AP Biology Chapter 48

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1

A simple nervous system
A) must include chemical senses, mechanoreception, and vision.
B) includes a minimum of 12 ganglia.
C) has information flow in only one direction: toward an integrating center.
D) has information flow in only one direction: away from an integrating center.
E) has information flow both toward and away from an integrating center.

E

2

Most of the neurons in the human brain are
A) sensory neurons.
B) motor neurons.
C) interneurons.
D) auditory neurons.
E) olfactory neurons.

C

3

Most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the
A) dendritic region.
B) axon hillock.
C) axon.
D) cell body.
E) axon terminals.

D

4

In certain large animals, this type of neuron can extend beyond one meter in length
A) glial cell in the brain.
B) a sensory neuron.
C) an interneuron.
D) a glial cell at a ganglion.
E) a neuron that controls eye movements.

B

5

) A nervous system can alter activities in its target cells in muscles and glands because
A) they are electrically coupled by gap junctions.
B) the target cells have receptor proteins for the signals released by the nervous system.
C) the nervous system releases signals into the blood to control the target cells.
D) the target cells that become disconnected from the nervous system rapidly die.
E) the target cells each have an internal neural network connected to the nervous system

B

6

) In the communication link between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle,
A) the motor neuron is considered the presynaptic cell and the skeletal muscle is the
postsynaptic cell.
B) the motor neuron is considered the postsynaptic cell and the skeletal muscle is the
presynaptic cell.
C) action potentials are possible on the motor neuron but not the skeletal muscle.
D) action potentials are possible on the skeletal muscle but not the motor neuron.
E) the motor neuron fires action potentials but the skeletal muscle is not
electrochemically excitable

A

7

For a neuron with an initial membrane potential at -70 mV, an increase in the movement of
potassium ions out of that neuronʹs cytoplasm would result in
A) depolarization of the neuron.
B) hyperpolarization of the neuron.
C) the replacement of potassium ions with sodium ions.
D) the replacement of potassium ions with calcium ions.
E) the neuron switching on its sodium-potassium pump to restore the initial conditions.

B

8

Though the membrane of a ʺrestingʺ neuron is highly permeable to potassium ions, its
membrane potential does not exactly match the equilibrium potential for potassium
because the neuronal membrane is
A) fully permeable to sodium ions.
B) slightly permeable to sodium ions.
C) fully permeable to calcium ions.
D) impermeable to sodium ions.
E) highly permeable to chloride ions.

B

9

The operation of the sodium-potassium ʺpumpʺ moves
A) sodium and potassium ions into the cell.
B) sodium and potassium ions out of the cell.
C) sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out of the cell.
D) sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.
E) sodium and potassium ions into the mitochondria.

D

10

) The ʺselectivityʺ of a particular ion channel refers to its
A) permitting passage by positive but not negative ions.
B) permitting passage by negative but not positive ions.
C) ability to change its size depending on the ion needing transport.
D) binding with only one type of neurotransmitter.
E) permitting passage only to a specific ion.

E

11

A ʺrestingʺ motor neuron is expected to
A) releases lots of acetylcholine.
B) to have high permeability to sodium ions.
C) to be equally permeable to sodium and potassium ions.
D) exhibit a resting potential that is more negative than the ʺthresholdʺ potential.
E) have a higher concentration of sodium ions on the inside the cell than on the outside.

D

12

The ʺthresholdʺ potential of a membrane
A) is the point of separation from a living from a dead neuron.
B) is the lowest frequency of action potentials a neuron can produce.
C) is the minimum hyperpolarization needed to prevent the occurrence of action
potentials.
D) is the minimum depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated sodium and
potassium channels.
E) is the peak amount of depolarization seen in an action potential.

D

13

) Action potentials move along axons
A) more slowly in axons of large than in small diameter.
B) by the direct action of acetylcholine on the axonal membrane.
C) by activating the sodium-potassium ʺpumpʺ at each point along the axonal
membrane.
D) more rapidly in myelinated than in non-myelinated axons.
E) by reversing the concentration gradients for sodium and potassium ions

D

14

A toxin that binds specifically to voltage-gated sodium channels in axons would be
expected to
A) prevent the hyperpolarization phase of the action potential.
B) prevent the depolarization phase of the action potential.
C) prevent graded potentials.
D) increase the release of neurotransmitter molecules.
E) have most of its effects on the dendritic region of a neuron.

B

15

After the depolarization phase of an action potential, the resting potential is restored by
A) the opening of sodium activation gates.
B) the opening of voltage-gated potassium channels and the closing of sodium
activation gates.
C) a decrease in the membraneʹs permeability to potassium and chloride ions.
D) a brief inhibition of the sodium-potassium pump.
E) the opening of more voltage-gated sodium channels.

