bio 2 Flashcards
A flowering plant with a deleterious mutation in microsporogenesis would most likely
- A) fail to produce sepals.
- B) fail to produce petals.
- C) fail to produce anthers.
- D) fail to produce pollen.
A mature, unfertilized ovule in an angiosperm is the result of
- A) a single meiotic division.
- B) a single mitotic division.
- C) both meiotic and mitotic divisions.
- D) mitosis from the megaspore mother cell.
At the conclusion of meiosis in plants, the end products are always four haploid
- A) spores.
- B) eggs.
- C) sperm.
- D) seeds.
Which of the following is the correct sequence during the alternation of generations life cycle in a flowering plant?
- A) sporophyte → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes → fertilization → diploid zygote
- B) sporophyte → mitosis → gametophyte → meiosis → sporophyte
- C) haploid gametophyte → gametes → meiosis → fertilization → diploid sporophyte
- D) sporophyte → spores → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes
Which of the following statements is true of most angiosperms?
- A) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed.
- B) They have an ovary that becomes a fruit.
- C) They have a small (reduced) sporophyte.
- D) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed and an ovary that becomes a fruit.
The ovary is most often located on/in the
- A) stamen.
- B) carpel.
- C) petals.
- D) sepals.
- E) receptacle.
Microsporangia in flowering plants are located in the
- A) stamen.
- B) carpel.
- C) petals.
- D) sepals.
Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the outside to the inside of a complete flower?
- A) petals → sepals → stamens → carpels
- B) sepals → stamens → petals → carpels
- C) spores → gametes → zygote → embryo
- D) sepals → petals → stamens → carpels
- E) male gametophyte → female gametophyte → sepals → petals
Which of the following floral parts is correctly matched?
- A) anther—microsporangia
- B) petals—protecting floral parts in unopened buds
- C) sepals—attractive for insects
- D) stamen—megasporangium
In some angiosperms, other floral parts contribute to what is commonly called the fruit. Which of the following fruits is derived mostly from an enlarged receptacle?
- A) pea
- B) raspberry
- C) apple
- D) pineapple
- E) peach
During the process of evolution of an angiosperm,
- A) the sporophyte became larger, more complicated, and short lived.
- B) the sporophyte became reduced, smaller, simpler, and long lived.
- C) the gametophyte became reduced, smaller, simpler, and short lived.
- D) the gametophyte became larger, simpler, and long lived.
- E) the sporophyte became reduced, smaller, and long lived.
Which of the following in an ovule after fertilization is correctly matched?
- A) endosperm—triploid
- B) polar nucleus—diploid
- C) ovule integument—haploid
- D) synergids—diploid
- E) antipodals—diploid
In a typical dicot ovule, a surviving megaspore divided by ________ consecutive mitotic divisions without cytokinesis results in ________ nuclei.
- A) 2; 6
- B) 3; 8
- C) 3; 12
- D) 4; 16
- E) 1; 1
In flowering plants, pollen is released from the
- A) anther.
- B) stigma.
- C) carpel.
- D) filament.
In the life cycle of an angiosperm, which of the following stages is diploid?
- A) megaspore
- B) generative nucleus of a pollen grain
- C) polar nuclei of the embryo sac
- D) microsporocyte
Where does meiosis occur in a flowering plant?
- A) megasporocyte
- B) microsporocyte
- C) pollen tube
- D) megasporocyte and microsporocyte
Which of the following is the correct sequence of processes that takes place when a flowering plant reproduces?
- A) meiosis → fertilization → ovulation → germination
- B) fertilization → meiosis → nuclear fusion → formation of embryo and endosperm
- C) meiosis → pollination → nuclear fusion → formation of embryo and endosperm
- D) growth of pollen tube → pollination → germination → fertilization
Which of the following is correctly paired with its life cycle generation?
- A) anther—sporophyte
- B) pollen—sporophyte
- C) embryo sac—gametophyte
- D) stamen—gametophyte
A megasporocyte in an angiosperm flower undergoes meiosis and produces four haploid megaspores. How many survive?
- A) none
- B) one
- C) two
- D) three
Which of the following pollinating agents is correctly matched with the type of plant it helps pollinate?
- A) water—terrestrial plants
- B) animals—aquatic plants
- C) wind—grasses
- D) sand—desert plants
Which of the following plants is correctly matched with its fruit type?
- A) peas—aggregate
- B) raspberry—simple
- C) beans—simple
- D) pineapple—accessory
Apomixis is a mode of ________ in certain plants that allows hybrid plants to sustain their genome and pass it on to the next generation.
- A) vegetative reproduction
- B) asexual reproduction
- C) sexual reproduction
- D) fission
Which of the following occurs in an angiosperm ovule?
- A) An antheridium forms from the megasporophyte.
- B) A megaspore mother cell (megasporocyte) undergoes meiosis.
- C) The nucleus forms a diploid egg.
- D) A pollen tube emerges to accept pollen after pollination.
In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent?
- A) ovule—egg
- B) embryo sac—female gametophyte
- C) endosperm—male gametophyte
- D) seed—zygote
Which of the following is considered a multiple fruit?
