425 test 1 Flashcards


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1

What are the two perspectives of Leadership?

Romantic view and External control perspective

2

Romantic view

Leader is the key force in organization's success

3

Leaders can make a difference by being aware of _________ and _________ faced in the _________ environment.

Opportunities; threats; external

4

External control perspective

Focus is on external factors that affect an organization's success

5

Leaders can make a difference by having a thorough understanding of the firm's ______________ and __________.

resources; capabilities

6

Strategic Management

The analyses, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages.

7

Strategic management must become both a ________ and a ___ ___ _________ throughout the organization.

process; way of thinking

8

Strategic management is used to compete in order to create...

competitive advantages in the market place-unique, valuable and difficult to copy.

9

What are the three processes of strategic management?

Analysis, strategic decisions, and actions

10

analysis

(1)strategic goals (vision, mission, strategic objectives) (2) Internal and external environment of the firm

11

Strategic decisions

What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries?

12

Actions

Implementation; allocate necessary resources; design the organization to bring intended strategies to reality

13

operational effectiveness

means performing similar activities better than rivals

14

stakeholders

individuals, groups and organizations who have a stake in the success of the organization, including owners, employees, customers, suppliers, and the community at large.

15

Sustainable competitive advantage

is possible only by performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways.

16

What is the essence of strategic management?

Study of why some firms outperform others-not operational effectiveness

17

What are the 4 key attributes of strategic management?

(1) Directs the organization toward overall goals and objectives; (2) Includes multiple stakeholders in decision making; (3) Needs to incorporate short-term and long-term perspectives; (4) Recognizes trade-offs between efficiency and effectiveness.

18

Corporate Governance

The relationship among various participants in determining the direction and performance of corporations. Ex. Shareholders, Mgmt (CEO) Board of Directors.

19

What are the three mechanisms to ensure effective corporate governance (internal)?

(1) An effective and engaged Board of Directors; (2) Shared activism; (3) Proper managerial rewards and incentives

20

What are the external controls of corporate governance?

Banks, analysts, financial press, takeovers

21

Stakeholder Management

Firm's strategy for recognizing and responding to the interests of all its salient stakeholders.

22

What are the two view of stakeholder management?

Zero-sum view and stakeholder symbiosis view

23

Zero-sum view

Stakeholders compete for attention and resources of the organization; gain of one is a loss to the other

24

Stakeholder symbiosis view

Stakeholders are dependent upon each other for their success and well-being; mutual benefits

25

Outback Steakhouse has developed a sophisticated quantitative model and found that there were positive relationships between employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and financial results. This is an example of ________.

Stakeholder symbiosis

26

What is the responsibility of managers in a strategic management perspective?

Managers must make a major effort to effect transformational change, which involves extensive communication, incentives, training and development

27

Hierarchy of goals

Goals ranging from those that are less specific yet able to evoke powerful and compelling mental images to those that are more specific and measurable.

28

What is a representation of a destination that is driven by and evokes passion.

Organizational goals.

29

Disneyland's vision to be the happiest place on earth is an example of what strategic direction?

organization vision

30

Environmental Awareness

Managers must recognize opportunities and threats in their firm's external environment

31

What are three important processes used used to develop forecasts?

Environmental Scanning, External Monitoring, and Competitive Intelligence

32

Environmental Scanning

Surveillance of a firm's external environment

33

Environmental scanning consists of...

predicting environmental changes to come, detect changes already under way, and proactive mode

34

Alerting the firm to critical trends before changes have been developed to a discernible pattern and before competitors recognize them relates to what environmental awareness process?

Environmental Scanning

35

External Monitoring

Track evolution of environmental trends, sequence of events or streams of activities.

36

Competitive Intelligence

Helps firms define and understand a firm's industry

37

Which one of the three processes helps identify rival's strengths and weaknesses?

Competitive Intelligence

38

True or False. Intelligence gathering is an example of Environmental Scanning?

False. it is an example of competitive intelligence

39

True or False. Interpretation of intelligence data is an example of competitive intelligence.

True

40

What cautions are there for competitive intelligence?

Caution to avoid unethical and illegal behavior and don't spend all time on traditional competitors that you ignore new competitors.

41

Porter's Five Forces Model

Potential entrants, Buyers, Industry Competitors, Substitutes, and Suppliers

42

Why should managers need to know the 5 forces model?

Helps determine whether to remain in an industry or exit, provides rationale for increasing or decreasing resource commitment, helps assess how to improve firm's competitive position relative to each of the 5 forces

43

The General Environment

Factors external to an industry, usually beyond a firm's control. Demographic, sociocultural, legal/political, technological, economic, global.

44

Examples of Demographic segment

Aging population, rising or declining affluence, changes in ethnic composition, geographic distribution of population, greater disparities in income levels.

45

Examples of sociocultural segment

more women in the workforce,dual-income families, increase in temporary workers, greater concern for healthy diets and physical fitness, greater interest in the environment, postponement of having children.

