Chapter 32: Intro to Animals Flashcards


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1

Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition by

A) ingesting it.

B) consuming living, rather than dead, prey.

C) preying on animals.

D) using enzymes to digest their food.

A

2

Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?

A) the structural carbohydrate, chitin

B) heterotrophy

C) flagellated gametes

D) nervous conduction and muscular movement

E) cells that have mitochondria

D

3

What do animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common?

A) degree of cephalization

B) number of embryonic tissue layers

C) presence of Hox genes

D) body cavity between body wall and digestive system

E) type of body symmetry

C

4

The earliest ancestors of about half of all extant animal phyla can be traced back to the _____ explosion.

A) Carboniferous

B) Jurassic

C) Devonian

D) Pleistocene

E) Cambrian

E

5

The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a

A) flagellated protist.

B) multicellular fungus.

C) unicellular yeast.

D) multicellular algae.

E) unicellular chytrid.

A

6

Which of the following is radially symmetrical?

A) a spoon

B) an automobile

C) a doughnut

D) a dog

E) a submarine sandwich

C

7

Which of the following animals does NOT have a body cavity?

A) nematode

B) mouse

C) flatworm

D) clam

E) earthworm

C

8

At which developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish a diploblastic embryo from a triploblastic embryo?

A) metamorphosis

B) gastrulation

C) coelom formation

D) cleavage

E) fertilization

B

9

At which developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish a protostome embryo from a deuterostome embryo?

A) cleavage

B) fertilization

C) gastrulation

D) metamorphosis

E) coelom formation

A

10

What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates

A) contain tissues derived from mesoderm, whereas pseudocoelomates have no such tissue.

B) have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.

C) have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus, whereas pseudocoelomates have a digestive tract with only one opening.

D) have a body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have a solid body.

E) have a gut that lacks suspension within the body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have mesenteries that hold the digestive system in place.

B

11

Which of the following is descriptive of protostomes?

A) spiral and indeterminate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth

B) radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth

C) radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus

D) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth

E) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus

D

12

The most recently discovered phylum in the animal kingdom (1995) is the phylum Cycliophora. It includes three species of tiny organisms that live in large numbers on the outsides of the mouthparts and appendages of lobsters. The feeding stage permanently attaches to the lobster via an adhesive disk, and collects scraps of food from its host's feeding by capturing the scraps in a current created by a ring of cilia. The body is sac-like and has a U-shaped intestine that brings the anus close to the mouth. Cycliophorans are eucoelomate, do not molt (though their host does), and their embryos undergo spiral cleavage.

Cycliophorans have two types of larvae. One type of larva is produced when the digestive system of a female is impregnated by a male. The digestive system then collapses and develops into a larva, which swims away in search of a new host after the surrounding female dies. Which is the embryonic tissue that is apparently most important in forming this type of larva?

A) mesoderm

B) mesohyl

C) ectoderm

D) mesoglea

E) endoderm

E) Endoderm

13

Which of the following statements is correct?

A) Eumetazoans have three embryonic tissue layers.

B) Sponges are diploblastic animals.

C) Most animal phyla belong to the clade Radiata.

D) All animals share a common ancestor.

E) The origin of all extant animal phyla can be traced to the Cambrian explosion.

D

14

Acoelomates are characterized by

A) deuterostome development.

B) the absence of a brain.

C) the absence of mesoderm.

D) a coelom that is not completely lined with mesoderm.

E) a solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs.

E

15

Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that most animals derive their nutrition by _____.

A) ingesting it

B) using enzymes to digest their food

C) preying on animals

D) consuming living, rather than dead, prey

A

16

What do animals ranging from corals to monkeys have in common?

A) presence of Hox genes

B) number of embryonic tissue layers

C) a mouth and an anus

D) type of body symmetry

A

17

Part A -Identifying body symmetryWhich type of symmetry does each of the following animals display?Drag each picture to the appropriate bin.

  • Sponge
  • Hydra
  • Jelly
  • Snake
  • Bobcat
  • Turtle
  • Octopus
  • asymmetry
    • Sponge
  • radial symmetry
    • Hydra
    • Jelly
  • bilateral symmetry
    • Snake
    • Bobcat
    • Turtle
    • Octopus

18

Germ layers, tissues, and body cavitiesAnimal tissues develop from embryonic germ layers. Triploblastic animals have three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) and three basic body plans related to body cavities (acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate).Select the three statements that are true.

A) An acoelomate triploblast has no endoderm.

B) A pseudocoelom has the same functions as a true coelom.

C) In a coelomate, the tissue lining the inner side of the body cavity arises from the same germ layer as the tissue lining the outer side of the body cavity.

D) In a coelomate, the tissue lining the inner side of the body cavity arises from the same germ layer as the lining of the digestive tract.

E) In a pseudocoelomate, the tissue lining the inner side of the body cavity arises from the same germ layer as the muscles.

F) The digestive tract of a coelomate functions as a coelom.

G) A diploblast has no mesoderm.

B, C, G

19

Differences in development between protostomes and deuterostomesMany animals can be categorized as either protostomes and deuterostomes based on certain features of their embryonic development. Determine whether each of the following terms applies to only protostomes, only deuterostomes, both protostomes and deuterostomes, or neither.Drag each item to the appropriate bin.

  • Coelom from solid masses of mesoderm
  • coelom from folds of archenteron
  • mouth from blastopore
  • anus from blastopore
  • spiral, determinate cleavage
  • radial, indeterminate cleavage
  • triploblast
  • diploblast
  • protostome
    • Coelom from solid masses of mesoderm
    • mouth from blastopore
    • spiral, determinate cleavage
  • deuterostome
    • coelom from folds of archenteron
    • anus from blastopore
    • radial, indeterminate cleavage
  • both
    • triploblast
  • neither
    • diploblast

20

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all animals?

A) They have tissues, organs, and organ systems.

B) They ingest their food.

C) They are heterotrophic.

D) They are eukaryotes.

E) They are all multicellular.

A

21

While looking at some seawater through your microscope, you spot the egg of an unknown animal. Which of the following tests could you use to determine whether the developing organism is a protostome or a deuterostome? See whether the embryo _____.

A) exhibits spiral cleavage or radial cleavage

B0 develops germ layers

C) develops a blastopore

D) develops an archenteron

A

22

What do all deuterostomes have in common?

A) Adults are bilaterally symmetrical.

B) The pore (blastopore) formed during gastrulation becomes the anus.

C) Embryos have pharyngeal pouches that may or may not form gill slits.

D) All have a spinal column.

B

23

An organism that exhibits cephalization probably also _____.

A) is bilaterally symmetrical

B) has a coelom

C) is segmented

D) is diploblastic

A

24

Why might researchers choose to use molecular data (such as ribosomal RNA sequences) rather than morphological data to study the evolutionary history of animals?

A) Morphological changes usually do not result from molecular changes.

B) Sequence data can be gathered faster than morphological data, and morphological data provides a different perspective.

C) Molecular data can be gathered in the lab, while morphological data must be gathered in the field.

D) Some phyla vary too widely in morphological characteristics to be classified accurately.

D