Adult Psychopathology Midterm Review

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1

The Electra complex, the psychosexual conflict that occurs at the phallic stage of development in girls, is characterized by

penis envy

2

Based on Hippocrates' humoral theory, "sanguine" describes a person who is ________.

cheerful

3

You have been asked to give a report on the mental hygiene movement and its foremost crusader Dorothea Dix, who campaigned for more humane treatment of the insane. After mentioning all of her accomplishments, you note the unforeseen consequence of her efforts, namely,

an increase in the number of mental patients, resulting in insufficient staff to care for them.

4

As described on the "Abnormal Psychology Live" CD, Ivan Pavlov's ideas were brought to the United States in the early 20th century by

John B. Watson.

5

In keeping with an accepted treatment for mental illness in the 14th century, a physician treating King Charles VI of France had him moved to the countryside in order to

provide clean air, rest, relaxation, and recreation

6

After college graduation, two of your friends are interested in careers in the helping professions. Anna wants to become a psychiatrist; Carl plans on becoming a psychologist. Since you are taking a course in Abnormal Psychology, they ask you for career advice. You would tell

Anna to apply to medical school and Carl to study psychology at the graduate level.

7

If you were asked to explain Freud's structure of the mind to a friend who was unfamiliar with psychology, you might use an organizational analogy in which the id would be the employee who comes to work late and takes very long lunch hours, the superego would be the building security guard, and the ego would be

a manager

8

Which of the following is NOT associated with the humanistic theories of Carl Rogers?

Hierarchy of needs

9

Developmental psychopathology refers to the study of changes in

abnormal behavior

10

In contrast to the asylums of the early 18th century, the psychosocial approach called moral therapy advocated all of the following EXCEPT

restraint and seclusion

11

Induced vomiting was a 17th century treatment for depression. As described in Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), this could be accomplished by eating _________ and a half-boiled cabbage.

tobacco

12

According to Freud, neuroses are all nonpsychotic psychological disorders resulting from

all of these

13

In the late 1800s, the emphasis on a biological cause of mental disorder resulted ironically in reduced interest in treatments for mental patients because it was thought that

mental illness was due to an undiscovered brain pathology and was incurable

14

In their theories about human nature, psychoanalysts Carl Jung and Alfred Adler both

emphasized a strong drive toward individual self-actualization.

15

Someone you know has been having a lot of difficulty because of irrational fears. Knowing that you are studying abnormal psychology, this person asks if you know of an effective and well-established treatment. You advise her that ________________, based on the mid 20th century work of Joseph Wolpe, is a successful anxiety reduction procedure.

systematic desensitization

16

What is one advantage of the categorical system over the dimensional system when it comes to classifying and diagnosing personality disorders?

convenience

17

DSM-5, an updated version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, was published in

2002

18

The Oedipus complex, the psychosexual conflict that occurs at the phallic stage of development, is characterized by a 3- to 5-year-old boy who

loves his mother but has feelings of anger and envy toward his father

19

With which of the following terminal degrees can you practice therapy?​

Ph.D. in psychology with additional licensing requirements

20

A woman demonstrating a high degree of Western “stereotypical female” traits might well be diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder. Which of the following would probably occur if a man demonstrated very stereotypical masculine traits?​

He probably would not be diagnosed with any personality disorder.

21

Clinicians who view personality disorders as extremes of normal personality rather than as _____ have criticized the way the DSM classifies personality disorders.​

​separate categories of disorders

22

One hot and humid night, one of your friends suggests doing some really crazy things. You look up at the sky and say,
“It must be the full moon.” Your statement reflects the concept from which the word is derived.​

lunatic

23

With the discovery of the major tranquilizers called_, it became possible to control psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, and aggressiveness.

neuroleptics

24

Which of the following prevention strategies looks promising for children who are at risk for later antisocial personality disorder?

A training program for parents of toddlers (ages 1½ to 2½ years)

25

Tameka, having earned her master’s degree, has begun treating disorders and concentrating on family problems. Tameka is probably a(n)

psychiatric social worker

26

After the mid 1800s, moral therapy declined as a treatment for the mentally ill in the United States because

immigrants caused an increase in the mental hospital population

27

When individuals with dependent personality disorder are in therapy, they are

​seemingly “model” patients.

