college. She believes she will do well because she views herself as studious and hardworking. This is an example of a ______.

A) stereotype threat

B) self-schema

C) social stigma

D) social comparison



Which of the following therapy approaches involves learning skills that improve daily functioning?

A) planful approach

B) psychoeducation

C) psychodynamic approach

D) psychoneuroimmunology



Simon is driving and has swerved off of the road to avoid hitting a bicyclist who swerved into his path. His heart rate and blood pressure have increased and the adrenal glands have released large amounts of:

A) Norepinephrine.

B) Epinephrine.

C) Cortisol.

D) All of the above



Panic disorder is defined by which of the following?

A) Excessive irrational fear of a specific object or situation that interferes with a person’s everyday functioning

B) Chronic anxiety that has developed after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event

C) Severe and persistent fear of being embarrassed, humiliated, or negatively evaluated in social or performance situations

D) a disorder characterized by frequent and recurring panic attacks



Which of the following would be considered a sociocultural diathesis that might explain why someone might develop a mood disorder?

A) Attributional style

B) Heritability

C) Cognitive distortion

D) Stress from discrimination in the workplace



What is the prognosis for someone with schizophrenia?

A) Individuals who develop schizophrenia can never fully recover.

B) About 75% of individuals who develop schizophrenia will experience near-normal adjustment.

C) One quarter of individuals who experience an episode of schizophrenia recover completely.



What is the purpose of a neuron?

A) To transfer information in order to generate behavior and mental activity

B) To regulate the release of hormones

C) to provide insulation

D) to provide structure and support to other brain cells



Mike's doctor prescribed him a sodium channel blocker after he experienced a heart attack. Based on what you know about neural conduction, which of the following describes what this kind of drug would do?

A) Increase the number of action potentials that can be sent

B) Increase the amount of neurotransmitters released into the synapse

C) Reduce the number of action potentials that can be sent

D) Increase the speed of reuptake in neurons



Pattie experienced a stroke and has since seemed to experience blunted emotions. She is rarely afraid or angry. It is likely that the stroke affected which area of Pattie's brain?

A) Prefrontal cortex

B) Striatum

C) Association cortex

D) Limbic system



Which neurotransmitter influences movement, motivation, emotional pleasure and arousal?

A) Dopamine

B) Glutamate


D) Acetylcholine



Ezra's ear doctor is testing how good he is at detecting variations in volume. He plays a sound and then adjusts the volume ever so slightly louder and plays it again. Ezra says that they sound the same. This is because the volumes have not reached his ____

A) Sensory receptors

B) Temporal lobe

C) Absolute threshold

D) Difference threshold



Corrine is so impressed by how realistic the painting is she is viewing. She notices details like how large the artist drew certain objects and how some people overlap others. These cues that are used to make it appear that there is depth in the painting are known as ____.

A) Binocular cues

B) Afterimages

C) Gestalt cues

D) Monocular cues



Peter is able to close his eyes and touch his nose thanks to his ____ sense.

A) Kinesthetic

B) Olfactory

C) Tactile

D) Vestibular



Peggy was looking for a new coat. She wanted it to be red, knee-length, and waterproof. As she looking through the racks at the store she quickly discarded coats first based on color, then length, and finally whether or not they were waterproof before making her final selection. Which decision making method was Peggy using?
a. single feature model
b. representativeness heuristic
c. additive model
d. elimination by aspects



Which is true regarding infant-directed speech?
a. It helps language development as it helps babies focus on the important words in a sentences.
b. It can hinder language development. Parents should not use babytalk.
c. When infants use it, it is a sign of language delay.
d. It is very common in the United States but less so in other cultures around the world.



Happens when you come to a solution to a problem without realizing how you got there

a. Heuristic

b. Mental set

c. Intuition

d. Insight



Occurs when we make decisions based on how believable the result is

a. Availability heuristic

b. Belief bias

c. Confirmation bias

d. Single feature model



Which of the following is true regarding critical periods?
a. If we are exposed to something during a special time period, we are more sensitive to it.
b. Critical periods apply only to language.
c. The critical period for language is up until about 6 years of age.
d. Research on critical periods suggests that language learning becomes easier as we get older.



Which of the following defines the concept of reaction range?
a. the general mental ability that underlies overall performance on all tests of mental ability
b. ability to modify or change your behavior to best suit your environment
c. the inherited range of possibility that genes provide
d. the variation in intelligence due to genetic differences



Harper read the page in his chemistry book at least three times but can't seem to remember any of it even right after finishing the last paragraph. The most likely explanation is because Harper was engaging in _____.

a. spaced practice

b. shallow processing

c. deep processing

d. chunking



Behaviors that occur in the same fashion, time and time again, in nearly every member of a species are known as _____.

a) homeostatic behaviors

b) reinforcements

c) drive reduction behaviors

d) modal action patterns