Psych Ch 8 & 9 Flashcards

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When being in the presence of other people makes your ability to perform a task decline this is known as _______.

A) social inhibition

B) group think

C) social loafing

D) deindividuation



When you are persuaded to do something because you are influenced by the convincing data quality argument this is known as ______.

A) cognitive dissonance

B) normative social influence

C) the peripherial route.

D) the central route.



If you have ever tried to answer the question, "Who am I?" your answer would describe your _____.

A) self-efficacy

B) self-serving bias

C) self-esteem

D) self-concept



The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to similar others is known as _______.

A) Terror Management theory

B) social comparisons

C) self-serving bias

D) Sociometer hypothesis



Which of the following describes the bystander effect?

A) We learn by watching and imitating others.

B) Any behavior that is intended to harm or injure someone who does not want to be harmed or injured.

C) A form of prosocial behavior that is based on the apparently unselfish motivation to serve others above self.

D) An individual is less likely to provide assistance as the number of people around increases.



One of the strongest predictors of whether or not you will form a relationship with someone is _____.

A) proximity

B) good looks

C) financial security

D) physical attraction



If the presence of others helps your performance on a task this is known as _____.

A) groupthink

B) social loafing

C) social facilitation

D) social influence



Three or more people engaged in common activities but having minimal direct interaction is known as a ______.

A) collective

B) social relationship

C) observer

D) group



You are a member of a group project wherein members are not graded on their individual performance. Most of the group is contributing equally,though one member has barely contributed at all. This can be explained by which psychological phenomenon?

A) social learning theory

B) social loafing

C) bystander effect

D) groupthink



Amy is generally a well-behaved, polite person, and an avid hockey fan.When her favorite team lost the Stanley Cup, and rioting took to the streets, she participated by engaging in bottle throwing and vandalism.There were thousands of people and Amy's actions went generally unnoticed. What could explain her out-of-character behavior?

A) compliance

B) social loafing

C) informational social influence

D) deindividuation



Performing an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status is known as _____.

A) compliance

B) obedience

C) normative social influence

D) informational social influence



Which of the following defines compliance?

A) Changing your behaviors or beliefs out of a desire to be right.

B) Changing your behaviors or beliefs out of a desire to be accepted or liked.

C) Performing an action in response to direct orders.

D) Being asked to do something and agreeing.



Harrison asks his brother if he would mind helping him carry in some boxes from his car. His brother agrees without complaint. This is an example of which of the following?

A) social facilitation

B) obedience

C) conformity

D) compliance



Giselle's friends wear Juicy Couture clothing, and although she isn't particularly a fan of this designer, Giselle starts wearing Juicy Couture as well so that she can fit in. What is the reason for this behavior?

A) normative social influence

B) obedience

C) compliance

D) informational social influence



The tendency to make external attributions when the outcome of our behavior is negative and internal attributions when the outcome is positive is known as the

A) actor-observer bias.

B) self-serving bias.

C) fundamental attribution error.



Charity and her friends are discussing movie stars and they comment that a lot of young stars who made it big end up getting into lots of trouble with drugs. Charity suggests that movie stars often have to be a little self-absorbed and extroverted to make it big. This is an example of

A) a self-serving bias.

B) an external attribution.

C) a fundamental attribution error.

D) an actor-observer bias.



Your definition of who you are which is made up of your past, present, and future selves is known as your _____.

A) self-concept

B) persona

C) self-esteem

D) self-efficacy



Maple is just starting college. She believes she will do well because she views herself as studious and hardworking. This is an example of a ______.

A) stereotype threat

B) self-schema

C) social stigma

D) social comparison



Whenever John and Wendy are driving in the city, John drives because he believes that men can parallel park better than women. This is an example of a _______________.

A) self-serving bias

B) self-schema

C) internal attribution

D) stereotype



Which of the following defines prejudice?

A) feelings – usually negative – toward people based on their membership or affiliation with a particular social group

B) fear that one’s performance will confirm stereotypes about one’s ingroup

C) attempts by others to change our behavior

D) behavior directed against people because of their membership or affiliation with a particular social group



Maria works at an adoption agency. She feels that families with two working parents do not provide as good a home as families with a stay-at-home mom. Even though she knows she cannot let her personal feelings interfere with her work, without really realizing it, she often makes the adoption process a little more difficult for couples where both partners work outside the home. This is an example of which of the following?

A) old-fashioned prejudice

B) modern prejudice

C) compliance

D) social stigma



Doing something that helps someone else is called

A) self-regulation.

B) intimacy.

C) social learning.

D) prosocial behavior.



