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1

Recommendations for improving Omega-3 fatty acid intake include:

Increasing intake of fish, fish oil, flax seeds, and walnuts

2

In which form are most dietary lipids found?

Triglycerides

3

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a

triglyceride.

4

Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?

Monounsaturated

5

Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?

Linoleic acid

6

A triglyceride always contains 3

fatty acids.

7

Which of the following provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?

Flaxseed oil

8

About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day?

At least 800 mg

9

What is the major source of “good” cholesterol?

Endogenous synthesis

10

Which of the following CANNOT be found in plants?

Cholesterol

11

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?

Synthesized by the body

12

All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol EXCEPT

glucose.

13

Which of the following is NOT a feature of the bile acids?

Manufactured by the gallbladder

14

Which of the following organs is NOT known to secrete a lipase?

Liver

15

What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis

Small intestine

16

Chylomicrons are synthesized within the

intestinal cells

17

After a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as

chylomicrons

18

Which of the following is an example of enterohepatic circulation?

Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver

19

What lipoprotein is largest in size?

Chylomicron

20

Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?

Low-density lipoprotein

21

Among the following, which would be the least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels?

Eat more insoluble fiber

22

Which of the following is used by the body to synthesize arachidonic acid?

Linoleic acid

23

Which of the following is a feature of adipose cell lipoprotein lipase?

The enzyme works to promote uptake of circulating triglycerides into storage triglycerides

24

Which of the following is a feature of fat metabolism?

Triglycerides in the blood must first be broken down to monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol prior to uptake by the adipose cells

25

What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?

199

26

What is the highest blood triglyceride concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?

149

27

Which of the following is a feature of fat intake and health?

Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol

28

When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?

Eicosapentaenoic acid

29

All of the following statements are characteristics of lipid intake among U.S. adults EXCEPT

trans-fatty acid intake averages about 1 g per day.

30

The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed

linolenic acid.

31

Which of the following does NOT describe a function of fat?

Supplies up to 25% of the body’s energy needs during rest

32

In most nuts, what is the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fats, in order of highest to lowest amounts?

Monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated

33

In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?

Nitrogen

34

Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?

20

35

Any of the following can be used by the body for the synthesis of a nonessential amino acid EXCEPT

an essential mineral

36

Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?

It must be supplied by the diet

37

An example of a protein with quaternary polypeptide structures is

hemoglobin

38

What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?

Denaturation

39

What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?

Pepsin

40

What is the chief function of pepsin?

Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides

41

After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?

Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides

42

Your cousin Wanda was born with a genetic defect affecting her digestion, namely, a lack of intestinal villus tripeptidases and dipeptidases. Which of the following digestive processes would NOT take place?

Peptides → amino acids

43

A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease

sickle-cell anemia

44

Which of the following do(es) NOT function as a transport protein?

Collagen

45

Which of the following proteins inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses?

Antibodies

46

Protein sparing in the body is best achieved when a person ingests

adequate levels of carbohydrate and fat

47

Which of the following is a consequence of excess protein intake?

Increased production and excretion of urea

48

What is the most likely reason for a person to have abnormally high blood ammonia levels?

Liver dysfunction

49

Jason is 35 years old and was recently diagnosed with 2 failing kidneys. He was advised to decrease the amount of protein he consumes. If Jason cheats by eating an 8-ounce steak for dinner tonight, shortly thereafter there would most likely be an increase in the urea levels of his

blood.

50

What is the most likely reason for having an abnormally high blood urea level?

Kidney dysfunction

51

If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?

Protein synthesis will be limited

52

What is a “limiting” amino acid in a protein?

An essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place

53

What is complementary protein nutrition?

A strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids

54

Based on the range of protein intake as a percentage of energy intake, what would be the highest safe level of protein intake for a 60-kg adult ingesting 2500 kcalories?

219 g

55

What is the percentage of total energy derived from protein in a diet containing 50 grams of protein and 2000 kcalories?

10

56

If a person consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2700 kcalories per day, approximately what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?

