Biology 101 Chapter 6

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1

The simplest collection of matter

Cell

2

Type of Microscopy that cannot study organelles

Light Microscopy

3

Takes a cell apart separating major organelles allowing a specific organelle to be isolated for studying

Cell Fractionation

4

What bounds the DNA in the nucleus

Nuclear envelope

5

A selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell.

Plasma Membrane

6

Membrane structure described as a phospholipid (hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail)

Fluid Mosaic Model

7

In the nucleus the DNA is stored in what?

Chromosomes

8

DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together called..

Chromatin

9

The site of ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA)

Nucleolus

10

ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in what two locations

the cytosol and the nuclear envelope

11

Regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell

Endomembrane System

12

Smooth ER

No ribosomes, detoxifies

13

Rough ER

studded with ribosomes, major site of protein synthesis with each ribosome

14

The shipping and receiving of proteins in the cell

Golgi Apparatus

15

Digestive compartment, contain hydrolytic enzymes that rid of old damaged cells or DNA, very destructive

Lysosomes

16

Process when cells can engulf other cells, creating a food vacuole

Phagocytosis

17

formed by phagocytosis

food vacuole

18

found in fresh water protists, pump water out of cells

contractile vacuole

19

found in mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water

central vacuole

20

similarities of mitochondria and chloroplast with bacteria: enveloped by double membrane, free ribosomes and circular DNA molecules, grow and reproduce somewhat independently in a cell.

Endosymbiont Theory

21

site of cellular respiration

mitochondira

22

metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP

cellular respiration

23

found in plants and algae, site of photosynthesis, has two structures: thylakoids and stroma

Chloroplast

24

Composed of 3 types of structures: Microtubules, Microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

Cytoskeleton

25

organizes the cell's structure and activities anchoring many organelles, helping to maintain the structure and hold it in position

cytoskeleton

26

A core of microtubules sheated by plasma membrane is a structure for what

cilia and flagella

27

a motor protein that drives the bending movement of cilium and flagellum

dynein

28

joins plant cells so they are able to transfer nutrients and able to have uniform function

plasmodesmata