Psychology Ch 6 & 7 Flashcards

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Behaviors that occur in the same fashion, time and time again, in nearly every member of a species are known as _____.

a) homeostatic behaviors

b) reinforcements

c) drive reduction behaviors

d) modal action patterns



Putting on a sweater when shivering from the cold would be an example of ____.

a) incentive

b) arousal

c) sympathetic nervous system activation

d) drive-reduction



Levels of leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin would be considered _____ signals telling you whether or not to eat.

a) social

b) internal

c) psychological

d) external



The sight and smell of a delicious pizza would be a(n) ______ to eat.

a) internal signal

b) homeostatic signal

c) social motivator

d) external signal



A culture's expectations or regulations for when and how to express emotions are known as _____.

a) emblems

b) microexpressions

c) display rules

d) basic emotions



Which part of your brain is responsible for suppressing or inhibiting your initial emotional reaction to a situation, like for example, if you are angry and stop yourself from using a curse word in front of your teacher?

a) amygdala

b) frontal cortex

c) hypothalamus

d) endocrine system



Which theory of emotion suggests that when you encounter a frightening situation you first feel the emotion of fear following shortly after by the physiological response like heart pounding and shaking hands?

a) two-factor theory

b) cognitive appraisal theory

c) Cannon-Bard theory

d) James-Lange theory



Evolutionary psychology seeks to explain behavior in terms of its ______.

a) observable actions

b) individual parts

c) unconscious origins

d) function



Jane Goodall, well known for her work studying chimpanzees in Africa, is a(n) _______.

a) psychologist

b) ethologist

c) entomologist

d) behaviorist



Christine's apartment is quite hot when she returns home. The uncomfortable feeling of warmth motivates her to turn on the air-conditioning. Which of the following concepts explains Christine's motivation to do this?

a) arousal

b) punishment

c) drives

d) instincts



Quality and quantity as they apply to motivation refer to which of the following?

a) the degree of self-determination involved

b) whether the consequence is internally or externally grounded

c) the type and amount of consequence

d) the source of the consequence



Dr. Lucas is trying to motivate a rat to complete a maze by giving them food pellets. Which of the following terms describes his approach?

a) arousal

b) reinforcement

c) drive-reduction

d) punishment



What is arousal?

a) all of the options listed here are part of arousal

b) level of altertness

c) the feeling of being sexually excited

d) level of sleepiness



Scarlett comments on how tasty the lasagna is tonight. She is referring to its ______.

a) set point

b) palatability

c) intrinsic value

d) reinforcement value



Which of the following chemical signals is released by fat cells and, when present at increased levels, suppresses appetite?

a) neuropeptide Y (NPY)

b) leptin

c) insulin

d) ghrelin



Which of the following defines energy balance?

a) the state of feeling hungry

b) the ability to eat a sufficient amount of food to engage in all activities that cost energy

c) the body weight, or fat level, that each of us seeks to maintain

d) state of feeling full



Which of the following is NOT an internal signal of hunger or satiety?

a) palatability

b) insulin

c) ghrelin

d) cholecystokinin (CCK)



Amelia is very focused on her diet and tries to consume the same amount of calories that she expends in energy each day. Amelia is focused on _____.

a) energy balance

b) external signals

c) basal metabolic rate

d) palatability



____ behaviors are behaviors that are rewarded.

a) Palatable

b) Affiliative

c) Operant

d) Novel



Which of the following is at the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

a) love and belongingness

b) safety needs

c) esteem needs

d) self-actualization



Max finds that spending time with lots of people makes him feel energized. He would best be described as

a) an extrovert.

b) an introvert.

c) a thrill seeker.

d) a novelty seeker.



Maria finds that she is happiest when she can spend some quiet time alone. She would best be described as

a) an extrovert.

b) shy.

c) an introvert.

d) a narcissist.