10

57

The disease phenylketonuria is related chiefly to abnormal metabolism of

a certain amino acid

58

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI"s) include all of the following, except

a) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA's)

b)Adequate Intake (AI's)

c)Estimated Average Requirements (EAR's)

d)Daily Values (DV's)

e)Tolerable Upper Intakes Levels (UL's)

d)Daily Values (DV's)

59

When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?

a)Insulin

b)Glucagon

c)Epinephrinw

d)CCK

e)Secretin

b)Glucagon

60

What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?

a)Heart

b)Liver

c)Pancreas

d)CCK

e)Secretin

b)Liver

61

A slice of pumkin bread with 3 grams of fat, 25 grams of carbohydrates and 4 grams of protein contains:

a)104kcals

b)114kcals

c)82kcals

d)124kcals

e)143kcals

e)143kcals

62

Using the information you calculated in the previous question, calculate the % of calories provided by fat.

a)15%

b)4%

c)19%

d)10%

e)9%

...

63

Where is glucose stored in the body?

a)Liver

b)Muscle

c)Pancreas

d)All of the abouve

e)A & B are correct

e)A & B are correct

64

If an individual consumes 15% of their total kcals from PRO, does this fall into the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for PRO?

a)Yes

b)No

a)Yes

65

Foods that are "Quality Carriers" deliver all of the following, except:

a)Vitamins and minerals

b)Phytochemicals

c)Trans-fat

d)Antioxidants

e)Fiber

c)Trans-fat

66

Secretin is secreted by the _________, which stimulates the _______ to produce bicarbonate to neutralize the acidic stomach contents entering the small intestine.

a)Pancreas, Duodenum

b)Duodenum, Gallbladder

c)Duodenum, Pancreas

d)Pancreas, Gallbladder

e)Pancreas, Liver

c)Duodenum, Prancreas

67

This "control valve" allows only - a tsp of the stomach contents to squirt into the small intestine, thus allowing the duodenum to efficiently neutralize the highly acidic stomach contents and reduce the risk of acid erosion of the small intestine

a)Pancreatic duct

b)Gallbladder

c)Lower esophageal sphinter

d)Pyloric sphinter

e)Bile duct

d)Pyloric sphincter

68

Insulin is made in the:

a)Gallbladder

b)Pancreas

c)Liver

d)Small intestine

e)Stomach

b)Pancreas

69

All of the following are considered "accessory organs" during digestion, except:

a)Liver

b)Pancreas

c)Gallbladder

d)Stomach

d)Stomach

70

The lungs receive their blood from the

a)Aorta

b)Pulmonary artery

c)Pulmonary vein

d)Vena cava

b)Pulmonary artery

71

The hepatic portal vein empties into the:

a)Heart

b)Pancreas

c)Liver

d)Duodenum

e)Stomach

c)Liver

72

Which of the following refers to death of some heart muscle tissue due to a complete lack of blood flow and oxygen?

a)Angina pectoris

b)Myocardial infarction

d)Stroke

e)Cardiac arrest

...

73

________ attach(es) onto bile acids, increasing their excretion. The liver then takes more cholesterol out of the blood to restore the bile supply, thus reducing blood cholesterol levels.

a)CCK

b)Soluble fiber

c)Insulin

d)Essential fatty acids

e)Essential amino acids

b)Soluble fiber

74

Which of the following depicts the correct path of food down the GI tract?

a)Mouth, Esophagus, Small Intestine, Stomach, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus

b)Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus

c)Mouth, Stomach, Esophagus, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus

d)Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Pancreas, Rectum, Anus

e)Mouth, Stomach, Esophagus, Small Intestine, Pancreas, Rectum, Anus

b)Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus

75

In an attempt to repair the lesion (fatty streak on endothelium), __________ migrate to the intima to make a fibrous cap.

a)Platelets

b)Macrophages

c)LDL

d)Smooth muscle cells

e)White blood cells

d)Smooth muscle cells

76

What are the total calories from fat for the entire day?

a)1175 kcal

b)1025 kcal

c)925 kcal

d)875 kcal

e)800 kcal

e)800 kcal

77

What are the total grams from fat for the entire day?

a)200 grams

b)89 grams

c)119 grams

d)109 grams

e)78 grams

b)89 grams

78

What are the total calories from protein for the entire day?

a)700 kcal

b)590 kcal

c)480 kcal

d)350 kcal

e)800 kcal

c)480 kcal

79

What are the total grams from protein for the entire day?

a)120 grams

b)65 grams

c)140 grams

d)240 grams

e)53 grams

a)120 grams

80

Which of the following are monosaccharides?

