AP Psych 60 point scantron test Flashcards


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1

An individual experiencing a low blood-glucose level would be best advised to do which of the following?

A) take a nap

B) eat a snack

C) drink a glass of water

D) drink a diet soda

E) get some exercise

B

2

For several weeks- ever since she did not receive a raise that was given to several colleagues- Enid has lacked energy, has been unable to go to work, and has expected bad things to happen every day. Of the following, she is most likely experiencing:

A) posttraumatic stress

B) mania

C) hypochondria

D) depression

E) fugue

D

3

Phobic and panic disturbances are examples of which of the following kinds of disorder?

A) personality

B) schizophrenic

C) anxiety

D) somatoform

E) dissociative

C

4

In an experiment, which of the following variables refers to the outcome that is measured by the experimenter?

A) independent

B) dependent

C) control

D) random

E) stimulus

B

5

In Sigmund Freud's view, the role of the ego is to

A) make the individual feel superior to others

B) make the individual feel inferior to others

C) mediate among the id, the superego, and reality

D) serve the demands of the unconscious

E) serve the demands of the superego

C

6

A hostile person with a type A personality is most at risk for developing which of the following?

A) phobias

B) heart disease

C) bulimia nervosa

D) multiple personality

E) antisocial personality

B

7

One major objection to the early Skinnerian approach to psychology is that it

A) did not take into account internal thoughts and feelings

B) did not take into account overt physical behaviors

C) did not take into account accumulated experiences

D) focused primarily on childhood experiences

E) focused primarily on the unconscious

A

8

The coiled tube in the inner ear that contains the auditory receptors is called the

A) semicircular canal

B) ossicle

C) pinna

D) cochlea

E) oval window

D

9

One of the consistent research findings in the area of facial expressions and emotion is the

A) universality of facial expressions across cultures

B) vast differences in facial expressions between males and females

C) ease with which people can learn to change their facial expressions under differing circumstances

D) way children's facial expressions differ from adults'

E) way in which individuals' facial expressions change as they get older

A

10

Which of the following parts of the brain is most active in decision-making?

A) reticular formation

B) corpus callosum

C) hypothalamus

D) cerebral cortex

E) pituitary gland

D

11

Psychotic disorders frequently involve perceptions of nonexistent sensory stimulation, such as voices. Symptoms such as these are called

A) delusions

B) paraphilias

C) hallucinations

D) paranormal images

E) psychic phenomena

C

12

Punishment is most effective in eliminating undesired behavior when the

A) behavior is complex

B) behavior was recently acquired

C) punishment is delivered soon after the behavior

D) punishment is delivered by someone with authority

E) punishment is both mental and physical

C

13

According to the information-processing view of memory, the first stage in memory processing involves

A) retrieval

B) storage

C) rehearsal

D) encoding

E) transfer

D

14

John suffered a head injury in an accident five years ago. He now has clear memories of events that occurred before the accident, but he has great difficulty remembering any of the experiences he has had since the accident. John's symptoms describe

A) anterograde amnesia

B) Broca's aphasia

C) cue-dependent forgetting

D) selective amnesia

E) retroactive interference

A

15

Drive reduction as a motivational concept is best exemplified by which of the following?

A) The sweet taste of chocolate

B) Electric simulation to the pleasure center of the brain

C) A monkey using its tail as a fifth limb to climb higher in a tree

D) The injection of heroin by an addict to avoid withdrawal symptoms

E) The enjoyment of a frightening movie

D

16

Drawing a random sample of people from a town for an interview study of social attitudes ensures that

A) each person in town has the same probability of being chosen for the study

B) an equal number of males and females are selected for interviews

C) the study includes at least some respondents from each social class in town

D) the study will uncover widely differing social attitudes among the respondents

E) the sample will be large enough even though some people may refuse to be interviewed

A

17

Climbing an irregular set of stairs is more difficult for an individual who wears a patch over one eye primarily because

A) some depth perception is lost

B) half of the visual field is missing

C) the ability the perceive interposition is lost

D) the patch disrupts the functioning of the vestibular system

E) the patch alters the ability of the open eye to compensate

A

18

Gustatory receptors are sensitive to all of the following taste qualities EXCEPT

A) bitter

B) sweet

C) salty

D) spicy

E) sour

D

19

When a list of words is learned in order, the words most likely to be forgotten are those that are