Luca disagrees with something that his boss is telling him. Although he knows that in this situation it would be inappropriate to express his frustration, he furrows his brow ever so briefly. This is an example of _____.

a) activation

b) a microexpression

c) arousal

d) a basic emotion



Raised eyebrows and an open mouth signal which of the following basic emotions?

a) surprise

b) anger

c) love

d) fear



Which of the following is NOT part of the limbic system?

a) frontal lobe

b) amygdala

c) hippocampus

d) hypothalamus



Which theory of emotion suggests that the sympathetic nervous system is activated first followed by perception of this as fear?

a) cognitive appraisal theory

b) two-factor theory

c) Cannon-Bard theory

d) James-Lange theory



Barbara looked in her rear-view mirror and saw a police car turn behind her. She realized that the officer was chasing a different car and was able to relax. This order of occurrences fits with which theory of emotion?

a) cognitive appraisal theory

b) James-Lange theory

c) two-factor theory

d) Cannon-Bard theory



According to the Humanistic perspective, when you you want to be does not match with what you believe others in the world want you to become you are experiencing ______.

a) congruence

b) ideal self

c) incongruence

d) unconditional positive regard



According to the Trait perspective, someone who is high in openness and low in conscientiousness would match which of the following?

a) Someone who is kind and honest but prefers routines and predictability.

b) Someone who is talkative and social but can also be suspicious and selfish.

c) Someone who is cool and calm but perfers to be in small groups.

d) Someone who is curious and open-minded but tends to be messy or unreliable.



According to the Social-Cognitive theory your personality arises from

a) how your behaviors, personal factors, and experiences interact with one another.

b) your desire to be the best possible version of yourself.

c) your genetic history.

d) internal unresolved psychological conflicts.



Learning from other people and changing your behavior as a result of your experiences fits best with which theory of personality?

a) Humanistic perspective

b) Social-Cognitive perspective

c) Psychodynamic perspective

d) Trait perspective



The static vs. dynamic dialectic pair focuses on which of the following issues?

a) the extent to which people have the freedom to choose their behaviors

b) the extent to which everyone’s personality is the same

c) the extent to which behavior is driven by inner or outer forces

d) the extent to which people change over time



Ethan believes that he is really a very different person than he was when he was a child and that people have the ability to change over time. He would most likely side with which of the following ideas?

a) personality is dynamic

b) personality is universal

c) personality is based in nature

d) personality is reactive



Religious perspectives on personality have argued that people

a) are destined for pain and loss despite their desire for love and wealth.

b) have four basic bodily humors that correspond to different personality traits.

c) have a soul divided into three parts: Appetite, Reason, and Spirit.

d) are inclined toward selfishness, are conflicted, and are evolving.



The superego operates under the _______ principle, the main motivation of which is to engage in morally perfect behavior.

a) Religious

b) Realistic

c) Pleasure

d) Idealistic



Grayson spends most of his time enjoying delicious expensive food, fancy clothes, and causal sex with lots of different women. Freud would say that Grayson is ruled by the ____.

a) id

b) Thanatos

c) superego

d) ego



Holly's aunt died when she was a teenager. They were very close, spent a lot of time together, and Holly considered her like a second mother. Now however, she doesn't even talk about her. Which defense mechanism is she using?

a) projection

b) reaction formation

c) repression

d) sublimation



Leaving too much psychic energy behind in a certain stage of development is known as _____.

a) fixation

b) latency

c) defense mechanisms

d) frustration



Jasmine was fully potty-trained years ago, but after her mom had a new baby, she started wetting the bed again. Freud would say she was experiencing _____.

a) identification

b) regression

c) latency

d) psychic conflict



Vlad is asked to describe what he sees in a series of ink marks. This is an example of a _______.

a) Thematic Apperception Test

b) objective test

c) self-report

d) projective test



When there is overlap between the real self and the ideal self this is known as _____.

a) incongruence

b) actualizing tendency

c) self-actualization

d) congruence



Roger's idea of _______ is the opposite of Freud's idea of Thanatos.

a) self-concept

b) conditions of worth

c) actualizing tendancy

d) self-esteem



Which of the following terms means self-transcendence, where one becomes so focused on a task or activity that s/he loses self-awareness?

a) peak experiences

b) self-actualization

c) metamotivation

d) self-esteem



Which of the following individuals is focused on a being need which Maslow called metamotivation?

a) Both Alex and Alyssa are focused on being needs.

b) Alex who is looking for something to drink to satisfy his thirst.

c) Jonathan who is focused on making new friendships.

d) Alyssa who is looking for something to eat to satisfy her hunger.