a)Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose

b)Glucose, Fructose, Galatose

c)Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose

d)Glucose, Lactose, Galactose

e)Glucose, Fructose, Lactose

b)Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

81

Calculate the basal metabolic (BMR) for Suzy, who weighs 120 lbs.

a)1240 kcals

b)1178 kcals

c)1088 kcals

d)1310 kcals

e)920 kcals

b)1178 kcals

82

If John wants to lose 10 lbs in 10 weeks, what kcal deficit does he need to create per day?

a)500 kcal

b)750 kcal

c)250 kcal

d)1000 kcal

e) 150 kcal

a)500 kcal

83

If John created a 750 kcal deficit per day, how many weeks would it take him to lose 12 lbs?

a)4 weeks

b)10 weeks

c)6 weeks

d)12 weeks

e)8 weeks

e)8 weeks

84

If Suzy created a 7000 kcal deficit per week, how many pounds would she lose in 8 weeks?

a)12 pounds

b)8 pounds

c)4 pounds

d)6 pounds

e)16 pounds

e)16 pounds

85

If John reduces his dietary intake by 350 kcal/day and increases his kcals burned through physical activity by 350 kcal/day, how long will it take for him to lose 7 lbs?

a)9 weeks

b)5 weeks

c)3 weeks

d)10 weeks

e) He won't lose weight he is in energy balance

...

86

Calculate the basal metabolic rate (BMR) for John, who weighs 210 lbs

a)1900 kcals

b)2020 kcals

c)2291 kcals

d)2073 kcals

e)2336 kcals

c)2291

87

Which of the following is true regarding the hormone insulin?

a)Is released from the pancreas

b)Helps breakdown of glycogen to glucose to increase blood glucose

c)Helps increase glucose uptake into cells, thus lowering blood glucose

d)Is released in response to low blood glucose

e)A & C are correct

e)A & C are correct

88

If you found galactose in a blood sample taken from a patient's portal vein, you would conclude that they recently consumed:

a)Pasta

b)Milk

c)Soda

d)Bread

e)Rice

b)Milk

89

Which of the following statement(s) regarding CHO digestion and absorption is (are) true?

a)Digestion begins in the mouth

b)Monosaccharides are absorbed and taken to the liver via the lymphatic system

c)Soluble fiber is fermented into various acids and gases by bacteria in the large intestine

d)The enzyme sucrase digests sucrose to glucose and galactose

e)A & C are correct

...

90

A linebacker on the OU football team is 6 feet 1 inches tall and weighs 220 pounds. What is his body mass index (BMI)?

a)23

b)26

c)29

d)31

e)36

c)29

91

In which BMI category does this football player calculate into?

a)Healthy

b)Overweight

c)Obese

d)Underweight

b)Overweight

92

Referring to the phrase "the less legs the better", which quality PRO source delivers the most heart healthy fats?

a)CHicken

b)Cow

c)Turkey

d)Fish

e)Pig

d)Fish

93

A breakfast cereal has the following nutritional breakdown per serving: Total kcals: 170 kcals; Total CHO: 35g; Fiber: 5g; PRO: 4g; FAT: 4g

If a female eats this serving of breakfast cereal, what % of her Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber has she concumed?

a)10%

b)50%

c)20%

d)33.3%

e)40%

c)20%

94

A breakfast cereal has the following nutritional breakdown per serving: Total kcals: 170 kcals; Total CHO: 35g; Fiber: 5g; PRO: 4g; FAT: 4g

If a male eats this serving of breakfast cereal, what % of his Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber has he consumed?

a)25%

b)13%

c)5%

d)20%

e)30%

b)13%

95

T/F: Oxygenated blood flows into the left atrium, through the mitral calve, and into the left ventricle.

a)True

b)False

a)True

96

Blood from the entire body returns to the heart through the ______. Blood leaving the heart traveling to the body passes through the _____.

a)Aorta; vena cava

b)Pulmonary artery; pulmonary vein

c)Vena cava; pilmonary vein

d)Vena caca; aorta

e)Vena cava; pulmonary artery

d)Vena cava; aorta

97

Type I diabetes is usually associated with an inability to produce insulin whereas Type II diabetes is typically linked to insulin resistance

a)True

b)False

a)True

98

Cells transform the energy from dietary CHO, PRO, & FAT to a form of energy the body can use called:

a)Glucose

b)ATP

c)Enzymes

d)Peristalsis

e)Organic energy

b)ATP

99

In which of the following vessels does nutrient and fluid exchange between the blood and tissue take place?