A girl drops her bag while crossing a busy street. Its contents spills all over the place. It is crowded during rush hour and no one stops to help her pick up her things. This is an example of which of the following?

A) stereotyping

B) bystander effect

C) prosocial behavior

D) frustration-aggression theory



Which of the following fits Sternberg's idea of commitment?

A) feelings of attachment, closeness, and connectedness

B) the desire to remain with another person

C) romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation



Benny and Izzy started dating soon after prom night when they were voted most attractive male and female in their graduating class. This fits with which of the following ideas regarding attraction?

A) matching hypothesis

B) commitment

C) intimacy

D) prosocial behavior



Which of the following defines social influence?

A) how to make sense of one’s own and others’ behavior

B) how to get along with other people

C) attempts by others to change our behavior



Which of the following is considered the best definition for stress?

A) Times when we are forced to make decisions, the outcome of which is unclear.

B) A process that includes the body’s response, what we tell ourselves, what we decide to do, and the outcomes.

C) Any life events that require change.

D) Having to choose between multiple options all of which have both pros and cons.



We refer to stress as an adaptation because

A) it is important for our bodies to get used to or adapt to the feeling of stress as we will experience it our whole lives.

B) it is an essential part of our survival, as it keeps us alive and can even help us to thrive.

C) we would not really be able to experience relaxation if we didn't also feel stress.

D) when we feel stress, it is necessary to modify or adapt the feelings into something useful and productive.



Which of the following is the best synonym for diathesis?

A) prolonged

B) acute

C) disease

D) predisposition



Which of the following defines explanatory style?

A) A process in which you assess if you have the resources necessary to deal with a situation.

B) Beliefs regarding how much you feel you control the outcome of a situation.

C) Beliefs about the origins or causes of events.

D) A process in which you assess whether a situation holds any danger.



Which of the following defines proactive coping?

A) occurs before the stressor and includes health behaviors like sleep, eating right, and exercise

B) occurs after the stressor and includes complementary and alternative medicine.

C) type of coping with a long-term view in which we envision our desires for the future and anticipate different obstacles we might encounter



Which of the following statements explains?

A) I think I am going to burnout and get sick if things stay the way that they are now.

B) The reason I am so exhausted is because I work 50-60 hours per week.

C) I have no energy to do things with my family at the end of the day.

D) I am going to start taking a yoga class twice a week to see if it helps me reduce my level of stress.



Which of the following is the most common conflict situation in which there are both pros and cons to two or more decision options?

A) cataclysmic events

B) double approach/avoidance

C) daily hassles

D) economic stressors



Tuesday morning, Tim woke up late, got stuck in traffic, and spilled his coffee on himself. In the span of a few hours Tim experienced many _____________, which are often the most harmful type of stress.

A) economic stressors

B) daily hassles

C) cataclysmic events

D) major life events



Which of the following defines Post-Traumatic Growth?

A) The urge to run away from or confront a stressor.

B) People may emerge from suffering or challenging life events with increased awareness and more spirituality.

C) Stressors can lead us to band together.

D) The second phase of the General Adaptation Syndrome when the body tries to cope and adapt to ongoing strain.



While hiking with her boyfriend, Susan thinks she sees a bear on the trail ahead of her. Immediately, her heart starts pounding rapidly and her palms begin to sweat. Susan is experiencing which of the following?

A) eustress

B) Tend and Befriend

C) exhaustion

D) fight or flight response



Which of the following is secreted during periods of prolonged stress?

A) norepinephrine

B) epinephrine

C) adrenaline

D) coritsol



Which of the following is referred to as “the brain in the body” and includes nerves from spinal cord to organs?

A) sympathetic nervous system

B) parasympathetic nervous system

C) central nervous system

D) peripherial nervous system



You’re out walking late at night. You think you see someone sitting in the bushes just a few paces ahead of you. Your heart starts to pound and you start sweating. Which hormone is responsible for your response?

A) estrogen

B) adrenaline

C) testosterone

D) cortisol



Which of the following is the multidisciplinary study of how the immune system interacts with psychological stress, behavior, the nervous system, and the endocrine system?

A) maladaptation

B) psychoneuroimmunology

C) psychosis




Graham has debilitating back pain. It has lasted for many months and after seeing several different doctors, no one can determine the cause. Which of the following is Graham experiencing?

A) anxiety

B) depression


D) chronic pain



Which of the following terms is defined by the ways we think about stress and interpret all aspects of the stress process?

A) buffers

B) resources

C) explanatory style

D) perceptions



Which of the following terms is defined by characteristics that are hard on the heart and include being mistrustful of others, cynical, and aggressively expression emotion?