- A) apple
- B) strawberry
- C) raspberry
- D) pineapple
In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains
- A) two haploid gametes and a diploid pollen grain.
- B) a generative cell and a tube cell.
- C) two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus.
- D) two haploid microspores.
Three mitotic divisions within the female gametophyte of a flowering plant will produce
- A) three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids.
- B) the triple fusion nucleus.
- C) three pollen grains.
- D) two antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, two eggs, and two synergids.
As a flower develops, which transition is most likely to occur?
- A) The microspores become pollen grains.
- B) The ovule becomes a fruit.
- C) The petals are retained.
- D) The vegetative nucleus becomes a sperm nucleus.
The primary function of the integument of an ovule is to
- A) protect against animal predation.
- B) ensure double fertilization.
- C) form a seed coat.
- D) direct development of the endosperm.
Which of the following events suggests there is a change in the egg cell membrane after penetration by a sperm?
- A) The pollen tube grows away from the egg toward the polar nuclei.
- B) The Ca2+concentration increases in the cytoplasm of the egg.
- C) The egg plasmolyzes.
- D) Double fertilization occurs
Which of the following is an advantage of flowering plants maintaining an extended gametophyte generation?
- A) The protection of female gametophytes within ovules keeps them from drying out.
- B) Sperm with flagella can reach the egg faster.
- C) It provides sufficient time for the integument to develop into a seed coat.
- D) It allows for a complex nucleus to develop.
What typically results from double fertilization in angiosperms?
- A) The endosperm develops into a diploid nutrient tissue.
- B) A triploid zygote is formed.
- C) Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.
- D) Two embryos develop in every seed.
Which of the following "vegetables" is botanically a fruit?
- A) lettuce
- B) radish
- C) cabbage
- D) okra
The embryo of a grass seed is enclosed by two protective sheaths, a ________, which covers the young shoot, and a(n) ________, which covers the young root.
- A) cotyledon; radicle
- B) hypocotyl; epicotyl
- C) coleoptile; coleorhiza
- D) scutellum; coleoptile
Seeds develop from
- A) receptacles.
- B) fertilized eggs.
- C) ovary
- D) ovules.
What is the first step in the germination of a seed?
- A) pollination
- B) fertilization
- C) imbibition
- D) hydrolysis of starch and other food reserves
Which of the following best describes the ploidy level of a fertilized embryo sac?
- A) All cells are diploid.
- B) All cells are triploid.
- C) All cells are polyploid.
- D) There are haploid, diploid, and triploid cells.
A parent with an S1S2 genotype exhibiting sporophytic self-incompatibility can potentially fertilize which of the following plant genotypes of the same species with pollen grains?
- A) S1S3
- B) S2S3
- C) S3S4
- D) S1S4
Which of the following is an effective method to produce plants exhibiting hybrid vigor?
- A) self-pollination
- B) cloning
- C) tissue culture
- D) genetic engineering
- A) are perfect.
- B) are complete.
- C) produce pollen.
- D) develop into fruits
Which of the following types of plants are incapable of self-pollination?
- A) dioecious
- B) monoecious
- C) complete
- D) wind-pollinated
Recent research has shown that fertilization requires that carpels recognize pollen grains as "self" or "non-self." For self-incompatibility, the system requires
- A) the rejection of non-self cells.
- B) the rejection of self cells.
- C) carpel incompatibility with the egg cells.
- D) that the flowers be incomplete.
Plant biotechnology is an effective tool for
- A) reducing world hunger.
- B) increasing the import of oil.
- C) decreasing genetic diversity.
- D) increasing the incompatibility of fertilization.
Which of the following is a potential advantage of introducing apomixis into hybrid crop species?
- A) Cultivars would be better able to cope with a rapidly changing environment.
- B) They would have a larger potential genome than inbred crops.
- C) All of the desirable traits of the cultivar would be passed on to offspring.
- D) They would benefit from positive mutations in their DNA.
Which of the following is true about vegetative reproduction?
- A) It involves both meiosis and mitosis to produce haploid and diploid cells.
- B) It produces vegetables and not fruits.
- C) It involves meiosis only.
- D) It produces clones of the parent plant.
Which of the following is a true statement about clonal reproduction in plants?
- A) Clones of plants do not occur naturally.
- B) Cloning, although achieved in animals, has not been demonstrated in plants.
- C) Making cuttings of ornamental plants is a form of fragmentation.
- D) Reproduction of plants by cloning may be either sexual or asexual.
Which of the following statements is true for a species that produces seeds by apomixis?
- A) The seed coat is made of diploid cells derived from the ovule of a flower.
- B) The embryo consists of diploid cells derived from fertilization of a haploid egg by a haploid sperm.
- C) The scutellum is the primary food storage tissue of the embryo.
- D) A haploid embryo is contained within the seed.
Which of the following could be considered an evolutionary advantage of asexual reproduction in plants?
- A) increased success of progeny in a stable environment
- B) increased agricultural productivity in a rapidly changing environment
- C) maintenance and expansion of a large genome
- D) production of numerous progeny
Biofuels are mainly produced by
- A) the breakdown of cell wall biopolymers into sugars that can be fermented.