A) at the beginning of the list

B) at the end of the list

C) in the middle of the list

D) hardest to pronounce

E) easiest to spell

C

20

The rules of grammar are rules of

A) phonemes

B) morphemes

C) syntax

D) semantics

E) pragmatics

C

21

Psychologists who emphasize the importance of personality traits are most often criticized for

A) being naive and overly optimistic

B) being subjective in interpreting unverifiable phenomena

C) overestimating the number of basic traits

D) underestimating the role of emotions

E) underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation

E

22

A genetically programmed action patter is the ethologist's definition of

A) habit

B) instinct

C) adaptation

D) altruism

E) releasing mechanism

B

23

Hypnosis is best described as a state that

A) gives the hypnotist complete control over the thoughts and emotions of the hypnotized individual

B) induces heightened suggestibility in the hypnotized individual

C) is similar to an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

D) is similar to the condition produced by excessive alcohol consumption

E) is similar to the REM stage of sleep

A

24

According to the Stanford-Binet formula for an intelligence quotient (IQ), the IQ of a ten-year-old child with mental age of eight and a half years is

A) 85

B) 95

C) 100

D) 105

E) 115

A

25

The precipitous decline of the inpatient populations of state and county mental hospitals since the 1950's can be attributed to which of the following?

I. Declining incidence of severe mental illnesses

II. A policy of deinstitutionalization

III. New drug therapies

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) II and III only

E) I, II, and III

D

26

According to research on attraction, people are most likely to be attracted to others who are

A) very different from themselves

B) similar to themselves in many ways

C) barely known or complete strangers

D) more physically active than they themselves are

E) less physically attractive than they themselves are

B

27

An individual's ability to remember the day he or she first swam the length of a swimming pool is most clearly an example of which of the following kinds of memory?

A) semantic

B) flashbulb

C) procedural

D) priming

E) episodic

E

28

Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome is an attempt to explain

A) personality traits

B) artificial intelligence

C) memory organization

D) organic retardation

E) reactions to stress

E

29

The result of the evolutionary process that preserves traits that enhance the adaptation of an organism and suppresses traits that do not is called

A) habituation

B) accommodation

C) natural selection

D) eugenics

E) species assimilation

C

30

A baby looks under the sofa for a ball that has just rolled underneath it. According to Jean Piaget, the baby's action shows development of

A) conservation of mass

B) reversibility

C) object permanence

D) logical thinking

E) metacognition

C

31
card image

Figures such as these are used in which of the following kinds of test?

A) verbal intelligence

B) nonverbal intelligence

C) self-report personality

D) projective personality

E) cognitive reasoning

D

32

Intense artificial light is most successfully used as therapy for

A) disorganized (hebephrenic) schizophrenia

B) seasonal affective disorder

C) essential hypertension

D) bipolar disorder

E) panic disorder

B

33

Which of the following situations poses an approach-approach conflict for a person who listens only to classical music?

A) having to sit through a good friend's rehearsal for a violin recital

B) attending a classical music event

C) being offered a cash bonus for ushering at an all-Beethoven concert

D) having to choose between an all-Beethoven concert and a punk-rock concert

E) choosing to study with one of two friends, both of whom listen to classical music when studying

E

34

In the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following immediately precedes an emotion?

A) observation of the external stimulus

B) recollection of similar past experiences

C) experience fo physiological changes

D) appraisal of cognitive factors

E) initiation of a fixed-action pattern

C

35

Which of the following research methods is being used if the same subjects are tested at two, four, and six years of age?

A) cross-cultural

B) longitudinal

C) cross-sectional

D) correlational

E) projective

B

36

Which of the following is a circadian rhythm?

A) the ebb and flow of an individual's emotions during a 24-hour period

B) jet lag experienced after an airline flight from Los Angeles to Tokyo

C) a cycle of biological functioning that lasts about 25 hours

D) the series of five stages that people go through during a normal night's sleep

E) the systematic alternation between alpha waves and delta waves during the different sleep stages

C

37

According to cognitive dissonance theory, human beings are motivated to

A) respond to an inborn need to pass their genes to the next generation

B) maintain an optimal level of arousal

C) satisfy basic needs such as hunger before proceeding to higher needs such as self-actualization

D) reduce tensions produced by inconsistent thoughts

E) satisfy needs resulting from tissue deficits

D

38

An important difference between humanistic and psychoanalytic approaches is that humanistic psychologists believe in the importance of

A) learning

B) free will

C) determinism

D) biological instincts

E) unconscious processes

B

39

The more people present at a scene, the less likely it is that anyone will help a person in need. This phenomenon is a manifestation of

A) diffusion of responsibility

B) social facilitation

C) situational ambiguity

D) a social norm

E) reciprocity

A

40

One suspected cause of schizophrenia is the abnormal increase of which of the following neurotransmitters in the brain?

