Human Anatomy & Physiology: The Endocrine System Flashcards


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1

Which group of hormones is derived from cholesterol?

A) peptide hormones

B) amino acid hormones

C) thyroid hormones

D) steroid hormones

D) steroid hormones

2

The thyroid gland is responsible for the secretion of which hormone?

A) parathyroid hormone

B) thymosin

C) calcitonin

D) melatonin

C) androgens

C) calcitonin

3

After puberty, the thymus...

A) secretes thyroxine

B) enlarges slowly

C) produces calcitonin

D) gradually diminishes in size

E) actively secretes thyroglobulin

D) gradually diminishes in size

4

The ________ is a mixed gland with both exocrine and endocrine activities

A) adrenal gland

B) pancreas

C) kidneys

D) thymus

B) pancreas

5

The _____ contains special secretory cells that synthesize the hormone melatonin.

A) pancreas

B) pineal gland

C) thyroid gland

D) pituitary gland

E) thymus

B) pineal gland

6

In menopausal women, there is/...

A) no change in the concentration of reproductive hormones

B) an increase in most tissues responsiveness to circulating hormones

C) a decline in the concentration of reproductive hormones

C) a decline in the concentration of reproductive hormones

7

Gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from fats and proteins, is due to the action of...

A) aldosterone

B) insulin

C) secretin

D) cortisol

D) cortisol

8

Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the...

A) adrenal medulla

B) pancreas

C) thyroid gland

D) thymus gland

D) thymus gland

9

Which of the following can act on receptors inside the target cell that directly activate specific genes?

A) growth hormone

B) testosterone

C) calcitonin

D) melatonin

B) testosterone

10

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on..

A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path

B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ

C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

D) nothing- all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific

C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

11

Which anterior pituitary hormone does NOT target another endocrine gland?

A) adrenocorticotropic hormone

B) growth hormone

C) follicle-stimulating hormone

D) luteinizing hormone

B) growth hormone

12

The major targets of growth hormone are _____.

A) the blood vessels

B) the adrenal glands

C) the liver and gall bladder

D) bones and skeletal muscles

D) bones and skeletal muscles

13

Which of the following is NOT a steroid hormone?

A) estrogen

B) aldosterone

C) epinephrine

D) cortisol

C) epinephrine

14

The single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood is?

A) cortisol

B) parathyroid hormone

C) thyroid hormone

D) gonadotropic hormones

B) parathyroid hormone

15

ACTH_____.

A) is secreted by the posterior pituitary

B) secretion is regulated by pituitary releasing hormones

C) causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla

D) is not a tropic hormone

B) secretion is regulated by pituitary releasing hormones

16

Aldosterone _____.

A) is secreted by the posterior pituitary

B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption

C) presence increases potassium concentration in the blood

D)production is greatly influenced by TSH

B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption

17

A man had been told that he is NOT synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may by unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem

A) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males.

B) A hormone made in the anterior pituitary cannot influence fertility

C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes

D) The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH

C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes

18

John tells you that cholesterol is bad and should be eliminated from the diet. You explain to him that cholesterol is important. Which of the following hormones are synthesized from cholesterol?

A) a growth hormone

B) testosterone

C) oxytocin

D) thyroxine

B) testosterone

19

Which hormone has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts?

A) progesterone

B) estrogen

C) oxytocin

D) prolactin

D) prolactin

20

During an afternoon class, Lisa starts to feel hungry and worries that her blood sugar level may be dropping. Which hormone is helping to prevent a drop in blood sugar level?

A) insulin

B) glucagon

C) aldosterone

D) thyroxine

B) glucagon

21

Upon landing at the airport in Lagos, Nigeria, Eric feels wide awake even though the local time is 11pm. Which synthetic hormone supplement could he administer to help adjust to the new time zone?

A) melatonin

B) glucagon

C) insulin

D) growth hormone

A) melatonin

22

The hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine are the neurotransmitters of the:

A) afferent nervous system

B) parasympathetic nervous system

C) somatic nervous system

D) sympathetic nervous system

D) sympathetic nervous system

23

What hormone is the primary antagonist of glucagon?

A) thyroid hormone

B) growth hormone

C) insulin

D) cortisol

C) insulin

24

Which hormone acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent?

A) cortisol

B) epinephrine

C) aldosterone

D) insulin

A) cortisol

25

What element is necessary for the production and release of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)?

A) magnesium

B) potassium

C) calcium

D) iodine

D) iodine