NEO-PI and the MMPI are

a) projective tests used to evaluate personality.

b) objective tests used to measure personality.

c) self-report tools typically used by Humanistic psychologists.

d) observational techniques used by the Psychodynamic approach to evaluate personality.



Jenna enjoys meeting new people and, in general, is very outgoing. She would be classified as being high in which of the following?

a) extraversion

b) openness

c) neuroticism

d) agreeableness



According to the social-cognitive perspective, environmental factors are

a) a person’s belief that he or she can perform a behavior that will produce wanted outcomes.

b) thoughts, feelings, and biological characteristics that make you who you are.

c) external determinants of your personality and behaviors.

d) the only thing that determines the type of person you will become.



Christie believes that she is good at science and knows that if she puts forth the effort, she can become a doctor as she has always dreamed. A social-cognitive theorist would say which of the following about Christie?

a) She is low in conscientiousness.

b) She has high self-efficacy.

c) She is working on the fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

d) She successfully passed all psychosexual stages of development.



Which of the following explains self-regulation theory?

a) Unconscious forces drive people to behave certain ways without their awareness.

b) People modify their behavior to fit a situation.

c) Human behavior is organized around goals that motivate and direct behaviors and give meaning to people’s lives.

d) People are motivated to acheive self-actualization.



When discussing where personality comes from, Mila is on the fence with a lot of issues. She believes that personality is both a factor of inheritance and one's experience. She thinks that while some things are out of one's control, people do have choices in their behaviors. Finally, she believes that people both respond to and shape the world around them. Mila's opinions fit best with which theory of personality?

a) Social-Cognitive perspective

b) Psychodynamic perspective

c) Humanistic perspective

d) Trait perspective



The two basic types of personality tests are:

A) aptitude and achievement tests.

B) trait and intelligence tests.

C) normal and abnormal functioning tests.

D) projective tests and self-report inventories.



Which of the following is referred to as the “third force” in psychology?

A) humanistic psychology

B) the social cognitive perspective on personality

C) the neo-Freudian approach

D) behavioral genetics



Ethan and Holly were debating what would happen to society if the government collapsed and the military and police were disbanded. Holly felt strongly that although things would probably be chaotic at first, people would very naturally strive to help each other in constructive ways. Holly's views are most similar to those of:

A) Sigmund Freud.

B) Carl Rogers.

C) Alfred Adler.

D) Carl Jung.



In Freud's theory of personality, the _____ operates on the _____, which is the capacity to delay gratification until an appropriate time.

A) id; pleasure principle

B) superego; reality principle

C) ego; reality principle

D) superego; pleasure principle



Which of the following represents the correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development?

A) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

B) oral, anal, genital, latency, phallic

C) anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital

D) oral, genital, anal, latency, phallic



The field of behavioral genetics studies the:

A) behaviors that are determined solely by genes.

B) influence of genes and heredity on behavior.

C) effects of behavior on genes and heredity.

D) influence of traits on genes and behavior.



Dr. Duran showed his patient Adam a series of cards, each of which depicted an ambiguous scene, such as two people talking on a park bench, or an older woman looking over a young woman's shoulder. Dr. Duran asked Adam to tell him a story about the picture. What test is Dr. Duran using?

A) the Thematic Apperception Test

B) the California Personality Inventory

C) the Rorschach Inkblot Test

D) the Minnesota Multiphasic Test



Freud used the term _____ to refer to sexual energy or motivation.

A) Thanatos

B) libido

C) latent content

D) reaction formation



According to Freud, the successful resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual development involves the child's use of the defense mechanism of:

A) identification.

B) fixation.

C) reaction formation.

D) undoing.



In what way is the social cognitive perspective on personality similar to the humanistic perspective on personality?