- B) plants that convert hemicellulose into gasoline.
- C) the genetic engineering of ethanol-generating genes into plants.
- D) transgenic crops that have cell walls containing ethylene.
Which of the following is a scientific concern related to creating genetically modified crops?
- A) Herbicide resistance may spread to weedy species.
- B) Beneficial insects may be harmed by eating pest species.
- C) Their adaptive advantages would allow them to overpower natural ecosystems.
D) The monetary costs of growing genetically modified plants are significantly greater than those of traditional breeding techniques
Due to the limitation of land and water resources on planet earth, biotechnology can help to increase the crop yields to meet human needs and demands in the years to come. Farmers have to produce ________% more grain per hectare to feed human population in ________.
- A) 25; 2035
- B) 40; 2030
- C) 50; 2050
- D) 20; 2030
What effects would occur in a mutant of Arabidopsis that cannot synthesize GABA within its flowers?
- A) Pollen tube growth would not be directed toward the egg, and fertilization would not occur.
- B) The seeds from the flowers would be unable to break dormancy.
- C) The pollen grain would not form a pollen tube due to incompatibility with the pollen tube.
- D) The length of the style would be increased to the point where the growing pollen tube would be unable to reach the synergids.
Based on Figure 30.1, which cell(s), after fertilization, give(s) rise to the embryo plant?
- A) A
- B) B
- C) C
- D) D
Based on Figure 30.1, which cell(s) become(s) the triploid endosperm?
- A) A
- B) B
- C) C
- D) D
Based on Figure 30.1, which cell(s) guide(s) the pollen tube to the egg cell?
- A) A
- B) B
- C) C
- D) D
You are studying a plant from the Amazon rain forest that shows strong self-incompatibility. To characterize this reproductive mechanism, you would look for
- A) ribonuclease (RNAase) activity in stigma cells.
- B) RNA in the plants.
- C) pollen grains with very thick walls.
- D) carpels that cannot produce eggs by meiosis.
- E) systems of wind, but not insect, pollination.
Regardless of where in the world a vineyard is located, in order for the winery to produce a Burgundy, it must use varietal grapes that originated in Burgundy, France. The most effective way for a new California grower to plant a vineyard to produce Burgundy is to
- A) plant seeds obtained from French varietal Burgundy grapes.
- B) transplant varietal Burgundy plants from France.
- C) acquire a tissue culture of varietal Burgundy grapes from France.
- D) cross French Burgundy grapes with native American grapes.
- E) graft varietal Burgundy grape scions onto native (Californian) root stocks.
Several million people around the world experience malnutrition or hunger due to lack of nutritious food. Which tool would be most effective in helping alleviate human malnutrition and hunger?
- A) cloning
- B) crop breeding
- C) tissue culture
- D) self-pollination
- E) vegetative reproduction
A seed develops from an
- A) ovum.
- B) embryo.
- C) ovule.
- D) ovary.
A fruit is a
- A) mature ovary.
- B) mature ovule.
- C) seed plus its integuments.
- D) fused carpel.
Double fertilization means that
- A) flowers must be pollinated twice to yield fruits and seeds.
- B) every egg must receive two sperm to produce an embryo.
- C) one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
- D) every sperm has two nuclei.
- A) is resistant to various herbicides, making it practical to weed rice fields with those herbicides.
- B) is resistant to a virus that commonly attacks rice fields.
- C) includes bacterial genes that produce a toxin that reduces damage from insect pests.
- D) has a modified genome that includes transgenes that lead to an increased vitamin A content.
Which statement concerning grafting is correct?
- A) Stocks and scions refer to twigs of different species.
- B) Stocks and scions must come from unrelated species.
- C) Stocks provide root systems for grafting.
- D) Grafting creates new species.
Some dioecious species have the XY genotype for male and XX for female. After double fertilization, what would be the genotypes of the embryos and endosperm nuclei?
- A) embryo X/endosperm XX or embryo Y/endosperm XY
- B) embryo XX/endosperm XX or embryo XY/endosperm XY
- C) embryo XY/endosperm XXX or embryo XX/endosperm XXY
- D) embryo XX/endosperm XXX or embryo XY/endosperm XXY
A small flower with green petals is most likely
- A) bee-pollinated.
- B) bird-pollinated.
- C) bat-pollinated.
- D) wind-pollinated.
The pollen produced by wind-pollinated plants is often smaller than the pollen produced by animal-pollinated plants. A reason for this might be that
- A) wind-pollinated plants, in general, are smaller than animal-pollinated plants.
- B) wind-pollinated flowers don't need large pollen grains because they don't have to attract animal pollinators.
- C) small pollen grains can be carried farther by the wind.
- D) animal pollinators are more facile at picking up large pollengrains.
The black dots that cover strawberries are actually individual fruits from a flower with multiple carpels. The fleshy and tasty portion of a strawberry derives from the receptacle of the flower. Therefore, a strawberry is both
- A) a multiple fruit and an aggregate fruit.
- B) a multiple fruit and an accessory fruit.
- C) a simple fruit and an aggregate fruit.
- D) an aggregate fruit and an accessory fruit.