Chapter 33: Invertebrates Flashcards


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1

The animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animal kingdom is _____.

A) Cnidaria

B) Echinodermata

C) Lycophyta

D) Porifera

E) Ctenophora

D

2

Sponges are most accurately described as

A) filter feeders.

B) marine predators.

C) chemoautrophs.

D) freshwater scavengers.

E) aquatic predators.

A

3

Which of the following is a characteristic of cnidarians?

A) radula

B) mesoderm

C) gastrovascular cavity

D) bilateral symmetry

E) an anus

C

4

How many of the following are characteristics of at least some members of the phylum Cnidaria?
1. a gastrovascular cavity
2. a polyp stage
3. a medusa stage
4. cnidocytes
5. a pseudocoelom

A) 1

B) 2 and 3

C) 3, 4 and 5

D) 1, 2, 3, and 4

E) All of the above are correct

D

5

Which of the following is true of members of the phylum Cnidaria?

A) They are primarily filter feeders.

B) They are the simplest organisms with a complete alimentary canal (two openings).

C) They may use a gastrovascular cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton.

D) They are not capable of locomotion because they lack true muscle tissue.

E) They have either, or both, of two body forms: mobile polyps and sessile medusae.

C

6

Which of the following is a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators?

A) Annelida

B) Echinodermata

C) Arthropoda

D) Mollusca

E) Cnidaria

E

7

Use the following information to answer the question(s) below.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates–a parrotfish and a clownfish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

One day, Tommy, a student in an undersupervised class of forty fifth graders, got the urge to pet Nemo (the clownfish), who was swimming among the waving petals of a pretty underwater "flower" that had a big hole in the midst of the petals. Tommy giggled upon finding that these petals felt sticky. A few hours later, Tommy was in the nurse's office with nausea and cramps. Microscopic examination of his fingers would probably have revealed the presence of _____.

A) spicules

B) nematocysts

C) teeth marks

D) spines

B

8

Use the following information to answer the question(s) below.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates–a parrotfish and a clownfish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

The teacher and class were especially saddened when the colonial hydrozoan died. They had watched it carefully, and the unfortunate creature never even got to produce offspring by budding. Yet, everyone was elated when one of the students noticed a small colonial hydrozoan growing in a part of the tank far from the location of the original colony. The teacher was apparently unaware that these hydrozoans exhibit _____.

A) abiogenesis

B) alternation of generations

C) a medusa stage

D) spontaneous generation

C

9

Which of the following is characteristic of the phylum Platyhelminthes?

A) They typically reproduce asexually.

B) They are radially symmetrical.

C) They are diploblastic.

D) They are dorsoventrally flattened.

E) They are all parasitic.

D

10

Members of the phylum Mollusca _____.

A) are soft-bodied and often covered by a shell

B) have tentacles surrounding a central mouth/anus

C) are filter feeders

D) have closed circulatory systems

E) have segmented bodies and paired, jointed appendages

A

11

A marine biologist dredges up a small animal from the bottom of the ocean. It is uniformly segmented, with short, stiff appendages and soft, flexible skin. It has a complete digestive system and a closed circulatory system, plus multiple true coeloms. Based on this, you determine that the animal must be a(n) _____.

A) lancelet

B) crustacean

C) annelid

D) roundworm

E) mollusc

C

12

You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?

A) It has a mouth and an anus.

B) It has no coelom.

C) It is a suspension feeder.

D) It is shaped like a worm.

B

13
card image

This nudibranch, a type of sea slug, has many reddish cerata on its dorsal surface, as well as two white-tipped rhinophores located on the head.

The nontaxonomic term sea slug encompasses a wide variety of marine gastropods. One feature they share as adults is the lack of a shell. We might think, therefore, that they represent defenseless morsels for predators. In fact, sea slugs have multiple defenses. Some sea slugs prey on sponges and concentrate sponge toxins in their tissues. Others feed on cnidarians, digesting everything except the nematocysts, which they then transfer to their own skins. Whereas the most brightly colored sea slugs are often highly toxic, others are nontoxic and mimic the coloration of the toxic species. Their colors are mostly derived from pigments in their prey. There are also sea slugs that use their coloration to blend into their environments.

Which structure do sea slugs use to feed on their prey?

A) a mantle cavity

B) an incurrent siphon

C) a radula

D) nematocysts

C

14

Which one of these mollusk groups can be classified as suspension feeders?

A) gastropods

B) cephalopods

C) chitons

D) bivalves

D

15

Which characteristic is shared by cnidarians and flatworms?

A) a distinct head

B) radial symmetry

C) a digestive system with a single opening

D) dorsoventrally flattened bodies

C

16

What structure is responsible for gas exchange in most spiders?

A) the pedipalp

B) chelicerae

C) book lungs

D) tracheal tubes

E) Malpighian tubules

C

17

You find a multi-legged animal in your garden and want to determine if it is a centipede or a millipede. You take the animal to a university where a myriapodologist quickly tells you that you have found a centipede. Which of the following may have allowed her to make this distinction?