A) Both perspectives stress unconscious influences.

B) Both perspectives stress the importance of conscious thoughts about the self.

C) Both perspectives stress the importance of genetic influences.

D) Both perspectives stress case studies and insights derived from individual psychotherapy.



The neo-Freudians agreed with Freud's notion that:

A) sexual urges are the primary motivator of behavior.

B) early childhood experiences are the sole determinant of personality.

C) basic human nature is aggressive and destructive.

D) unconscious mental processes influence behavior



Dr. Kildare gave his patient a lengthy test that involved more than 500 questions. The patient was instructed to respond to each statement with either “True,” “False,” or “Cannot say.” Dr. Kildare told his patient that the test would be scored by computer, but that he would analyze the results and discuss them with her. Most likely, Dr. Kildare's patient has taken which personality test?

A) the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, or MMPI

B) the Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT

C) the Rorschach Inkblot Test

D) the Michigan Aptitude Test, or MAT



Identify the correct way in which the social cognitive perspective on personality differs from both the psychoanalytic and the humanistic perspectives.

A) The social cognitive perspective stresses the importance of unconscious influences.

B) The social cognitive perspective stresses the importance of individual differences.

C) The social cognitive perspective emphasizes insights derived from case studies.

D) The social cognitive perspective emphasizes information derived from empirical research and experimental data.



After Lauren broke up with him, Evan told his friends how happy he was that Lauren was out of his life. Nevertheless, Evan keeps thinking of things that he left at Lauren's apartment and calls her or stops by her apartment several times a week. Each time he sees her, he is insulting and unpleasant and tells Lauren that he hopes he never sees her again. Evan's behavior is best explained by which of the following ego defense mechanisms?

A) reaction formation

B) identification

C) displacement

D) undoing



According to Eysenck's theory, _____ tend to seek out stimulating environments, while _____ tend to avoid stimulating environments.

A) neurotics; psychotics

B) psychotics; neurotics

C) extraverts; introverts

D) introverts; extraverts



According to Freud, the sexual urges of children during the latency stage of psychosexual development:

A) are directed toward playmates of the opposite sex.

B) intensify and cause great anxiety.

C) become repressed, and the child prefers to play with same-sex friends.

D) produce catharsis.



According to the _____ model of personality, personality can be defined in terms of five basic dimensions.

A) psychoanalytic

B) social cognitive

C) five-factor

D) behavioral genetic



Even though Mary was not thinking about the events surrounding the day when she graduated from high school, she can easily bring memories about that day to conscious awareness. In terms of Freud's theory of personality, Mary's memories are stored at the _____ level of awareness.

A) preconscious

B) unconscious

C) conscious

D) latent



Alyssa is a quiet, rather shy young woman who lives at home while attending college. She would rather meet an old friend for coffee than meet new people or go to parties. In terms of Hans Eysenck's model of personality, Alyssa appears to rate high on the trait of:

A) repression.

B) psychoticism.

C) introversion.

D) extraversion.



While talking to another coworker, Doug makes many hateful comments about Brian behind his back. Later that morning when he sees Brian, Doug acts very friendly to Brian and offers to buy him lunch. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Doug's behavior?

A) sublimation

B) undoing

C) repression

D) projection



Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers contended that the most basic human motive is:

A) aggression.

B) the pleasure principle.

C) the actualizing tendency.

D) striving for superiority over others.



Many psychoanalytic ideas are difficult to test because:

A) they cannot be operationally defined and objectively measured.

B) ethical guidelines prohibit this kind of research.

C) it is impossible to recruit naive research subjects who are unaware of Freud's ideas.

D) Freud's original notes and experimental data were destroyed by the Nazis.



Irrational and chaotic is to the _____ as rational and reality-oriented is to the _____.

A) id; ego

B) id; superego

C) ego; superego

D) superego; id



The “Big Five” are:

A) Freud, Rogers, Maslow, Bandura, and Eysenck.

B) introversion, extraversion, neuroticism, stability, and psychoticism.

C) neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

D) the Rorschach, TAT, MMPI, CPI, and 16 PF.



Kaitlin is a personality theorist who believes that a person's conscious thoughts in a particular situation are likely to influence his or her goals and behavior. Kaitlin is most likely to agree with which of the following perspectives on personality?

A) the social cognitive perspective

B) the behavioral genetic perspective

C) the neo-Freudian perspective

D) the psychoanalytic perspective



After Jack's loan application for the new car was rejected, he told a friend that he was glad he had not gotten the loan because his old car was still very reliable and he really didn't want to make monthly car payments. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Jack's behavior?

A) repression

B) undoing

C) rationalization

D) reaction formatio



Because her baby seemed to enjoy putting so many things in his mouth, Jessica provided the infant with many different kinds of pacifiers and chewable toys. According to Freud's theory, Jessica is running the risk of producing _____ at the _____ psychosexual stage of development.

A) identification; phallic

B) the Oedipus complex; genital

C) fixation; oral

D) projection; anal



According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:

A) occurs in close relationships and friendships.

B) is responsible for the Oedipus complex.

C) is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.

D) is the source of sexual and aggressive instinctual drives.



In contrast to Freud, Carl Jung believed that:

A) there were eight stages of psychosexual development.

B) people are driven to overcome feelings of inferiority.

C) men often suffer from womb envy.

D) personality continues to develop throughout the lifespan.



A focus on similarities among people is to the _____ perspective as a focus on differences among people is to the _____ perspective.

A) trait; social cognitive

B) psychoanalytic; humanistic

C) psychoanalytic; trait

D) social cognitive; humanistic



An example of the Yerkes-Dodson law is

A) The need to remain calm and relaxed while taking an SAT

B) Performing at the highest level of arousal in order to obtain a primary reinforcer

C) A task designed to restore the body to homeostasis

D) The need to remain calm and peaceful while addressing envelopes for a charity event

E) Working at maximum arousal on a challenging project



Rhoni is a driven woman who feels the need to constantly excel in her career in order to help maintain the lifestyle her family has become accustomed to and in order to be seen as a successful in her parents’ eyes. The factors that motivate Rhoni’s career behavior can be described as

A) Primarily intrinsic

B) Primarily extrinsic

C) Primarily hierarchical

D) Primarily self-determined

E) Primarily instinctual



Assume you hate your job yet you continue to work there. When someone asks why you stay at your job, you say it is because of the money. What might explain this?

A) Intrinsic motivation

B) Positive punishment

C) Groupthink

D) Extrinsic motivation

E) Negative punishment



“I love my job for the sake of doing the work itself.” The person making this statement is motivated by

A) Intrinsic motivation

B) Positive punishment

C) Groupthink

D) Extrinsic motivation

E) Negative punishment



An example of intrinsic motivation is

A) I exercise because I get a dollar for each pound I lose

B) I exercise because it makes me feel good

C) I exercise people say I look good

D) I exercise because my clothes look better on me

E) I exercise because others do it and I want to fit in



If we are interested in controlling motivation from the perspective of a behavioral psychologist, we would provide
A) Positive punishment

B) Shaping procedures

C) Positive reinforcement

D) Extinction procedures

E) Negative reinforcement only



If we believe that motivation is controlled entirely by the brain, we subscribe to the _________ perspective.

A) Behavioral

B) Social

C) Developmental

D) Physiological

E) Sensory



Which of the theories of emotion suggests that we experience the physiological sensation and then label it?

A) James-Lange

B) Canon-Baird

C) Singer-Schacter

D) Freud-Jung

E) Cognitive appraisal



Which theory of emotion suggests that we experience the emotion first and then have the physiological response?
A) James-Lange

B) Canon-Baird

C) Singer-Schacter

D) Freud-Jung

E) Cognitive appraisal



“I read because I enjoy learning about new things.” This is an example of _________ motivation.

A) Intrinsic motivation

B) Positive punishment

C) Groupthink

D) Extrinsic motivation

E) Negative punishment



When asked why he wants to become a doctor, Tom says, “Because I’ve always liked biology and being a doctor will allow me to make a good salary to take care of my family.” His answer is most consistent with which of the following theories of motivation?

