Human Anatomy & Physiology: Take Home Festival Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Flashcards


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Take Home Festival Professor Brady 2017 Other Study Guides: http://www.easynotecards.com/notecard_set/14387 http://www.easynotecards.com/notecard_set/3290 http://www.easynotecards.com/notecard_set/25704 https://quizlet.com/4626894/water-balance-flash-cards/ http://www.easynotecards.com/print_list/13709
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1

What is the most abundant intracellular cation?

Na+
HPO42-
K+
Cl-

K+

2

What is the most abundant intracellular anion?

HPO42-
K+
Na+
Cl-

HPO4 2-

3

Which of the following regulates the secretion of K+ into the filtrate?

antidiuretic hormone
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
aldosterone

aldosterone

4

PTH (parathyroid hormone) acts on the __________ to __________ Ca2+ reabsorption.
liver; decrease
bones; decrease
DCT; increase
large intestine; increase

DCT; increase

5

Which of the following does NOT serve as a source of acids in the body?
aerobic breakdown of glucose
fat metabolism
CO2 in the blood
ingested foods

aerobic breakdown of glucose

6

The primary buffer of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is the __________.
phosphate buffer system
protein buffer system
sodium-potassium buffer system
bicarbonate buffer system

bicarbonate buffer system

7

Starvation would cause which of the following acid-base conditions? Also, determine what type of compensation (metabolic or respiratory) there would be.
metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation
respiratory alkalosis with metabolic compensation
respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation
metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation

metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation

8

A patient is admitted to the hospital with the following plasma values: pH = 7.2, pCO2 = 55 mmHg, and HCO3¯ = 30 mEq/L. What is the acid base imbalance?
metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation
respiratory alkalosis with metabolic compensation
respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation
metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation

respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation

9

A patient is admitted to the hospital with the following plasma values: pH = 7.5, pCO2 = 45 mmHg, and HCO3¯ = 30 mEq/L. What is the acid-base imbalance?
metabolic alkalosis with no compensation
respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation
metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation
respiratory alkalosis with metabolic compensation

metabolic alkalosis with no compensation

10

A patient is admitted to the hospital with the following plasma values: pH = 7.2, pCO2 = 25 mmHg, and HCO3¯ = 18 mEq/L. What is the acid base imbalance?
metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation
respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation
metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation
metabolic acidosis with no compensation

metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation

11

Diarrhea can lead to which acid/base disturbance? Assuming compensation, would it be a metabolic or respiratory compensation?
metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation
respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation
respiratory alkalosis with metabolic compensation
metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation

metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation

12

Emphysema can lead to which acid/base disturbance? What would be the compensation?
respiratory alkalosis; kidneys will retain more H+ and excrete HCO3
metabolic acidosis; hypoventilation by the lungs
respiratory acidosis; kidneys will retain more HCO3 and excrete H+
respiratory acidosis; hyperventilation

respiratory acidosis; kidneys will retain more HCO3 and excrete H+

13

Of the three buffering mechanisms in the body, which is the strongest?
respiratory system
chemical buffer system
renal system

renal system

14

The bicarbonate buffer system is one of the chemical buffer systems of the body. How would the bicarbonate buffer system work if sodium hydroxide were added to a solution?
A hydrogen on carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.
The hydrogen ion would attach to carbonic acid.
The hydrogen ion would attach to bicarbonate (HCO3) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3).

A hydrogen on carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.

15

The respiratory system is one of the three systems that regulate acid-base balance in the body. How does it work to decrease an acidosis?
Carbonic acid is converted to bicarbonate, which then buffers the acid.
Carbonic acid is converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
Carbonic acid converts a strong acid to a weak acid, thus decreasing acidity.
Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.

Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.

16

In a respiratory acidosis the kidney would do which of the following?
The kidney will reabsorb both bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. When it reabsorbs the hydrogen ion, it also generates more bicarbonate ions.
The kidney would increase excretion of both bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.

The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.

17

Ingesting too much antacid would cause which of the following acid-base disturbances?
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
respiratory acidosis

metabolic alkalosis

18

Vomiting will cause which type of acid-base disturbance?
metabolic acidosis
metabolic alkalosis
respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis

metabolic alkalosis

19

Severe anxiety would cause which type of acid-base disturbance? What would be the compensation?
respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3
respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would retain HCO3
respiratory acidosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3
metabolic alkalosis; hypoventilation by the lungs

respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3

20

This chemical equation shows the reaction of a strong acid and weak base in the bicarbonate buffer system. Provide the products of the following reaction. HCl + NaHCO3 -->

H2CO3 + NaCl
NaHCO3 + H2O
NaH2PO4 + NaCl
NaOH + NaH2PO4

H2CO3 + NaCl

21

In order to buffer a strong acid into a weak acid, which has a less dramatic effect on pH, what chemical should be used as the buffer?

weak base
weak acid
salt
water

weak base

22

The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is potassium.
True
False

True

23

Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids
Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids
equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

24

Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.
Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body.
Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

25

Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.
True
False

False

26

Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of body fluids.
True
False

True

27

What results from increased levels of aldosterone?

increased Na+ reabsorption
decreased Na+ reabsorption
increased K+ reabsorption
increased Ca2+ reabsorption

increased Na+ reabsorption

28

Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
enhance atrial contractions
prevent pH changes caused by organic acids
activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

29

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
ADH
water levels
glucocorticoids
aldosterone

aldosterone

30

Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains relatively stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.
True
False

True

31

Interstitial:

Spaces between cells.

32

Intracellular:

Fluid compartments located within the cell.

33

Extracellular:

The fluid compartments outside the cell.

34

Nonelectrolytes:

Do not dissociate.

35

Electrolytes:

Dissociate in water.