Campbell Biology: Campbell Biology Chapter 26 Key Terms Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapter 26
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1

Phylogeny

the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

2

Systematics

a scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships

3

taxonomy

a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.

4

binomial

the two-part. latinized format for naming a species, consisting of the genus and specific epithet; a binomen.

5

taxon

a named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification

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phylogentic tree

a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

7

Phylocode

proposed system of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships. only groups that include a common ancestor and al of its descendants are named.

8

branch points

The representation on a phylogenetic tree of the divergence of two or more taxa from a common ancestor. A branch point is usually shown as a dichotomy in which a branch representing the ancestral lineage splits (at this point) into two branches, one for each of the two descendant lineages.

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sister taxa

Groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor and hence are each other's closest relatives.

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rooted

Describing a phylogenetic tree that contains a branch point (often, the one farthest to the left) representing the most recent commons ancestor of all taxa in the tree.

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basal taxon

In a specified group of organisms, a taxon whose evolutionary lineage diverged early in the history of he group.

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polytomy

In a phylogenetic tree, a branch point from which more than two descendant taxa emerge. It indicates that the evolutionary relationships between the descendant taxa are not yet clear.

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analogy

Similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolutions rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait.

14

homoplasy

A similar (analogous) structure of molecular sequences that has evolved independently in two species.

15

molecular systematics

A scientific discipline that uses nucleic acids or other molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between different species.

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cladistics

An approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent.

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clades

a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants

18

monophyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade.

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paraphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, nut not all, of its descendants.

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polyphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors.

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shared ancestral character

A character, shared by members of a particular clade, that originated in an ancestor that is not a member of that clade.

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shared derived character

An evolutionary novelty that is unique to a particular clade.

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outgroup

A species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that contains the group of species being studied. It is selected so that its members are closely related to the group of species being studied, but not as closely related as any study-group members are to each other.

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ingroup

A species or group of species whose evolutionary relationships we seek to determine.

25

maximum parsimony

A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts.

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maximum liklihood

As applied to molecular systematics, a principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the the hypotheses that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time.

27

orthologous genes

Homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation.

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paralogous genes

Homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication.

29

molecular clock

A method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary changes, based on the observations that some regions of genomes evolve at constant rates.

30

neutral theory

They hypothesis that mush evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by natural selection.

31

horizontal gene transfer

The transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchange, viral activity, and perhaps fusions of different organisms.