A) Drive reduction

B) Incentive

C) Hierarchy of needs

D) Arousal

E) Instinct



According to the Yerkes-Dodson model, when facing a very difficult challenge, which level of arousal would probably lead to the best outcome?
A) A very low level

B) A moderately low level

C) A moderate level

D) A moderately high level

E) A very high level



The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

A) Emotional awareness precedes our physiological response to a stressful event

B) Emotional expression follows awareness of our physiological response to an arousing event

C) An arousing event simultaneously triggers both a cognitive awareness and a physiological response

D) The level of fear we first feel when we ride a roller coaster is reduced each time we experience the same event until thrill replaces it

E) When we are unaware of why we are feeling arousal, we take our cue from the environment



During junior high, the typical student is preoccupied with making friends. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs is he/she satisfying?

A) Fundamental needs

B) Safety needs

C) Love and belonging needs

D) Esteem needs

E) Self-actualization



Internal and external factors that direct an organism’s behavior towards a desired outcome is referred to as A) Emotion

B) Homeostasis

C) Motivation

D) Arousal

E) Behavior



Jimmy got up in the middle of the night for a drink of water. Which theory of motivation best explains why Jimmy got out of bed?

A) Instinct theory

B) Optimum arousal theory

C) James-Lange theory

D) Drive-reduction theory

E) Self-actualizing theory



CCK is a signal for safety of _____ hunger, and leptin is a signal for safety of __________ hunger.

A) Long-term; short-term

B) Short-term; long-term

C) Long-term; long-term

D) Short-term; short-term

E) None of the above



According to Abraham Maslow, __________ is/are at the top of the hierarchy of needs.

A) Love and belongingness needs

B) Safety needs

C) Physiological needs

D) Esteem needs

E) Self-actualization



When Julie heard a noise outside her window, her heart started to beat faster, and as a result she became scared. Which theory of emotion could best explain Julie’s response of fear?

A) Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

B) James-Lange theory of emotion

C) Two-factor theory of emotion

D) Cognitive-mediational theory of emotion

E) Facial-feedback hypothesis



Which theory suggests that emotions is a result of applying a cognitive label to explain a physiological reaction?

A) Cannon-Bard theory

B) James-Lange theory

C) Two-factory theory of emotion

D) Cognitive-mediational theory of emotion

E) Facial-feedback hypotheses



_______ is the idea that psychological needs create an aroused state that motivates an organism to reduce the need.

A) Instinct theory

B) Drive-reduction theory

C) Self-assertion instinct

D) Arousal theory

E) Hierarchy of needs



What do we call a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior?

A) Incentive

B) Refractory period

C) Emotion

D) Motivation

E) Instinct



Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a framework that

A) Aims to eliminate arousal

B) Explains our homeostasis system

C) Helps to describe human motivation

D) Helps people reach self-transcendence

E) Is universally fixed



Emotions are a mix of consciously experienced thoughts, expressive behaviors, and physiological arousal. Which theory emphasized the importance of the consciously experienced thoughts?

A) Facial feedback theory

B) James-Lange theory

C) Arousal and performance theory

D) Fight-or-flight theory

E) Schachter-Singer two-factor theory



Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment in shaping personality?

A) Psychoanalytic

B) Trait

C) Humanistic

D) Social-Cognitive



According to Freud's theory, personality arises in response to conflicts between

A) Our unacceptable urges and our tendency to become self-actualized

B) The process of identification and the ego's defense mechanisms

C) The collective unconscious and our individual desires

D) Our biological impulses and the social restraints against them



People who feel oppressed and so perceive control as external may develop

A) an internal locus of control

B) a reaction formation

C) learned helplessness

D) self-serving bias



Research has shown that individuals who are made to feel insecure are subsequently

A) more critical of others

B) less critical of others

C) more likely to display self-serving bias

D) less likely to display self-serving bias



An example of self-serving bias described in the text is the tendency of people to

A) see themselves as average on nearly any desirable dimension

B) accept more responsibility for successes than for failures

C) be overly critical of other people

D) exhibit heightened racial prejudice



The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n)

A) projective personality test

B) empirically derived and objective personality test

C) personality test developed mainly to assess job applicants

D) personality test used primarily to assess locus of control



Trait theory attempts to

A) show how development of personality is a lifelong process

B) describe and classify people in terms of their predispositions to behave in certain ways

C) determine which traits are most conductive to individual self-actualization

D) explain how behavior is shaped by the interaction between traits, behavior, and the environment



With which of the following statements would a social-cognitive psychologist agree?