46

Examples of political/legal segment

Health care reform, Americans with Disabilities Act, Increased regulation of banking, Deregulation of utility and other industries, increases in federally mandated minimum wages, taxation at local, state, federal levels, legislation on corporate governanc

47

Examples of Technological segment

genetic engineering, emergence of internet technology, computer-aided design/computer-aided mftg, wireless communication, nanotechnology

48

Examples of Economic segment

Interest rates, unemployment, consumer price index, trends in GNP, Changes in stock market valuations.

49

Examples of Global Segment

Increasing global trade, currency exchange rates, emergence of the Indian and Chinese economics, trade agreements, and creation of WTO

50

Five forces analysis is essentially a __________ analysis, meaning it gives a point in time, but doesn't show changes over time

static

51

Economies of scale

Spreading costs of production over number of units-costs decline as volume increases

52

What are the sources of entry barriers?

Economies of scale, product differentiation, and capital requirements, switching costs, access to distribution channels, and cost disadvantages independent of scale

53

Capital requirements

need to invest large financial resources is barrier.

54

How do buyers threaten an industry?

(1) Forcing down prices, (2) Bargaining for higher quality or more services, (3) Playing competitors against each other

55

In what ways is a buyer group powerful?

(1) It is concentrated or purchases large volumes relative to seller sales, (2) The products it purchases from the industry are standard or undifferentiated, (3) The buyer faces few switching costs, (4) It earns low profits

56

The bargaining power of suppliers

Suppliers can exert power by threatening to raise prices or reduce the quality of purchased goods and services.

57

When is a supplier group powerful?

(1) The supplier group is dominated by a few companies and is more concentrated than the industry it sells to, (2) The supplier group is not obligated to contend with substitute products for sale to the industry, (3) The industry is not an important custo

58

How is a supplier group powerful?

(1) The supplier's product is an important input to the buyer's business, (2) The suppler group's products are differentiated or it has built up switching costs for the buyer, (3) The supplier group poses a credible threat of forward integration.

59

What are 4 limitations of SWOT analysis?

Strengths may not lead to an advantage, SWOT's focus on the external environment is too narrow, SWOT gives a one-shot view of a moving target, and SWOT overemphasizes a single dimension of strategy.

60

what is the amount that buyers are willing to pay for what a firm provides them and is measured by total revenue?

value

61

what is the key concept used in analyzing a firm's competitive position?

creating value for buyers that exceeds the cost of production

62

What is a strategic analysis of an organization that uses value creating activities?

value-chain analysis

63

The value-chain analysis has two different categories of activities...what are they?

Primary and secondary activities

64

What contributes to the physical creation of the product or service, its sale and transfer to the buyer, and its service after the sale?

The primary activities

65

What do the primary activities consist of?

Inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service

66

What are activities of the value chain that either add value by themselves or add value through important relationships with both primary activities and other support activities?

secondary activities

67

What do the secondary activities consist of?

procurement, technology development, humane resource management, and general administration

68

Which primary activity is associated with collecting, storing, and distributing the product or service to buyers?

Outbound Logistics

69

Machining, packaging, assembly, testing, printing and facility operations are all associate with which primary activity?

Operations

70

True or False. Inbound Logistics is associated with purchases of products and services by end users and the inducements used to get them to make purchases?

False. Inbound Logistics is associated with receiving, storing, and distributing inputs to the product.`

71

What does procurement refer to?

It is the function of purchasing inputs used in the firm's value chain, not to the purchased inputs themselves.

72

Tangible resources are...

organizational assets that are relatively easy to identify, including physical assets, financial resources, organizational resources, and technological resources.

73

What are the three types of intangible resources?

Human, Innovation and creativity, and Reputation

74

Organizational capabilities combines _______ and __________ resources, using __________ processes to attain desired end.

tangible; intangible; and organizational

75

The balanced scorecard

A method of evaluating a firm's performance using performance measures from the customer's, internal, innovation, and learning and financial perspectives.

76

What are 4 key perspectives associated with the balance scorecard?

(1) How do customers see us? (cust perspective); (2) What must we excel at? (internal biz perspective); (3)Can we continue to improve and create value?; (4) How do we look to shareholders? (financial perspective)

77

What is the customer perspective in relation to the balance scorecard?

How a company is performing from customer's perspective; Time, Quality, Performance and service, and Cost

78

What is the internal business perspective in relation to the balance scorecard?

What must the firm do internally to meet customer's expectations. Processes, decisions, actions, coordination, and resources and capabilities

79

Explicit Knowledge

Documented and widely distributed

80

Tacit Knowledge

in the minds of the employees

81

Social Capital

Relationships among individuals

82

Porter's three generic strategy

Cost leadership, Differentiation, Focus

83

Overall cost leadership

Low-cost position, managing relationships through the value chain

84

Differentiation

Unique products and services, non-price attributes

85

Focus

narrow product lines, targeted demographic

86

experience cure

Productions is more efficient and costs less over time

87

Competitive parity

on par with competitors but with low costs

88

Pitfalls of Cost leadership

lack of parity, focus too much on one step in the value chain

89

Pitfalls of Differentiation

No value in uniqueness, too high of price, differentiation can be imitated

90

Pitfalls of focus

Focus too much on buyer needs

91

Diversification

Create value for shareholders through:

Mergers, Joint Ventures, internal development