a)Arteries

b)Arterioles

c)Capillaries

d)Veins

e)Venules

c)Capillaries

100

Most nutrient absorption occurs in the:

a)Stomach

b)Small intestine

c)Large intestine

d)Liver

e)Pancreas

b)Small intestine

101

If a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for fat as part of a diet providing kcals, approximately how many grams of fat would be ingested?

a)25

b)42

c)86

d)65

e)110

c)86

102

This part of the stomach contains thicker muscle to mix the food and move the food into the duodenum.

a)Antrum

b)Fundus

c)Colon

d)Ileum

e)Gallbladder

a)Antrum

103

Which of the following is the correct course of blood flow through the heart?

a)Lt ventricle --> Lt atrium --> Rt ventricle --> Rt atrium

b)Lt ventricle --> Rt ventricle --> Rt atrium --> Lt atrium

c)Rt atrium --> Rt ventricle --> Lt atrium --> Lt ventricle

d)Rt atrium --> Lt atrium --> Rt ventricle --> Lt ventricle

c)Rt atrium --> Rt ventricle --> Lt atrium --> Lt ventricle

104

The mixing and combining of food plus stomach (gastric) secretions creates a substance known as ______ that squirts into the duodenum -- 1 tsp at a time.

a)Bile

b)Chyme

c)Fiber

d)Secretin

e)Villi

b)Chyme

105

Which of the following dietary component recommendations on a food label does not change whether you use 2000 kcals or 2500 kcals as a guide?

a)Total fat

b)Saturated fat

c)Cholesterol

d)Sodium

e)C & D are correct

e) C & D are correct

106

Name the factor that most influences basal metabolism (BMR)

Gender, Body size, Muscle, Exercise

107

Where in the body is glucose stored that can then be broken down, fed into the bloodstream to feed your brain?

Liver

108

List the fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

109

Name the mineral that processed grains are enriched with in the U.S.

Iron, B1, B2, B3 and folic acid

110

If you consumed a drink with 20g of alcohol, how many kcals from alcohol did you consume?

140 kcals

111

Approximately 2/3 of total body water is found in:

a)Intracellular fluid

b)Extracellular fluid

c)Interstitial fluid

d)Intravascular fluid

e)B, C, & D are correct

a)Intracellular fluid

112

This condition is characterized by “soft bones”, and symptoms include bone pain and muscle aches.

a)Osteoporosis

b)Osteomalacia

c)Rickets

d)Spina Bifida

e)Intrinsic Factor

b)Osteomalacia (Adult)

113

If 1 cup of skim milk delivers 300mg of Ca, how many cups of skim milk will it take to satisfy the adequate intake (AI) of older adults 51+ yrs old?

a)1 cup

b)2.5 cups

c)4 cups

d)3.33 cups

e)2.75 cups

c)4 cups

114

Vitamin D3 (inactive form) travels to the ________, where 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, the major circulating form, is created. This is the form that is measured in the blood to determine vitamin D status.

a)Skin

b)Liver

c)Kidney

d)Bone

e)Heart

b)Liver

115

When taking a Ca supplement, how much Ca should you take at a time to maximize absorption?

a) -1000mg

b) -400-500g

c) -400-500mg

d) -1000g

e) -2500g

c) -400-500mg

116

_________ attach(es) onto bile acids, increasing their excretion. The liver then takes more cholesterol out of the blood to restore the bile supply, thus reducing blood cholesterol levels.

a)CCK

b)Soluble fiber

c)Eicosanoids

d)Essential fatty acids

e)Essential amino acids

b)Soluble fiber

117

“Milk sugar” is made of which two monosaccarides?

a)Glucose and galactose

b)Galactose and lactose

c)Galactose and maltose

d)Lactose and glucose

e)Lactose and sucrose

a)Glucose and galactose

118

. ________ signals the ________ to retain sodium.
a) Antidiuretic hormone; small intestine
b) Aldosterone; stomach
c) Aldosterone; kidney
d) Antidiuretic hormone; pituitary gland

e)Aldosterone; adrenal glands

c. Aldosterone; kidney

119

Heme iron:

a)Found only in animal products

b)Is better absorbed than nonheme iron

c)Accounts for 10% of the average daily iron intake

d)All of the above

e)A & B are correct

d)All of the above

120

What body sites are most susceptible to osteoporotic fracture?