A) People with an internal locus of control achieve more in school

B) "Externals" are better able to cope with stress than "internals"

C) "Internals" are less independent than "externals"

D) A social-cognitive psychology would agree with all of these statements



Which of the following statements about self-esteem is NOT correct?
A) People with low self-esteem tend to be negative about others

B) People with high self-esteem are less prone to drug addiction

C) People with low self-esteem tend to be non-conformists

D) People with high self-esteem suffer less from insomnia



The Oedipus and Electra complexes have their roots in the

A) anal stage

B) oral stage

C) latency stage

D) phallic stage



Which of the following is a common criticism of the humanistic perspective?

A) Its concepts are vague and subjective

B) The emphasis on the self encourages selfishness in individuals

C) Humanism fails to appreciate the reality of evil in human behavior

D) All of these are common criticism



In studying personality, a social-cognitive theorist would MOST LIKELY make use of

A) personality inventories

B) projective tests

C) observing behavior in different situations

D) factor analyses



A major difference between the psychoanalytic and trait perspective is that

A) trait theory defines personality in terms of behavior; psychoanalytic theory, in terms of its underlying dynamics

B) trait theory describes behavior but it does not attempt to explain it

C) psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the origins of personality in childhood sexuality

D) All of these are differences



The Big Five personality factors are

A) emotionally stability, openness, introversion, sociability, locus of control

B) neuroticism, extraversion, openness, emotional stability, sensitivity

C) neuroticism, gregariousness, extraversion, impulsiveness, conscientiousness

D) emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness



According to Freud, _______ is the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their _____.

A) reaction formation; superegos

B) reaction formation; egos

C) identification; superegos

D) identification; egos



Darrell Minton believes that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies. Evidently, Mr. Minton is a proponent of

A) trait theory

B) psychodynamic theory

C) the humanistic perspective

D) the social-cognitive perspective



A psychoanalyst would characterize a person who is impulsive and self-indulgent as possessing a strong ____ and a weak ______.

A) id and ego; supergo

B) id; ego and superego

C) ego; superego

D) id; superego



Because Ramona identifies with her politically conservative parents, she chose to enroll in a conservative school. After 4 years in this environment, Ramona's politics have become even more conservative. Which perspective best accounts for the mutual influences of Ramona's upbringing, choice of school, and political viewpoint?

A) psychoanalytic

B) trait

C) humanistic

D) social-cognitive



Jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. According to Freud, she is

A) projecting her anxiety on to others

B) fixated in the oral stage of development

C) fixated in the anal stage of development

D) displacing her anxiety onto others



Because you have a relatively low level of brain arousal, a trait theorist would suggest that you are an ______ who would naturally seek __________.

A) introvert; stimulation

B) introvert; isolation

C) extravert; stimulation

D) extravert; isolation



A psychologist at the local mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist MOST LIKELY administer?

A) the MMPI

B) the TAT

C) the Rorsahach

D) the Locus of Control Scale



The psychodynamic approach to personality is best characterized by which of the following statements?

A) Consistent patterns of thought and behavior cause personality

B) Learning and cognition cause personality

C) Unconscious conflict causes personality

D) Personal growth and search for meaning determines personality



Object relations are part of _________ theory.

A) contemporary psychodynamic

B) trait

C) humanistic

D) social-cognitive



Toni describes her best friend as intelligent, caring, extraverted, and lots of fun to be with. Which type of theorist would use the same type of description that Toni does?

