Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 26 Water, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance Flashcards


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1

The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

A) calcium ions

B) potassium ions

C) hydrogen ions

D) sodium ions

D) sodium ions

2

Which of the following hormone is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

A) antidiuretic hormone

B) erythropoietin

C) aldosterone

D) renin

C) aldsterone

3

Atrial matriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to______?

A) enhance atrial contractions

B) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

C) prevent pH changes caused by organic acids

D) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

D) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

4

Acidosis can occur when______.

A) A person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

B) A persons blood pH is reduced below 7.35

C) A runner has completed a very long marathon

D) The kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

B) A persons blood pH is reduced below 7.35

5

Which of the following two organs function as the most important in helping the body regulate pH?

A) the lungs and the kidneys

B) the adrenal glands and the testes

C) the thyroid gland and the heart

D) the stomach and the liver

A) the lungs and the kidneys

6

Which of the following exerts primary control over potassium levels in the body?

A) ADH

B) aldosterone

C) water levels

D) glucocorticoids

B) aldosterone

7

The link between the external and internal fluid compartments is_____.

A) plasma

B) intracellular fluid

C) interstitial fluid

D) cerebrospinal fluid

A) plasma

8

Newborn infants have a relatively higher body______content than do adults.

A) iron

B) sodium

C) water

D) bicarbonate

B) sodium

9

Where sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most____is found in the intracellular fluid.

A) iron

B) chloride

C) potassium

D) magnesium

C) potassium

10

Which of the following describes the distribution of calcium and bicarbonate (plasma) between cells and body fluids?

A) calcium mainly in the cells, bicarbonate in the body fluids

B) bicarbonate in the cells, calcium in the body fluids

C) equal amounts of each ion in the cells and the body fluids

D) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

D) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

11

Which of the following is NOT a buffer system?

A) phosphate

B) hemoglobin

C) bicarbonate

D) protein

B) hemoglobin

12

A blood pH above 7.45 indicates_____.

A) acidosis

B) alkalosis

C) neither A or B

B) alkalosis

13

What hormone increases blood pressure and blood volume by vasoconstriction and water retention?

A) ADH

B) aldosterone

C) atrial natriuretic peptide

D) thyroxine

A) ADH

14

Which of the following is a chemical buffer system of the ICF?

A) bicarbonate (ECF)

B) phosphate (ICF)

C) nucleic acid

D) protein

B) Phasphate

15

Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except____.

A) interstitial fluid

B) blood plasma

C) cerebrospinal fluid

D) cytoplasma

D) cytoplasm

16

The major physiological factor that triggers the thirst mechanism is______.

A) a dry mouth from high temperatures

B) becoming overly agitated

C) drinking caffeinated beverages

D) a 1-2% reduction in ICF

D) a 1-2% reduction in ICF

17

Dan has been lost in the dessert for two days without water. As a result of this, you would expect

A) elevated ADH levels

B) normal urine production

C) increased blood volume

D) cells enlarged with fluid

A

18

Dehydration will cause

A) fluid to shift from the ECF to the ICF

B) decreased secretion of ADH

C) increased thirst

D) all of the above

C) increased thirst

19

During the act of drinking water, the thirst mechanism is usually inactivated by

A) distention of the stomach

B) increased ECF

C) increased ICF

D) decreased ADH levels

A) distention of the stomach

20

Which of the following is part of the ICF?

A) cytoplasm

B) synovial fluid

C) cerebrospinal fluid

D) interstitial fluid

A) cyroplasm

21

Which of the following raises calcium intake?

A) parathyroid hormone

B) aldosterone

C) ADH

D) calcitonin

A) parathyroid hormone

22

When water is lost from the ECF

A) the pH of the ECF falls

B) water moves from the ICF to ECF

C) both the ICF and ECF become more dilute

D) none of the above

B) water moves from the ICF to ECF

23

Which of the following buffer systems is most active if the ICF?

A) protein

B) phosphate

C) bicarbonate

D) none of the above

B) phosphate

24

Which of the following buffer systems is most active in the blood?

A) protein

B) phosphate

C) bicarbonate

D) cerebrospinal

A) protein

25

Which of the following represents the average percentage of body water in a healthy adult female?

A) 25

B) 50

C) 60

D) 25

B) 50