a)Hip, Skull, and Spine

b)Spine, Hip, and Wrists

c)Neck, Ankles, and Feet

d. Hands, Wrists, and Spine

b)Spine, Hip, Wrists

121

. 300 ug folic acid = _____ ug Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFEs)

a)600

b)400

c)550

d)510

e. 680

d)510

122

Neural Tube Defects, a folate-deficiency disease, result from a developmental failure affecting the _______ and/or _______ in the embryo

a)Heart, Brain

b)Heart, Spinal Cord

c)Spinal Cord, Brain

d)Spinal Cord, Legs

e. Spinal Cord, Arms

c)Spinal Cord, Brain

123

Processed grains are enriched with which of the following?

a)Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin D

b)Thiamin, Biotin, Riboflavin, Beta-Carotene, Calcium

c)Thiamin, Vitamin E, Beta-Carotene, Folic Acid

d)Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folic Acid, Iron

e. Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, Iron

d)Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folic Acid, Iron

124

Following a typical aging pattern, an older individual will have _____ total body water than when they were 20 years old

a)More

b)Less

c)The same

b)Less

125

________ is a proteinlike compound produced in the stomach that enhances vitamin B12 absorption

a)R-protein

b)Transcobalamin II

c)Pernicious Factor

d)Folic Factor

e)Intrinsic Factor

e)Intrinsic Factor

126

The lipoproteins that transport dietary triglycerides are called:

a)VLDL

b)LDL

c)HDL

d)Chylomicrons

e)Eicosanoids

d)Chylomicrons

127

Alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that is used in alcohol metabolism, is active in the _____ and the ______.

a)Stomach, Small Intestine

b)Stomach, Liver

c)Stomach, Pancreas

d)Stomach, Large Intestine

e)Stomach, Mouth

b)Stomach, Liver

128

_______ (hormone) is released when blood Ca is low, stimulating the activation of _________.

a)Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Vitamin C

b)Calcitonin, Vitamin C

c)Calcitonin, Vitamin D

d)Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Vitamin D

e)C & D are correct

d)Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Vitamin D

129

Which of the following hormones is released from the adrenal glands in response to a drop in blood pressure?

a)Antidiuretic hormone

b)Aldosterone

c)Parathyroid hormone

d)Cortisol

e)Insulin

b)Aldosterone

130

Basal metabolism includes energy needed for:

a)Respiration, circulation, and digestion

b)Respiration, physical activity, and the thermic effect of food

c)Circulation, maintenance of muscle tone, and digestion

d)Respiration, circulation, and maintenance of body temperature

e)Respiration, physical activity, and digestion

d)Respiration, circulation, and maintenance of body temperature

131

Vitamin B1:

a)Is also known as Thiamin

b)Has a deficiency disease known as beriberi

c)A major food source is milk products, and is destroyed by UV light

d)A & B are correct

e)A & C are correct

d)A & B are correct

132

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?

a)Albumin

b)Cholesterol

c)Chylomicrons

d)Liposoluble binding proteins

c)Chylomicrons

133

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?

a)Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria

b)Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation

c)Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

d)Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins

c)Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

134

Which of the following organs is NOT required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D?

a)Skin

b)Liver

c)Kidney

d)Small intestine

d)Small intestine

135

Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body’s synthesis of vitamin D?

a)Cholesterol

b)Tryptophan

c)Beta-carotene

d)Eicosapentanoic acid

a)Cholesterol

136

Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?

a)Bone

b)Carotene

c)Tryptophan

d)Exposure to sunlight

d)Exposure to sunlight

137

Which of the following is NOT a major target organ for the action of activated vitamin D?

a)Liver

b)Bone

c)Kidney

d)Intestine

a)Liver

138

Where is calbindin primarily found in the body?

a)Liver

b)Kidneys

c)Intestine

d)Chylomicrons

c)Intestine

139

In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?

a)Nervous

b)Skeletal

c)Muscular

d)Circulatory

b)Skeletal

140

Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?

a)Osteomalacia and rickets

b)Xerophthalmia and breath pentane release

c)Kwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease

d)Hemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia

a)Osteomalacia and rickets

141

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?