A) acetylcholine

B) somatropin

C) dopamine

D) norepinephrine

E) serotonin

C

41

Studies of learning have shown that animals develop an aversion for tastes associated with

A) electric shock

B) extinguished associations

C) sickness

D) novel stimuli

E) starvation

C

42

An individual's fear of dogs that is lows as the individual is exposed to dogs in nonthreatening situations is referred to by behaviorists as a fear that has been

A) satiated

B) suppressed

C) repressed

D) extinguished

E) punished

D

43

In psychology, Gestalt principles are used to explain

A) statistical probabilities

B) somatic behavioral disorders

C) perceptual organization

D) stimulus-detection thresholds

E) altered states of consciousness

C

44

Sabrina plays on a rugby team and collects antique dolls. Peter is on a football team and loves to cook. Both Sabrina and Peter demonstrate a high degree of

A) sec-role stereotyping

B) sex-role confusion

C) gender constancy

D) androgyny

E) sex-role identity

D

45

A student who obtained a percentile rank of 75 on an achievement test is best characterized as having

A) ranked 75th from the top in a group of 100 test takers

B) answered 75% of the test questions correctly

C) scored higher than 75% of the test takers

D) scored 75% higher than the average test taker

E) scored 75% of the highest score

C

46

The general function of the bones in the middle ear is to

A) convert the incoming sound from pounds per square inch to decibels

B) protect the cochlea

C) regulate changes in the air pressure of the inner ear

D) transfer sound information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window

E) provide information to the vestibular system

D

47

Which of the following regularities in behavior can most likely be accounted for by the existence of a group norm?

A) students tend to use less profanity with adults than they do with their peers

B) most people sleep at least six hours a night

C) the average annual income of industrial workers in 19722 was $7.25

D) male infants have a higher infant mortality rate than female infants

E) people perform well-learned behaviors better in the presence of others than when alone

A

48

A brain tumor that results in obesity would most likely be located in the

A) left frontal lobe

B) base of the brain stem

C) area of the hypothalamus

D) reticular activating system

E) somatosensory cortex

C

49

Which of the following personality disorders is characterized by behavior that includes dishonesty, repeated trouble with authority figures, and an absence of remorse for these types of conduct?

A) antisocial

B) histrionic

C) passive-agressive

D) narcissistic

E) borderline

A

50

The most distinctive characteristic of the experimental method is that it?

A) studies a few people in great depth

B) studies subjects in their natural environment

C) is an efficient way to discover how people feel

D) seeks to establish cause-effect relationships

E) provides a chronological basis for reaching conclusions

D

51

The performance of the group on which an IQ test is standardized sets the

A) method of administration most suitable for the test

B) extent to which IQ is determined by environment

C) criteria for the diagnostic significance of intelligence

D) degree of validity of the IQ test

E) norms against which the performance of later test takers can be evaluated

E

52

Processing every possible combination of the letters DRBI to arrive at the word BIRD is an example of the use of

A) an algorithm

B) an expert system

C) an inference rule

D) a hypothesis

E) a heuristic

A

53

In experimental psychology, a significant difference refers to a

A) difference not likely due to chance

B) difference not likely due to faulty design

C) result that indicates a correlation equal to 1.0

D) result that departs from previous findings

E) result that proves a new theory

A

54

Although Paul seems bright and capable to his parents and friends, he has been failing in school. Paul agrees to speak with a psychologist, who suggests that his problems stem from internal processes such as unrealistic expectations and negative thinking. The psychologist's view is typical of which of the following models of behavior?