A) trait

B) social-cognitive

C) psychodynamic

D) humanistic



Jim is very easy to get along with and likes to make everyone happy. He is probably high on the big-five trait of

A) openness to experience

B) agreeableness

C) extraversion

D) conscientiousness



The best evidence that the dimensions of the big-five factors may represent the basic components of personality is that

A) they were derived by using factor analysis techniques

B) some version of the big-five factors reliably appears in many countries and cultures

C) they do an excellent job of describing people

D) identical twins are no more alike in general temperament than are nonidentical twins



The belief that behavior can be situation-specific is a main argument against which approach to personality?

A) Psychodynamic

B) Social-cognitive

C) Humanistic

D) Trait



Self-efficacy is

A) our collection of learned expectancies for success in given situations

B) the efficiency with which we resolve unconscious conflicts

C) a secondary trait

D) a role of the ego



Connor is really well behaved at school. When his mother goes to his parent-teacher conference, she is shocked to learn how highly his teacher thinks of his behavior. His mother comments, "I can't believe it! He is a total monster at home." Connor's teacher suggests that his mother start praising him for his good behavior at home more often rather than just punishing him for bad. Connor's teacher is taking the _____ approach to personality

A) psychodynamic

B) social-cognitive

C) humanistic

D) trait



Kareem and Burke are having a heated argument over which theory of personality is correct. Kareem says that Burke's emphasis on learning reduces humans to robots and ignores their perceptions, values, and beliefs. Kareem is probably a _______ theorist, and Burke is a ______ theorist.

A) social-cognitive; psychodynamic

B) humanistic; psychodynamic

C) trait; social-cognitive

D) humanistic; social-cognitive



Which of the following would a humanistic psychologist use most frequently to assess personality?

A) Behavioral observations

B) Objective tests

C) Assessments of physiological activity

D) Personal interviews



Tameka shows her clients a series of ambiguous pictures she painted and asks them to tell a story about each picture. Tameka hopes that her ______ personality test will uncover some of the unconscious thoughts of her clients

A) multiphasic

B) objective

C) projecive

D) social-cognitive



Lydia, a married woman, is incredibily attracted to her physician. Her _____ decides that the only way to see her doctor more often is to have more frequent physicals and have even the slightest symptom investigated immediately.

A) id

B) ego

C) superego

D) eros



Fixation occurs when

A) psychosexual conflicts are not resolved

B) we use defense mechanisms to relieve anxiety

C) the rewards in a given situation fix our behaviors

D) our progress toward self-actualization is blocked at some stage



Sexual impulses lie dormant during the ____ period of the psychosexual stages of development.

A) oral

B) anal

C) phallic

D) latency



Dr. Lebryk believes Jack's romantic relationships are brief and unhappy because Jack had an anxious insecure attachment to his mother. Dr. Lebryk is most likely a(n) _____ theorist

A) big-five

B) social-cognitive

C) humanistic

D) object relations



Charlie acted the way he did because he saw life as a continual struggle. He felt that the world was against him and that everything he tried to do would be difficult and painful. This description of Charlie best fits with which approach to personality?

A) psychodynamic

B) trait

C) social-cognitive

D) humanistic



One of the criticisms of the humanistic approach is that it

A) concentrates too much on what human beings have in common

B) is naive, romantic, and unrealistic

C) puts too much emphasis on explaining personality

D) puts undue emphasis on instincts



Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the trait theories of personality?

A) they describe behavior better than they explain it

B) they create descriptions that may be too general

C) they ignore situational influences on behavior

D) they place too much emphasis on the unconscious



The learning process is most central to which personality theory?

A) psychodynamic

B) trait

C) social-cognitive

D) big-five



A projective test is usually

A) reliable

B) valid

C) easy to score

D) none of the above



Mark has just looked through a series of pictures and described what he thinks are the stories underlying the scenes. Mark has just

A) taken an objective test

B) taken the MMPI

C) taken a projective test

D) been interviewed



The MMPI is an example of a(n) ____ personality test

A) unreliable

B) invalid

C) projective

D) objective