28

In Erik Erikson’s theory of lifespan development, an individual reaches the mature stage when he or she is about
years old.​

65

29

The continual interaction of biological, psychological, and social influences and their effect on behavior is considered​

multidimensional and integrative

30

The central nervous system is made up of the _____

brain and spinal cord

31

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

There are different types of glial cells with several specific functions.

32

GABA, dopamine, and norepinephrine are all examples of _______ .

neurotransmitters

33

The fact that a disorder can be caused by a variety of factors illustrates the principle of _______.

equifinality

34

​Referring to behavior and personality as polygenic means that both are

​influenced by many genes, with each individual gene contributing a relatively small effect.

35

The "evil eye," Latin American susto, and the Haitian phenomenon of voodoo death are currently viewed as examples of the

​power of the social environment on our physical and psychological health

36

Some people may be genetically predisposed to seek out difficult relationships. These difficult relationships may contribute to their experience of depression. This is an example of the _______.

reciprocal gene-environment model

37

Looking at the findings of many cross-fostering studies (Francis et al., 1999, Suomi, 1999, Tienari et al., 1994) it appears that positive interventions such as good parenting in early life may

override the genetically influenced tendency to develop psychopathology in later life.

38

Children who are resistant to stress are considered to be _______.

resilient

39

When comparing the brains of rats raised in a rich environment requiring lots of learning and motor behavior with the brains of rats raised as "couch potatoes" (Greenough, et al., 1990), the cerebellums of the more active rats

​contained more neuronal connections and dendrites

40

Social influences in the multidimensional model include

​the fact that illness usually gets attention.

41

​According to the diathesis-stress model, monozygotic twins raised in the same household will

not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their stress

42

​In a study conducted by Haber and Barchas (1983), monkeys were injected with amphetamine, a central nervous system stimulant. Comparison of the drug's effects on the dominant versus submissive monkeys demonstrated that the effects of brain chemicals such as drugs are

different for individual animals depending upon their place in the social hierarchy.

43

​Most automatic functions (e.g., breathing, sleeping, and motor coordination) are controlled by the part of the brain called the _________.

brain stem

44

The most accurate way to think of genes is that they

set boundaries for our development.

45

The process of clinical assessment results in narrowing the focus to

concentrate on problem areas that seem most relevant.

46

​Identifying certain essential characteristics of an entity while allowing for nonessential variations that don’t change
is considered a(n) _________ approach to understanding psychopathology.

prototypical

47

​Four-year-old Roberto is very aggressive toward his peers, which results in poor peer relationships. A psychologist has been asked to assess Roberto’s aggressiveness and determine if he needs intervention. The psychologist would probably do what type of assessment?

Behavioral

48

Javon, who is normally energetic and lively, is walking and talking slowly. The therapist thinks that Javon may be depressed because ______can indicate severe depression.

psychomotor retardation

49

Which of the following is a reason why MRIs are used less in diagnosis:

​both a and b are correct.

50

​If it were important to determine the exact location of brain impairment, which of the following tests would most likely be used?

Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery

51

A neuropsychological test measures abilities in all but which of the following areas?

Adaptive personality traits

52

Perhaps the biggest change that has been seen with the release of DSM-5 is

​the removal of the multiaxial diagnostic system

53

​The classical categorical approach to diagnosis assumes that each person with a particular disorder will

experience the same symptoms with little or no variation.

54

​Interpreting ambiguous figures on cards is usually associated with which test :

Rorschach inkblot test

55

Analog research models

create laboratory conditions that are comparable to the phenomenon under study.

56

When studying family functioning, it has been observed that marital discord often increases as child behavior problems increase in the family. Using the correlational model,

it is not possible to determine whether marital discord causes child behavior problems, whether child behavior problems cause marital discord, or whether both may be true.

57

The two most frequently used methods in prevention research for examining psychopathology across time are

longitudinal and cross-sectional.