A) psychoanalytic

B) humanistic

C) cognitive

D) sociobiological

E) behavioral

C

55

Assume that R represents a dominant gene in rats for normal running and that r represents a recessive gene in rats for abnormal gait called waltzing. Mating a female Rr rat with a male RR rat will produce offspring that are

A) 50% runners and 50% waltzers

B) 25% runners and 75% waltzers

C) 75% runners and 25% waltzers

D) 100% waltzers

E) 100% runners

E

56

Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation paradigm is typically used to test young children's

A) ego strength

B) intelligence

C) reaction time

D) attachment

E) incidental learning

D

57

Taking a painkiller to relieve a toothache is behavior learned through which of the following processes?

A) shaping

B) punishment

C) positive reinforcement

D) negative reinforcement

E) omission training

D

58

Montgomery prepares his resume carelessly and arrives late for his job interview. He is rejected by the prospective employer. Montgomery concludes that "It's all a matter of dumb luck, anyway." Montgomery's judgement of his situation most clearly reflects

A) delay of gratification

B) the mechanism of reaction formation

C) unconscious inference

D) fixation and regression

E) external locus of control

E

59

Learned helplessness is most likely to result when

A) responses have no effect on the environment

B) young organisms fail to imprint at the critical period

C) a response is reinforced independently

D) reinforcement occurs on an intermittent schedule

E) an organism receives negative reinforcement

A

60

According to Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of five stages frequently experienced by people facing death is

A) mistrust

B) regression

C) bargaining

D) projection

E) sublimation

C

61

In Stanley Milgram's obedience experiments, subjects were LEAST likely to deliver maximum levels of shock when the

A) experiment was conducted at a prestigious institution

B) "learner" screamed loudly in pain

C) experimenter told hesitant subjects, "You have no choice, you must go on"

D) "learner" said that he had a heart condition

E) subjects observed other subjects who refused to obey the experimenter's orders

E

62

In rational-emotive therapy, the therapist helps clients by

A) using unconditional positive regard

B) establishing anxiety hierarchies to be used in systematic desensitization

C) promoting transference

D) confronting clients with their faulty logic

E) providing an environment in which new behaviors and emotions can be rehearsed

D

63

When participants in dichotic listening experiments are repeating aloud a message presented in one ear, they are most likely to notice information on the unattended channel if that channel

A) switches from one language to another

B) switches to a nonlanguage

C) mentions the participant's name

D) presents information similar to that on the attended channel

E) presents information in a foreign language

C

64

Metacognition refers to

A) amnesia

B) mental retardation

C) artificial intelligence

D) thinking without theory

E) thinking about thinking

E

65

A double-blind control is essential for which of the following?

A) a study comparing the IQ test scores of children from different educational systems

B) a study of relationships among family members

C) an experiment to determine the effect of a food reward on the bar-pressing rate of a rat

D) assessment of a treatment designed to reduce schizophrenic symptoms

E) a survey of drug use among teenagers

D

66

Which of the following findings would support an interpretation of aggression as catharsis?

A) societies that value aggressive sports are generally less aggressive than societies that do not value aggressive sports

B) on average, levels of aggression are about equal across all societies

C) aggressiveness in societies correlates highly with the average annual temperature

D) societies in which media content is particularly aggressive are more aggressive than societies that have less violent media content

E) in most societies, aggression among individuals waxes and wanes with age

A

67

For most people, speech functions are primarily localized in the

A) right cerebral hemisphere

B) left cerebral hemisphere

C) occipital lobe

D) corpus callosum

B

68

People who have experienced severe damage to the frontal lobe of the brain seldom regain their ability to

A) make and carry out plans

B) recognize visual patterns

C) process auditory information

D) process olfactory information

E) integrate their multiple personalities

A

69

A test that is labeled an achievement test is most likely to be given to

A) predict an individual's ability to succeed in a particular job

B) allow a student to be exempted from a college course

C) assess the mental age of a gifted eight-year-old

D) determine whether a person is an extrovert or an introvert

E) investigate an individual's cognitive style

B

70

The phenomenon of transference is a recognized component of which of the following therapeutic treatments?

A) flooding

B) systematic desensitization

C) Milieu therapy

D) psychoanalysis

E) family therapy

D

71

Contemporary definitions of abnormal behavior typically characterize such behavior as all of the following EXCEPT

A) atypical

B) maladaptive

C) inappropriate

D) due to inappropriate child-rearing practices

E) disturbing to the individual exhibiting the behavior

D

72

A nine-year-old girl first learning about her capabilities on the playground and in the classroom would be in which of Erikson's stages of development

A) industry vs. inferiority

B) identity vs. role confusion

C) autonomy vs. shame and doubt

D) integrity vs. despair

E) trust vs. mistrust

A

73

Which of the following therapeutic approaches is most likely to be criticized because it does not treat the underlying cause of the disorder?

