A&P I Final Exam Flashcards
What is the main purpose of negative feedback?
To reverse the effects of the original stimulus and change the homeostatic balance back to it's original or ideal value
Where does the heart lie?
In the pericardial cavity
Which cavities have spaces within the joints?
What means toward or the back of the body?
What is parietal pleura?
Membrane that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
Where are carbohydrates stored in?
The body converts carbohydrates into glucose, which is then stored in the muscles and liver
When a chemical reaction bonds are broken what caused this?
Chemical bonds are broken by the energy that is released during the chemical reaction
Which major positive ion is outside the cells?
What is HCO3?
What is ATP molecules?
When a red blood cell is placed in water what happens?
The blood cell swells and bursts
What is the function of plasma membrane?
Selectively permeable membrane that regulates which molecules are allowed to enter and exit the cell
Nuclear division process that reduces the chromosomal number by half and results in the formation of four haploid cells, occurs only in certain reproductive organs
What processes does passive membrane transport do?
Passive transport does not require the cell to expend any energy and involves a substance diffusing down its concentration gradient across a membrane.
The tissue that has lacunae, calcium salts and blood vessels is?
What is the blast cell for blood production?
Thyroid gland secrete their hormones into the blood because their ducts are classified as?
What is chondroblasts?
Immature cartilage cells
What happens when edema occurs?
Edema is a swelling, usually of the legs, feet, and/or hands due to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the tissues.
What happens during tissue repair?
Inflammation – trauma causes the release of inflammatory chemicals, Organization – clots and/or restores the blood supply, Regeneration – fibrous tissue grows beneath the scab
Where are mesenchymal cells are mostly found?
mesenchymal are a type of stem cells, which are found in small quantities in bone marrow, fat, muscles, and the dental pulp of baby teeth.
What is acne?
active inflammation of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pustules or cysts on the skin
What is the most important risk for skin cancer?
Prolonged exposure to UV radiation
What gland produces ear wax?
The type of skin cancer that is scaly reddened papule that spread rapidly and metastasize is?
SCC – Squamous Cell Carcinoma
What are fingerprints or ridges?
Friction ridge patterns that are genetically determined and unique to each individual
What is yellow bone marrow and what does it contain?
Bone marrow that contains mostly fat cells and some white blood cells. It is located in the central cavities of long bones in adults
What cell is responsible for the secretions of the matrix of bone?
Where would the break be in the bone if the fracture is in the shaft of the bone?
What is ossification of the ends of long bones?
In early childhood, what structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length?
The epiphyseal plates
During infancy and childhood what single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity?
The resilience of bone is primarily due to what situation?
The process of resorption of bones is due to which cell?
What is the name of the structural unit of spongy?
The process of bone formation, also called ossification
The largest portion of the coxal bone is formed by which bone?
Coxa – hip, the largest part of the hip bone is the ilium
What membranous areas are between the cranial bones and fetal skull called?
The axial skeleton consist of what parts of the body?
Head, neck and trunk of the body
What function do the intervertebral discs do?
Located between the vertebrae, they act as shock absorbers during walking, jumping, and running. They also allow the spine to flex and extend, and to a lesser extent bend laterally.
What is scoliosis?
"twisted disease" an abnormal rotation of the spine that results in a lateral curvature
What is lordosis?
"swayback" an accentuated lumbar curvature
What is the hyoid bone?
"U-shaped" - lies in the anterior neck just inferior to the mandible, the only bone in the body that does not articulate directly with any other bone, a moveable base for the tongue, attachment points for the neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx during swallowing and speech
What does articular cartilage in the long bones do?
Covers the ends of most bones at movable joints
What is bursae?
a fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, especially one countering friction at a joint
Bending your head back as far as a person can is called -
What is hyaluronic acid?
Flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid
What is menisci?
Articular discs – discs or wedges if fibrocartilage separating the articular surfaces, they partially or completely divide the synovial cavity into two
Moving a limb away from the median plane of the body is known as?
Inversion and eversion pertains to what body part?
Movements of the foot
What is the role of calcium ions during the contraction of a muscle?
The sarcolemma contains acetylcholine receptors, what part is in the sarcolemma?
Sarcolemma is the plasma membrane surrounding each muscle fiber.
Cardiac muscle fibers depend mostly on what to generate ATP?
Anaerobic cellular respiration
What is the most powerful muscle in the body?
Infants receive injections in what intramuscular site
What is an axon?
the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells
What role does acetylcholinesterase play?
It breaks down acetylcholine (ACh) into its building blocks, acetic acid and choline, which prevents continued muscle fiber contraction
What neurotransmitter helps pain that is mimicked by morphine, heroin, and methadone?
The stem of the brain consist of what parts?
Midbrain, pons, and the medulla
How is the cerebrum described as?
The cerebral hemispheres, including the cerebral cortex, white matter, and basal nuclei.
T1 and L1 when transected in the spinal cord will cause the patient what condition?
Transection at T1 would cause paraplegia of the legs and loss of function in the chest and below, Transection at L1 would cause paraplegia to legs and pelvis area.
What is the broca’s area?
An area in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in planning to speak and actual speech production
What is REM sleep associated with?
Sleep cycle -Rapid and random eye movement, low muscle tone and vivid dreams
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic divisions include what?
The SNS constricts visceral and cutaneous blood vessels, sending more blood to the muscles and heart.
What nerve is compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome?
The median nerve
The resting and digesting of the autonomic nervous system is known as?
What results do we see with the parasympathetic stimulation?
Blood pressure and heart rate are maintained at low normal levels, and the gastrointestinal tract is actively digesting food
Sympathetic divisions’ stimulation causes what to happen to the body?
When we are excited or find ourselves in emergency or threatening situations, the sympathetic division causes our bodies to going into Fight or Flight – diverts blood from gastro to muscles and heart, dilates bronchioles for increased air flow, stimulates the liver to make more glucose for energy needs
Parasympathetic functions include what to happen to the body?
Keeps body energy use as low as possible as it directs vital “house-keeping” activities like digesting food and eliminating feces and urine
The cones of the eye have a main function, what is this?
vision receptors for bright light and provide high resolution color vision
What does the iris do?
The iris acts as a reflexively activated diaphragm to vary the amount of light that passes through the pupil
What is the cochlea?
Snail shaped organ of the ear that is the sensory receptor for hearing
What is myopia?
Nearsightedness – people can see close objects without problems, distant objects are blurred – distant objects focus in front of the retina rather than on it – eyeball is too long
What is the pinna?
The auricle – the outer shell shaped part of the ear
What is the blind spot of the eye?
The optic disc because it lacks photoreceptors