58

One of the major problems with the case study method is that it is too easy to make false conclusions based on

coincidence

59

At this point, we know much more about the _____ of psychological disorders than the _____ of psychological disorders.

phenotype; genotype

60

​One important difference between a typical case study and the single-case experiment is that the single-case experiment attempts to

​improve internal validity

61

The patient uniformity myth refers to the tendency to

see all study participants as homogenous

62

One of the most important reasons to conduct cross-cultural research in psychopathology is that

we can understand more about psychopathology by understanding how culture impacts the experience of various disorders.

63

In a typical drug study, some research participants are given an active medication and others are given a sugar pill.
The subjects given the sugar pill are in the ______ group.

​placebo control

64

Epidemiology is the study of

​incidence, distribution, and consequences of a problem in a population.

65

Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display a characteristic set of symptoms including all of the following EXCEPT

decreased startle response and chronic under-arousal.

66

The anxiety disorder called social phobia, involving anxiety about being evaluated or criticized, usually begins during
________.

adolescence

67

For Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), avoidance of imagery is accompanied by:​

Restricted autonomic response

68

According to Jeffrey Gray, a British neuropsychologist, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is activated by danger signals _______, resulting in the experience of anxiety.

​arising from the brain stem or descending from the cortex

69

In regard to the obsessions seen in patients with OCD, the term "need for symmetry" refers to

keeping things in perfect order

70

​In regard to a type of thinking pattern found in some patients with OCD, which of the following would be an example of thought-action fusion?

Believing that thinking about an abortion is the moral equivalent of having an abortion

71

Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by

the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.

72

Panic control treatment

all of the above

73

Which type of compulsion has the highest prevalence rate?​

Symmetry

74

Richard, the patient with OCD described in the textbook, was compelled to take very small steps as he walked and to look back repeatedly. As with other types of checking compulsions, Richard was trying to

ward off an imagined disaster.

75

The area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the __________.

limbic system

76

Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow's panic control treatment (PCT)?

Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations

77

Is agoraphobic behavior always accompanied by panic attacks?

​Sometimes panic attacks precede agoraphobic behavior.

78

The main difference between situational phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) is

people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation

79

Tonia's house is almost unimaginable! She has piles of junk (she calls it "treasures") piled from floor to ceiling in virtually every room. There is a narrow pathway that she can use to walk from room to room. All of her furniture is covered in various items, so she has one small folding chair that she takes with her when she wants to sit down.

Her bed has one small area that is clear enough for her to sleep. There is a foul odor in the house, mold growing under her piles of possessions, and she never has visitors. When Tonia tries to get rid of any possessions, she experiences tremendous anxiety and gives up quickly. Which diagnosis would best suit Tonia?

Hoarding disorder

80

Without treatment, it is expected that DID will last ___________________.​

a lifetime

81

A commonly-seen form of factitious disorder imposed on another is a set of conditions that​

​is an atypical form of child abuse

82

One aspect of the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is ______.​

amnesia

83

The experience of dissociation occurs in​

certain psychological disorders as well as in non-disordered people at times.

84

With regard to a diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder, women are​

more likely than men to be diagnosed

85

Vanna, who is 40, apparently believes that she is a 20-year-old woman. Suddenly, she starts to speak and behave very differently, and says she no longer thinks of herself as "Vanna." Instead, she claims to be Elise, a 10-year-old child. It is likely that Vanna has just experienced a _________.​

switch

86

Jason suddenly notices that the world looks weird to him. Some objects look bigger than normal and others look smaller. Cars passing by seem oddly shaped and people appear dead or mechanical. Joe is experiencing________.​

derealization

87

A possible link between antisocial personality disorder and somatic symptom disorder is _______ .​

a lack of impulse control

88

Tom was in a coma after an automobile accident which killed his wife. His physical health improved and there is no medical reason why he should not be able to move his arms and legs. Tom may be suffering from:​

conversion disorder

89

Studies suggest that patients with somatic symptom disorder or illness anxiety disorder are characterized by a tendency to

​interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening

90

There is now incontrovertible evidence that the following statement is TRUEwith respect to the accuracy of recovered memories:​

False memories can be created, and selective dissociative amnesia can occur for early traumatic experiences.