A) cognitive

B) behavioral

C) biological

D) psychoanalytic

E) phenomenological

B

74

Which of the following will NOT increase behavioral and mental activity?

A) cocaine

B) caffeine

C) benzedrine

D) amphetamines

E) barbiturates

E

75

Behavior therapists emphasize which of the following in their treatment of clients?

A) freedom of choice about the future

B) the uncovering of unconscious defense mechanisms

C) responses that have been reinforced in the past

D) early childhood conflicts

E) repressed aggressive impulses

C

76

Which of the following is a brain-imaging technique that produces the most detailed picture of brain structure?

A) Electroencephalography (EEG)

B) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

C) Positron emission tomography (PET)

D) Computerized axial tomography (CAT)

E) Electromyography (EMG)

B

77

Which of the following represent, respectively superordinate and subordinate categories for the basic-level category of "automobile"?

A) vehicle, transportation

B) vehicle, convertible

C) station wagon, minivan

D) sedan, compact car

E) foreign car, domestic car

B

78

Carol Gilligan's criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg's developmental theory is based on the argument that Kohlberg's

A) work has been invalidated by changes in the structure of families in the US

B) stages are too limited in their critical-period parameters

C) theory underestimates the capabilities of infants and children

D) stages do not apply equally well to all racial and ethnic groups

E) theory fails to account sufficiently for differences between males and females

E

79

Cognitive theorists emphasize the

A) powerful unconscious impulses that motivate behavior

B) formation and modification of schemas

C) impact of rewards and punishments

D) individual's desire to become self-actualized

E) social norms that determine expected behavior

B

80

Which of the following ares of the body has the largest number of sensory neurons?

A) back

B) foot

C) ear

D) lips

E) wrist

D

81

Stimulation of portions of the left temporal lobe of the brain during surgery will cause the patient to

A) see lights

B) lose the sense of smell

C) jerk the left arm

D) extend the tongue

E) hear sounds

E

82

Noam Chomsky's view of language proposes that

A) there is an inherent language acquisition device

B) thinking is merely subvocal language

C) different levels of language ability are hereditarily determined

D) language acquisition can be explained by social modeling

E) language is learned principally through verbal reinforcement

A

83

The role of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is to

A) facilitate the body's fight-for-flight response

B) prepare the body to cope with stress

C) promote rapid cognitive processing

D) prompt the body to use its resources in responding to environmental stimuli

E) establish homeostasis after a flight-or-fight response

E

84

A man who experiences sudden blindness on witnessing the death of his wife is probably suffering from a

A) type of paraphilia

B) psychosis

C) multiple personality disorder

D) panic disorder

E) conversion disorder

E

85

Which of the following methods is used in studies designed to determine the primary components of intelligence?

A) test-retest

B) alternate forms

C) random sampling

D) factor analysis

E) standardization

D

86

In operant conditioning, the concept of contingency is exemplified by an "if A, then B" relationship in which A and B, respectively, represent

A) stimulus, response

B) response, reinforcement

C) stimulus, reinforcement

D) response, stimulus

E), stimulus, stimulus

B

87

A normally functioning 65-year-old who cannot solve abstract logic puzzles as quickly as he did when he was younger is experiencing a

A) phenomenon that is uncommon for people of his age

B) phenomenon predicted by Erik Erikson as part of the eight stages of psychosocial development

C) decrease in his crystallized intelligence

D) decrease in his fluid intelligence

E) difficulty with concrete operational thinking

D

88

When a pair of lights flashing in quick sucession seems to an observer to be one light moving from place to place, the effect is referred to as

A) stroboscopic movement

B) the phi phenomenon

C) autokinetic motion

D) binocular vision

E) induced displacement

B

89

Which of the following occurs when a neuron is stimulated to its threshold?

A) the movement of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane creates an action potential

B) the neuron hyperpolarizes

C) neurotransmitters are released from the dendrites

D) the absolute refractory period of the neuron prevents it from responding

E) the neuron's equilibrium potential is reached

A

90

Wolfgang Kohler considered a chimpanzee's sudden solving of a problem evidence of

A) instinct

B) modeling

C) learning set

D) insight

E) spontaneous recovery

D

91

Which of the following is the most appropriate criterion for evaluating the predictive validity of an intelligence test?