B

16
card image

The membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for potassium at label

D

17
card image

The membraneʹs permeability to sodium ions is at its maximum at label

B

18
card image

The minimum graded depolarization needed to operate the voltage -gated sodium and
potassium channels is indicated by the label

A

19
card image

The cell is not hyperpolarized, but repolarization is in progress, as the sodium channels are
closing or closed, and many potassium channels have opened, at label

C

20
card image

The neuronal membrane is at its resting potential at label

E

21

Action potentials are normally carried in only one direction: from the axon hillock toward
the axon terminals. If you experimentally depolarize the middle of the axon to threshold,
using an electronic probe, then
A) no action potential will be initiated.
B) an action potential will be initiated and proceed only in the normal direction toward
the axon terminal.
C) an action potential will be initiated and proceed only back toward the axon hillock.
D) two action potentials will be initiated, one going toward the axon terminal and one
going back toward the hillock.
E) an action potential will be initiated, but it will die out before it reaches the axon
terminal

D

22

In the sequence of permeability changes for a complete action potential, the first of these
events that occurs is
A) the activation of the sodium-potassium ʺpump.ʺ
B) the inhibition of the sodium-potassium ʺpump.ʺ
C) the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels.
D) the closing of voltage-gated potassium channels.
E) the opening of voltage-gated potassium channels.

C

23

Saltatory conduction is a term applied to conduction of impulses
A) across electrical synapses.
B) an action potential that skips the axon hillock in moving from the dendritic region to
the axon terminal.
C) rapid movement of an action potential reverberating back and forth along a neuron.
D) jumping from one neuron to an adjacent neuron.
E) jumping from one node of Ranvier to the next in a myelinated neuron.

E

24

) The surface on a neuron that discharges synaptic vesicles is the
A) dendrite.
B) axon hillock.
C) node of Ranvier.
D) postsynaptic membrane.
E) presynaptic membrane.

E

25

Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals via
A) osmosis.
B) active transport.
C) diffusion.
D) transcytosis.
E) exocytosis.

E

26

Neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap is accomplished by
A) the movement of sodium and potassium ions from the presynaptic into the
postsynaptic neuron.
B) impulses traveling as electrical currents across the gap.
C) impulses causing the release of a chemical signal and its diffusion across the gap.
D) impulses ricocheting back and forth across the gap.
E) the movement of calcium ions from the presynaptic into the postsynaptic neuron.

C

27

One disadvantage to a nerve net is that it can conduct impulses in two directions from the
point of the stimulus. Most of the synapses in vertebrates conduct information in only one
direction
A) as a result of the nodes of Ranvier.
B) as a result of voltage-gated sodium channels found only in the vertebrate system.
C) because vertebrate nerve cells have dendrites.
D) because only the postsynaptic cells can bind and respond to neurotransmitters.
E) because the sodium-potassium pump moves ions in one direction.

D

28

The observation that the acetylcholine released into the junction between a motor neuron
and a skeletal muscle binds to a sodium channel and opens it is an example of
A) a voltage-gated sodium channel.
B) a voltage-gated potassium channel.
C) a ligand-gated sodium channel.
D) a second-messenger-gated sodium channel.
E) a chemical that inhibits action potentials

C

29

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) occurs in a membrane made more permeable to
A) potassium ions.
B) sodium ions.
C) calcium ions.
D) ATP.
E) all neurotransmitter molecules.

A

30

The steps below refer to various stages in transmission at a chemical synapse:
1. Neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane.
2. Calcium ions rush into neuronʹs cytoplasm.
3. An action potential depolarizes the membrane of the axon terminal.
4. The ligand-gated ion channels open.
5. The synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
Which sequence of events is correct?
A) 1 → 2 → 3 → 4 → 5
B) 2 → 3 → 5 → 4 → 1
C) 3 → 2 → 5 → 1 → 4
D) 4 → 3 → 1 → 2 → 5
E) 5 → 1 → 2 → 4 → 3

C

31

The activity of acetylcholine in a synapse is terminated by
A) its active transport across the presynaptic membrane.
B) its diffusion across the presynaptic membrane.
C) its active transport across the postsynaptic membrane.
D) its diffusion across the postsynaptic membrane.
E) its degradation by a hydrolytic enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane.

E

32

Assume that excessive consumption of ethanol increases the influx of negative chloride ions
into ʺcommon senseʺ neurons whose action potentials are needed for you to act
appropriately and not harm yourself or others. Thus, any resulting poor decisions
associated with ethanol ingestion are likely due to
A) increased membrane depolarization of ʺcommon senseʺ neurons.
B) decreased membrane depolarization of ʺcommon senseʺ neurons.
C) more action potentials in your ʺcommon senseʺ neurons.
D) more EPSPs in your ʺcommon senseʺ neurons.
E) fewer IPSPs in your ʺcommon senseʺ neurons.

B

33

) Neurotransmitters categorized as inhibitory would are expected to
A) act independently of their receptor proteins.
B) close potassium channels.
C) open sodium channels.
D) close chloride channels.
E) hyperpolarize the membrane.