A) hostility

B) internal locus of control

C) optimism

D) hardiness



Ginny is moving to a new city. She is currently trying to figure out if she has the finances and time to search for the house she wants. Which of the following is true of this situation?

A) Ginny is making a primary appraisal.

B) Ginny is making a secondary appraisal.

C) Ginny has a high sense of personal control.

D) Ginny has an unstable explanatory style



Nadiya has tried many different diets but can't seem to loose the weight she wants. She feels like to no matter what she tries, she will not be successful because things like work and family obligations are what get in her way. Based on this, which of the following would be an appropriate characterization of Nadiya?

A) She is high in optimism.

B) She is high in hardiness.

C) She has an external locus of control.

D) She is low in conscientiousness.



Which of the following defines confrontive coping?

A) addressing a problem head on

B) emotion-focused coping strategy that looks for positive meaning in adversity

C) hoping that the situation will improve on its own

D) a toxic form of emotion-focused coping, includes denial and substance use



Which type of coping entails reflecting on options and creating a guide going forward?

A) seeking social support

B) emotion focused coping

C) planful problem solving

D) escape-avoidance coping



Julia is driving home from school after a very stressful day. At a stoplight, she sees a billboard with a picture of a bottle of vodka that says, “Is this your problem?” She chuckles to herself and thinks, "No, that solves the problem!" It is most likely that Julia uses which of the following coping mechanisms?

A) planful problem solving

B) self-care

C) escape-avoidance coping

D) confrontive coping



Stewart regularly exercises and eats well to ensure that when stressors do arise, they have a lower impact on his daily life. Which of the following coping styles fits what Stewart is doing?

A) proactive coping

B) preventive coping

C) emotion-focused coping

D) problem-focused coping



Which of the following therapy approaches involves learning skills that improve daily functioning?

A) planful approach

B) psychoeducation

C) psychodynamic approach

D) psychoneuroimmunology



Dr. Cass is questioning her patient's thought patterns and why he thinks things are the way they are. Dr. Cass is using which of the following techniques?

A) self-care

B) cognitive behavioral therapy

C) emotional disclosure

D) motivational interviewing



In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects:

A) Refused to shock the learner even once

B) Complied with the experiment until the "learner" first indicated pain

C) Complied with the experiment until the "learner" began screaming in agony

D) Complied with all the demands of the experiment



According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

A) A person's behavior is not based on strongly held attitudes

B) Two people have conflicting attitudes and find themselves in disagreement

C) An individual does something that is personally disagreeable

D) An individual is coerced into doing something that he or she does not want to do



Which of the following statements is true?

A) Groups are almost never swayed by the minority opinions

B) Group polarization is most likely to occur when group members frequently disagree w one another

C) Groupthink provides the consensus needed for effective decision making

D) A group that is like-minded will probably not change its opinons through discussion



Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch's studies of conformity?

A) The group had three or more people

B) The group had high status

C) Individuals were made to feel insecure

D) All of the above increased conformity



The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group called

A) Groupthink

B) Cognitive dissonance

C) Empathy

D) Deindividuation



Subjects in Asch's line-judgement experiment conformed to the group standard when their judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendency to conform in public demonstrates:

A) Social facilitation

B) Overjustification

C) Informational Social Influence

D) Normative Social Influence



Based on findings from Milgram's obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenters orders when:

A) They hear the "learner" cry out in pain

B) They merely administer the test while someone else delivers the shocks

C) The "learner" is an older person or mentions having some physical problem

D) They see another subject disobey instructions



Rebekah was feeling distressed about her upcoming midterms. She decided to go to the gym for an hour to work out. This type of beneficial stress is called:

A) Hassle.

B) Stressor.

C) Hardiness.

D) Eustress.



Ahmed has finally saved enough money for his dream vacation. He must decide between a trip to London or Paris. Which type of conflict is he experiencing?

A) Approach-approach

B) Avoidance-avoidance

C) Approach-avoidance

D) This choice presents no conflict.



Which type of conflict is usually the MOST stressful?

A) Approach-approach

B) Avoidance-avoidance

C) Approach-avoidance

D) They are equally stressful.



Yolanda is conducting a study on the effects of stress. As a physiological measure of stress, she will most likely choose to monitor __________ in the blood of her subjects.

A) Norepinephrine

B) Epinephrine

C) Cortisol

D) Dopamine



Simon is driving and has swerved off of the road to avoid hitting a bicyclist who swerved into his path. His heart rate and blood pressure have increased and the adrenal glands have released large amounts of:

A) Norepinephrine.

B) Epinephrine.

C) Cortisol.

D) All of the above