A) intelligence quotient

B) mental age

C) chronological age

D) scholastic aptitude

E) school grades

E

92

REM sleep, generally an "active" state of sleep, is accompanied by which of the following paradoxical characteristics?

A) slowed heart rate

B) slowed respiration rate

C) lowered blood pressure

D) lowered muscle tone

E) reduced eye movements

D

93

A teacher who is mistakenly informed that a student is learning disabled begins to treat that student differently from others. The teacher does not call on the student in class or help her with challenging material. The student's grades gradually decline. This result is an example of which of the following?

A) reactance

B) social loafing

C) actor-observer bias

D) self-fulfilling prophecy

E) fundamental attribution error

D

94

When struck by light energy, cones and rods in the retina generate neural signals that then activate the

A) parietal lobe

B) ganglion cells

C) bipolar cells

D) ciliary muscle

E) optic nerve fibers

C

95

The first area of psychology to be studied as a science is known as

A) psychoanalysis

B) phrenology

C) classical conditioning

D) mesmerism

E) psychophysics

E

96

The thalamus processes information for all of the following senses EXCEPT

A) smell

B) hearing

C) taste

D) vision

E) touch

A

97

The painful experience associated with termination of the use of an addictive substance is known as

withdrawal

98

When parents refuse to accept several psychologists' diagnosis of a child's mental illness, they are using which of the following defense mechanisms

denial

99

After several trials during which a dog is given a certain kind of food at the same time that a specific tone is sounded, there is evidence of conditioning if the dog salivates when

the tone only is presented

100

a complex pattern of organized, unlearned behavior that is species-specific is called

an instinct

101

which of the following correctly describes the finding of neurons?

an all-or-none response

102

distrust of others is symptomatic of

paranoia

103

Sigmund Freud believed that dream analysis was a useful device for

gaining insight into unconscious motives

104

When rehearsal of incoming information is prevented, which of the following will most likely occur?

There will be no transfer of the information to long-term memory

105

Which of the following behavior-therapy techniques is typically used to reduce fear of heights?

systematic desensitization

106

Painkilling substances produced by the brain are known as

endorphins

107

Receptors that are especially important for helping a person maintain balance are located in the

inner ear

108

In terms of the effect on the central nervous system, alcohol is most accurately classified as which of the following types of drug?

depressant

109

Research findings in the area of interpersonal attraction indicate that individuals are most likely to be attracted to others who are

similar to them in attitudes and values

110

On a fishing trip, Ed realizes that he has mistakenly packed the sewing box instead of the tackled box. He wants to fish but returns home because he does not have any line or hooks. Ed's failure to realize this sewing thread can be used as fishing line and the bent neeedle can be used as a hook is an example of

functional fixedness

111

Which of the following responses was most likely acquired through classical conditioning?

a child's fear of dogs after the child has been bitten by a dog

112

If a man who is a heavy smoker is given an electric shock every time he takes a puff on a cigarette, which of the following behavior-modification techniques is being used?

aversive conditioning

113

The failure of bystanders to give victims of automobile accidents needed assistance is sometimes explained as an instance of

diffusion of responsibility

114

In an experiment designed to determine whether watching violent scenes on television increases the frequency of aggressive behavior in children, one group of subjects saw a nonviolent cartoon and another group saw a violent cartoon. In the play period that followed the viewing of the cartoons, researches observed the two groups of children together and counted instances of aggressive behavior.

The control group in the experiment is the group that

watched the nonviolent cartoon

115

In an experiment designed to determine whether watching violent scenes on television increases the frequency of aggressive behavior in children, one group of subjects saw a nonviolent cartoon and another group saw a violent cartoon. In the play period that followed the viewing of the cartoons, researches observed the two groups of children together and counted instances of aggressive behavior.