E

34

When several EPSPs arrive at the axon hillock from different dendritic locations,
depolarizing the postsynaptic cell to threshold for an action potential, this is an example of
A) temporal summation.
B) spatial summation.
C) tetanus.
D) the refractory state.
E) an action potential with an abnormally high peak of depolarization.

B

35

When several IPSPs arrive at the axon hillock rapidly in sequence from a single dendritic
location, hyperpolarizing the postsynaptic cell more and more and thus preventing an
action potential, this is an example of
A) temporal summation.
B) spatial summation.
C) tetanus.
D) the refractory state.
E) an action potential with an abnormally high peak of depolarization.

A

36

Assume that a single IPSP has a negative magnitude of - 0.5 mV at the axon hillock, and
that a single EPSP has a positive magnitude of + 0.5 mV. For a neuron with initial
membrane potential is -70 mV, the net effect of the simultaneous arrival of 6 IPSPs and 2
EPSPs would be to move the membrane potential to
A) -72 mV.
B) -71 mV.
C) -70 mV.
D) -69 mV.
E) -68 mV

A

37

Receptors for neurotransmitters are of primary functional importance in assuring one-way
synaptic transmission because they are mostly found on the
A) axonal membrane.
B) axon hillock.
C) dendritic membrane.
D) mitochondrial membrane.
E) presynaptic membrane.

C

38

Functionally, this cellular location is the neuronʹs ʺdecision-making siteʺ as to whether or
not an action potential will be initiated:
A) axonal membranes
B) axon hillocks
C) dendritic membranes
D) mitochondrial membranes
E) presynaptic membranes

B

39

Neurotransmitters affect postsynaptic cells by
A) initiating signal transduction pathways in the cells.
B) causing molecular changes in the cells.
C) affecting ion-channel proteins.
D) altering the permeability of the cells.
E) Choices A, B, C, and D are all correct.

E

40

) The primary neurotransmitter from the parasympathetic system that influences its
autonomic targets is
A) acetylcholine.
B) adenosine.
C) norepinephrine.
D) adrenaline.
E) dopamine.

A

41

1) The major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the human brain is
A) acetylcholine.
B) epinephrine.
C) endorphin.
D) nitric oxide.
E) GABA.

E

42

A neuropeptide that might function as a natural analgesic is
A) acetylcholine.
B) epinephrine.
C) endorphin.
D) nitric oxide.
E) GABA.

C

43

An amino acid that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain
A) acetylcholine
B) epinephrine
C) endorphin
D) nitric oxide
E) GABA

E

44

The botulinum toxin reduces the synaptic release of
A) acetylcholine.
B) epinephrine.
C) endorphin.
D) nitric oxide.
E) GABA.

A

45

The heart naturally slows when responding to
A) acetylcholine.
B) epinephrine.
C) endorphin.
D) nitric oxide.
E) GABA

A

46

This neuro-active compound is not stored in presynaptic vesicles:
A) acetylcholine
B) epinephrine
C) endorphin
D) nitric oxide
E) GABA

D

47

What happens when a neuronʹs membrane depolarizes?
A) There is a net diffusion of Na+ out of the cell.
B) The equilibrium potential for K+ (EK) becomes more positive.
C) The neuronʹs membrane voltage becomes more positive.
D) The neuron becomes less likely to generate an action potential.
E) The inside of the cell becomes more negative relative to the outside.

C

48

Why are action potentials usually conducted in only one direction along an axon?
A) The nodes of Ranvier can conduct potentials in only one direction.
B) The brief refractory period prevents reopening of voltage-gated Na+ channels.
C) The axon hillock has a higher membrane potential than the terminals of the axon.
D) Ions can flow along the axon in only one direction.
E) Voltage-gated channels for both Na+ and K+ open in only one direction.

B

49

A common feature of action potentials is that they
A) cause the membrane to hyperpolarize and then depolarize.
B) can undergo temporal and spatial summation.
C) are triggered by a depolarization that reaches the threshold.
D) move at the same speed along all axons.
E) result from the diffusion of Na+ and K+ through ligand-gated channels

C

50

Which of the following is a direct result of depolarizing the presynaptic membrane of an
axon terminal?
A) Voltage-gated calcium channels in the membrane open.
B) Synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane.
C) The postsynaptic cell produces an action potential.
D) Ligand-gated channels open, allowing neurotransmitters to enter the synaptic cleft.
E) An EPSP or IPSP is generated in the postsynaptic cell`

A

51

Where are neurotransmitter receptors located?
A) on the nuclear membrane
B) at nodes of Ranvier
C) on the postsynaptic membrane
D) on the membranes of synaptic vesicles
E) in the myelin sheath

C

52

Temporal summation always involves
A) both inhibitory and excitatory inputs.
B) synapses at more than one site.
C) inputs that are not simultaneous.
D) electrical synapses.
E) myelinated axons.

E