A) egg-laying

B) segmentation

C) molting

D) poisonous fangs

D

18

All arthropods _____.
1) undergo complete metamorphose
2) have jointed appendages
3) molt
4) have segmented bodies
5) have an exoskeleton or cuticle

A) 3 and 5

B) 1, 2, and 4

C) 2, 3, 4, 5

D) 1, 4, 5

C

19

What would be the most direct effect of removing or damaging an insect's antennae? The insect would have trouble _____.

A) smelling

B) hearing

C) mating

D) seeing

A

20

The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?

A) Platyhelminthes

B) Nematoda

C) Arthropoda

D) Annelida

B

21

The water vascular system of echinoderms _____.

A) is analogous to the gastrovascular cavity of flatworms

B) is bilateral in organization, even though the adult animal is not bilaterally symmetrical

C) functions in locomotion and feeding

D) functions as a circulatory system that distributes nutrients to body cells

C

22

Which of the following combinations correctly matches a phylum to its description?

A) Nematoda – segmented worms, closed circulatory system

B) Cnidaria – flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate

C) Platyhelminthes – radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms

D) Echinodermata – bilateral symmetry as a larva, water vascular system

D

23

Sponges _____.

A) are the simplest diploblastic animals

B) have feeding cells called dinoflagellates

C) have a nerve net but not a central nervous system

D) have larvae which are motile and move via the motion of cilia

D

24

What would be the best anatomical feature to look for to distinguish a gastropod from a chiton?

A) presence of a rasp-like feeding structure

B) production of eggs

C) presence of a muscular foot

D) number of shell plates

D

25

Planarians lack dedicated respiratory and circulatory systems because _____.

A) none of their cells are far removed from the gastrovascular cavity or from the external environment

B) they lack mesoderm as embryos and, therefore, lack the adult tissues derived from mesoderm

C) their flame bulbs can carry out respiratory and circulatory functions

D) their body cavity, a pseudocoelom, carries out these functions

A

26

Which of the following are thought to be most closely related to humans?

A) earthworms

B) jellies

C) sea stars

D) snails

E) ants

C

27

Use the following information to answer the question(s) below.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates–a parrotfish and a clownfish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

The bivalves started to die one by one; only the undamaged shells remained. To keep the remaining bivalves alive, the teacher would most likely need to remove the _____.

A) sea anemones

B) ectoprocts

C) gastropods

D) sea star

D

28

Why doesn’t Dr. Logan feel the bed bug feeding on him?

A) The bed bug has very soft feet and mouthparts.

B) The bed bug injects an anesthetic as it feeds.

C) The bed bug doesn’t actually bite, but feeds by osmosis.

D) The bed bug is tiny and weighs very little.

B

29

What makes bed bugs different than most other blood-feeding parasites?

A) Bed bugs are not insects.

B) Bed bugs feed mainly on birds.

C) Bed bugs are most commonly found outdoors.

D) Bed bugs prefer humans over other hosts.

D

30

Many blood-feeding parasites carry diseases but bed bugs do not. What is the most logical explanation for this?

A) The infectious agent is inactivated within the gut of the bed bug.

B) Bed bugs only feed on healthy hosts, and therefore do not pick up diseases.

C) The use of DDT starting in the 1940s to control bed bugs wiped out the diseases carried by the bed bugs.

D) Bed bugs are unlikely to come into the homes of humans, and therefore do not bring in any diseases.

A

31

Why do we often get an itchy red bump after being bitten by a bed bug?

A) If you observe a bed bug biting you, you are likely to expect it to itch, so you begin scratching.

B) The large mouthparts of bed bugs cause physical damage that can take a few days to heal.

C) The itchy red bump signals that the person is about to have a severe allergic reaction.

D) The proteins injected by the bed bug trigger an inflammatory response in the human body.

D

32

Bed bugs probably evolved from bat bugs. Which statement best describes how this likely happened?

A) There were two populations of bat bugs, one feeding on humans, and one on bats. Reproductive isolation, mutation, and natural selection led to speciation.

B) Differences between human blood and bat blood forced individual bugs to adapt and grow larger mouthparts.

C) Bugs who fed on humans lost the ability to fly, and could therefore no longer feed on bats.

D) Larger bugs must feed on blood more often, and are therefore more likely to need to feed at night when bats are not around. These larger bugs evolved into bed bugs.

A

33

What does the bed bug illustrate in regards to evolution?

A) Speciation can only occur between unrelated species.

B) Speciation can only occur through intervention by humans.

C) Speciation can occur in just a few thousand years.

D) Speciation requires millions of years to occur.

C

34

Some scientists are conducting research on the “saliva” of bed bugs. Which of the following is the most logical medical benefit from this research?

A) Determining the relationship between bat bugs and bed bugs.

B) Finding a chemical that helps us locate people in the dark.

C) Deriving a treatment or even a cure for skin cancer.

D) Using the anticoagulant to prevent blood clots in humans.

D

35

Nematodes and arthropods both _____.

A) are suspension feeders

B) grow by shedding their exoskeleton

C) develop an anus from the blastopore (pore) formed in the gastrula stage

D) have ciliated larvae

B