The dependent variable in the experiment is the

amount of aggressive behavior exhibited by the children

116

Which of the following is most characteristic of individuals with chronic schizophrenia?

disordered thinking

117

Activation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system results in

an increase in respiratory rate

118

The terms "modeling" and "imitation" are most closely associated with

social learning theory

119

In a famous series of experiments conducted by Harry Harlow, an infant monkeys were separated from their mothers at birth. The infants were then given two surrogate mothers (a terry-cloth "mother" and a wire "mother"), each of which alternatively had a nursing bottle that provided food to the infants. The experimental results showed that in frightening situations the infant monkeys

preferred the terry-cloth mother, even when the wire mother had the nursing bottle

120

According to Sigmund Freud, a child's early experience in coping with external demands leads to the development of the

ego

121

According to Albert Bandura, people who believe that their efforts will be successful and that they are in control of events have a high level of

self-efficacy

122

Because studies of learning show that events occurring close together in time are easier to associate than those occurring at widely different times, parents should probably avoid which of the following?

delay of punishment

123

According to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following statements is true?

physiological needs must be met before an individual achieves self-actualization

124

A teenager would most probably draw on which of the following to recall her tenth birthday party?

episodic memory

125

Leadership, job satisfaction, and employee motivation are all studied in which of the following psychological disciplines

industrial-organizational psychology

126

According to the ethical guidelines set by the American Psychological Association (APA), which of the following is true of psychological research in which animals are used as subjects?

It should conform to all APA ethical guidelines for animal research

127

Hunger and eating are primarily regulated by which of the following?

the hypothalamus

128

Elena is presented with a list of 20 numbers. When asked to recall this list, she remembers more numbers from the beginning than from the end of the list. This phenomenon demonstrates which of the following types of effect?

primacy

129

A prototype is best defined as

the hypothetical "most typical" instance of a category

130

Theories of motivation that assert the existence of biological motives to maintain the body in a steady state are called

homeostatic

131

According to attribution theory, Pablo is most likely to attribute his high score on a difficult exam to

his intelligence

132

In which of the following types of research are the same children tested periodically at different points in their development?

longitudinal

133

The occipital lobes contain

the primary visual cortex

134

Eleanor Gibson and her colleagues have used the visual cliff to measure an infant's ability to perceive

depth

135

The most well-adjusted and socially competent children tend to come from homes where parents employ which of the following parental styles?

authoritative

136

Which of the following approaches to psychology emphasizes observable responses over inner experiences when accounting for behavior?

behaviorist

137

Carla tutors other students because she likes to be helpful, whereas Jane tutors classmates strictly for pay. Their behaviors demonstrate the difference between

intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

138

The view that human emotions are universal has been supported by studies of

facial expressions

139

Dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine are all

neurotransmitters that excite or inhibit a neural signal across a synapse

140

The cognitive theory of depression states that depression results from

maladaptive interpretations of life events

141

The most common form of color blindness is related to deficiencies in the

red-green system

142

A person is asked to listen to a series of tones presented in pairs, and asked to say whether the tones in each pair are the same or different in pitch. In this situation the experimenter is most likely measuring the individual's

difference threshold

143

A survey shows that children who have encyclopedias in their homes earn better grades in school than children whose homes lack encyclopedias. The researcher concludes that having encyclopedias at home improves grades. This conclusion is erroneous primarily because the researcher has incorrectly

inferred causation from correlation

144

The release of those with mental disorders from mental hospitals for the purpose of treating them in their home communities is called

deinstitutionalization

145

Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning is best described by which of the following?

Children progress from a morality based on punishment and reward to one defined by convention, and ultimately to one defined by abstract ethical principles

146

The intelligence quotient (IQ) has traditionally been based on the relationship between an individual's mental age and his or her

chronological age

147

In Ivan Pavlov's experiments in classical conditioning, the dog's salivation was

both an unconditioned and a conditioned response

148

Which of the following is a characteristic common to all individuals with a narcissistic personality disorder?

an unwarranted sense of self-importance

149

Hypnosis has been found useful in the treatment of

pain

150

In a normal distribution of test scores, the percentage of scores that fall at or below the mean score is

50

151

Persistent repetitive thoughts that cannot be controlled are known as

obsessions

152

Which of the following statements is true of behaviorism?

It holds that development is largely a product of learning

153

Which of the following best characterizes individuals diagnosed as having personality disorders?

They may function reasonably well in society

154

The mean will be higher than the median in any distribution that

is positively skewed

155

What is typically cited as a characteristic of autistic children?

severely impaired interpersonal communication

156

The goal of rational-emotive therapy is to help clients

correct self-defeating thoughts about their lives

157

A person with

...