91

Which of the following statements is TRUE about conversion disorders?​

Conversion disorders are not uncommon in males at times of extreme stress

92

With regard to dissociative identity disorder, the term "alter" refers to _______ within the individual

different personality

93

The common aspect of all somatic symptom disorders is a maladaptive or excessive​

response to physical or associated health symptoms

94

In treating conversion disorder, which of the following statements is true?​

Clients responded well to cognitive-behavioral therapy.

95

Light Therapy for SAD has been shown to provide relief from depressive symptoms in:

the first week of exposure.

96

Side effects of the tricyclic antidepressants include ______.

sexual dysfunction

97

The antidepressant medication lithium is also referred to as a mood stabilizer because it

helps to prevent manic episodes.

98

In studies of bipolar patients who experience rapid cycling, it has been found that from 60% to 90% are
_________.

female

99

Which of the following are true about hypomanic episodes:

All of the above are correct

100

​Cross-cultural research indicates that, due at least in part to appalling social and economic conditions, the prevalence of major depression is extremely high among ___________.

Native Americans

101

Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women include all of the following EXCEPT

low value placed on intimate relationships.

102

Depressive individuals tend to exhibit

greater right anterior brain activity.

103

Recent research suggests that (neurogenesis)

all of the above

including: ​the suppression of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is due to the connection between high stress hormones and depression

104

Which of the following statements about suicide is correct?

​For teenagers, suicide is the third leading cause of death after auto accidents and homicide

105

Being depressed ________ the risk of death in elderly patients who have had a stroke or heart attack.

doubles

106

The melancholic specifiers for depressive disorders include all of the following EXCEPT

sleeping late and hypersomnia

107

The Integrative Model of Mood Disorders shows that:

biological and psychological vulnerabilities partially explain disorders.

108

A woman who is extremely depressed a year or so after the loss of her spouse might be diagnosed with
___________.

complicated grief

109

How many patients with severe cases of depression where the episode lasts 5 years or longer can be expected to recover?

38%

110

With regard to treatment for eating disorders, Prozac is considered to be an effective treatment in the long term for

neither anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa

111

Many clinicians suggest that the most difficult part of treatment for anorexia nervosa, and the part of treatment where many anorexic individuals are not successful, is

​changing their attitudes regarding body shape and addressing interpersonal disruptions in their lives.

112

​The strongest contributions to etiology of eating disorders seem to be __________.

sociocultural

113

One major problem with the use of medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa is that

the beneficial effects of the medication may be short-term.

114

​Sam sleeps for 8 or more hours every night but never feels rested. He can't understand why he is always tired despite the fact that he reports no difficulties with the quality or quantity of his sleep. Of the following, Sam's most likely diagnosis is ____________.

hypersomnolence disorder

115

Surgical treatments are likely to be the

last line of treatment for the very obese

116

While a patient sleeps, a polysomnographic evaluation collects data on all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
_________.

metabolic rate

117

All of the following are examples of causes of circadian rhythm sleep disorder EXCEPT ____________.

sleep rebound

118

Martin sits up every night screaming. He does not remember these terrors nor is he easily awakened or comforted. What should Martin's mother do?

Use scheduled awakenings to briefly awaken Martin before an attack occurs

119

Samantha started having difficulty falling asleep during final exam week. Although exams are over, she now starts to worry about sleep right after dinner. Even the sight of her bed makes her very anxious. The fact that Samantha's insomnia continues long after the stress of exams is over points to the role of ________ in the maintenance of sleep disorders.

learning

120

Seriously obese adolescents are most likely to lose weight with

the use of behavioral treatments

121

​According to your textbook, which of the following treatments is considered MOST effective for bulimia in adults:

CBT-E

122

Genetic influences on eating disorders most likely involve

inherited personality traits that may make development of an eating disorder more likely

123

​Approximately _____ of anorexia nervosa deaths are due to suicide.

20 to 30%

124

Purging techniques are ______ for bulimia nervosa.

common but not necessary for diagnosis