a)Toxicity from vitamin D may result from overexposure to the sun

b)Requirements are much higher in the elderly due to degenerative bone diseases

c)Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source

d)Absorption from most food sources is very poor, necessitating the enrichment of grain products

c)Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source

142

What fraction of lean tissue represents the water content?

a)1/10

b)1/3

c)1/2

d)3/4

d)3/4

143

What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?

a)Liver

b)Heart

c)Kidneys

d)Skeletal muscle

c)Kidneys

144

How does antidiuretic hormone function?

a)It activates renin

b)It activates angiotension

c)It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys

d)It stimulates sodium reabsorption by the kidneys

c)It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys

145

What pituitary hormone regulates kidney retention of water?

a)Thyroxine

b)Cortisone

c)Epinephrine

d)Antidiuretic hormone

d)Antidiuretic hormone

146

Aldosterone and renin each function to promote

a)electrolyte balance.

b)retention of sodium.

c)excretion of calcium.

d)constriction of blood vessels

b)retention of sodium.

147

Among the following, which promotes constriction of blood vessels, resulting in elevation of blood pressure?

a)Phytates

b)Angiotensin

c)Aldosterone

d)Carbonic acid

b)Angiotensin

148

What is the function of renin?

a)Activates angiotensin

b)Activates antidiuretic hormone

c)Stimulates the thirst mechanism

d)Stimulates water absorption from the GI tract

a)Activates angiotensin

149

Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to

a)provide energy for cells.

b)provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.

c)regulate the transmission of nerve impulses.

d)maintain the blood level of calcium within very narrow limits.

b)provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.

150

What is hydroxyapatite?

a)Abnormal cellular structures seen in osteoporosis

b)The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones

c)A calcium regulatory hormone secreted from the trabeculae region of bone

d)A compound in plant foods that binds to calcium and phosphorus and inhibits absorption

b)The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones

151

Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?

a)Dietary intake of calcium

b)Glucagon and epinephrine

c)Dietary intake of phosphorus

d)Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

d)Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

152

Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following is most responsible for maintaining her blood calcium levels in the normal range?

a)Calcitonin

b)Calmodulin

c)Hydroxyapatite

d)Parathyroid hormone

d)Parathyroid hormone

153

How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?

a)100

b)300

c)600

d)950

b)300

154

Calcium-binding protein acts within the

a)kidneys.

b)intestine.

c)cortical bone.

d)trabecular bone

b)intestine.

155

At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?

a)30-40 yrs

b)40-50 yrs

c)50-60 yrs

d)60-70 yrs

a)30-40 yrs

156

What is the recommended daily calcium intake for young adults?

a)500 mg

b)800 mg

c)1000 mg

d)1500 mg

c)1000 mg

157

A person’s highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)

a)18.

b)30.

c)55.

d)70.

b)30.

158

After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?

a)Sex

b)Tobacco use

c)Calcium intake

d)Physical activity level

a)Sex

159

Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?

a)Dancing is not an effective activity for helping maintain bone density

b)Weight training improves bone density in young but not older women

c)Working the muscles places stress on bones, which promotes bone density

d)Weight-bearing activities are effective in maintaining bone mass in adults but not in adolescents

c)Working the muscles places stress on bones, which promotes bone density

160

For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, it is best to take them several times a day, in doses up to

a)100 mg.

b)200 mg.

c)500 mg.

d)800 mg.

c)500 mg.

161

What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?

a)Ferritin

b)Myoglobin

c)Transferrin

d)Hemoglobin

d)Hemoglobin

162

What is the oxygen-carrying protein of muscle cells?

a)Transferrin

b)Myoglobin

c)Hemoglobin

d)Cytochrome

b)Myoglobin

163

Which of the following is a feature of iron absorption?

a)It is higher with vegetarian diets

b)It is higher in people with iron deficiency

c)It is lower when iron is in the form of heme rather than non-heme

d)It is higher in adults than children due to more mature intestinal function

b)It is higher in people with iron deficiency

164

Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract?

a)Biotin

b)Calcium

c)Vitamin D

d)Vitamin C

d)Vitamin C

165

What is the average lifespan of red blood cells?

a)Two weeks

b)One month

c)Four months

d)Six months

c)Four months

166

In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods?

a)Milk and cheese

b)Breads and cereals

c)Peanut butter and jellies

d)Orange juice and tomato juice

b)Breads and cereals