2nd test review Flashcards


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anatomy and physiology, ch 3
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1

The smallest living unit within the human body is

the cell

2

The watery component of the cytoplasm is called

cytosol

3

Which of the following terms is not used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?

cell wall

4

Functions of the plasmalemma include all of the following, except

thermal insulation

5

The plasma membrane is composed of

a bilayer of phospholipids

6

Which of the following is not a function of membrane proteins?

cell nutrient

7

Functions of the glycocalyx include

all of the above

8

Each of the following is an example of a nonmembranous organelle, except

lysosomes

9

Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except

microsomes

10

Tubulin is to microtubules as actin is to

microfilaments

11

Which of the following cytoskeleton components moves the chromosomes during cell division?

microtubules

12

Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the

mitochondria

13

In the mitochondrion, folds are to cristae as the contained fluid is to

matrix

14

The components of ribosomes are formed within

nucleoli

15

Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the

smooth ER

16

Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?

rough endoplasmic reticulum

17

Renewal or modification of the cell membrane is a function of the

Golgi apparatus

18

Organelles that absorb and neutralize drugs and toxins are

peroxisomes

19

When activated, lysosomes function in

digestion of foreign material

20

Most of a cell's a DNA is located in its

nucleus

21

The control center of cellular operations is the

nucleus

22

The complex structures of DNA and protein found in the cell nucleus are

chromosomes

23

mRNA is needed to synthesize______in the cytoplasm.

proteins

24

The triplet codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the

gene

25

As each codon arrives at the active site of a ribosome, it attracts another molecule containing the anticodon.
This molecule is called

tRNA

26

The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called

translation

27

The process of forming mRNA is called

transcription

28

The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of

diffusion

29

Diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane is influenced by all of the following, except

hydrolysis of ATP

30

Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through

channels formed by integral proteins

31

A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called

hypotonic

32

"Spikes" form on a blood cell when it is placed in a(n)___solution.

hypertonic

33

The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins is called

facilitated diffusion

34

Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that

the rate of molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules.

35

A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called

active transport

36

The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called

endocytosis

37

The principle cations in our body fluids are__and___

sodium, potassium

38

In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects___ions from the cell and imports____ ions.

sodium, potassium

39

Which of the following about a cell's resting transmembrane potential is false

inside slightly more positive than outside

40

The potential difference across the cell membrane is due to the separation of

cations and anions

41

Changes in the transmembrane potential of a cell are involved in

all of the above

42

The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called

interphase

43

A cell duplicates its chromosomes during the___ phase.

S

44

During mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during

anaphase

45

During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis

telophase

46

As genes are functionally eliminated, the cell becomes limited in the rage of proteins it can make. This specialization process is termed

differentiation

47

All of the following membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes, except

vesicular transport

48

The plasmalemma includes

all of the above

49

The genetically programmed death of cells is called

apoptosis

50

Osmotic pressure

all of the above

51

Membrane proteins perform which of the following functions

all of the above

52

Which of the following about cytoplasm is false

extracellular fluid contains more protein

53

Many proteins in the cytosol are___ that accelerate metabolic reactions.

enzymes

54

Extracellular fluid serves as

a transport medium

55

Microfilaments

all of the above

56

Tubulin is

a protein that assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubles).

57

These molecular motors carry materials in opposite directions along microtubules

dynein and kinesin

58

Endocytosis is

a method for transporting substances into the cell

59

Peroxisomes

Both A and B

60

Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while other have relatively few or none. This suggests that

cells with large numbers of mitochondria have high energy demand

61

A mature red blood cell lacks a nucleus. Thus, it

cannot make new proteins and will be worn out within a few months

62

Histones are found in

nucleosomes

63

Chromosomes consist of ___ and ___

DNA; proteins

64

Which organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein

nucleolus

65

Messenger RNA is vital to the cell because

both A and D

66

The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are

genes

67

Specific proteins are manufactured through the interaction of ___ and___

multiple enzymes; three types of RNA

68

Which of these transport processes always requires metabolic energy

vesicular transport

69

The skin swells and puckers during a long bath. This suggests that bath water is a(n)___ fluid

hypotonic

70

Red blood cells shrinkage is to ___ as cell bursting is to

crenation; hemolysis

71

Two types of vesicular transport include

endocytosis and exocytosis

72

A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates

phagocytosis

73

During mitosis, two daughter cells form, each of which has

the same number of chromosomes as the original cell

74

A unit in messenger RNA consisting of a set of three consecutives nucleotides is termed a(n)

codon

75

An impermeable carbohydrate that is often administered to patients suffering blood loss is

dextran

76

An alternate term for tumor is

neoplasm

77

what is the first part of the cell that is affected when the pH of extracellular fluid changes

plasmalemma

78

Which form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins?

rough endoplasmic reticulum

79

Which of the following statements about the Golgi apparatus is false

sends transport vesicles to the RER

80

Which phase of the cell cycle has the most variable duration

G0 phase

81

Microtubules have which of the following functions

all of the above

82

The endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for

all of the above

83

A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bounded together is called a(n)

compound

84

Special catalytic molecules called___ control chemical reactions in the human body

enzymes

85

All organic compounds in the human body contain all of the following elements, except

calcium

86

Which of the following is not a function of protein

storage of genetic information

87

Which of following properties of the cytoskeleton is false

made of cytobones

88

Which of the following properties of microtubules is true

interact with dynein and kinesin

89

Hemolysis may occur when a blood cell is places into

hypotonic solution

90

If a cell lacked the enzyme DNA polymerase, it could not

form coplementary sequences of DNA

91

Compared to the extracellular fluid, cytosol contains

a higher concentration of potassium ions

92

Microfilaments

anchor the cytoskeleton to integrals proteins of the cell membrane

93

If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to

form the mitotic spindle

94

Each of the following statements concerning mitochondria is true, except one. Identify the exception

the mitochondria contain no DNA

95

Each of the following is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, except

modification of protein

96

The following is a list of the steps involved in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus.
1. Material moves from cisterna to cisterna by means of transfer vesicles.
2. Exocytosis.
3. Products from RER are packaged into transport vesicles.
4. Secretory vesicles are formed at the maturing face.
5. Vesicles arrive at the forming

The proper order for these is

3, 5, 6, 1, 4, 2

97

Imagine two rigid chambers separated by a rigid membrane that is freely permeable to water but impermeable to glucose. Side 1 contains a 10 percent glucose solution and side 2 contains pure water. At equilibrium, what will be the situation?

the hydrostatic pressure will be higher in side 1

98

If the amount of chloride ion in blood plasma increases, which of the following would initially occur?

the blood osmotic pressure will increase

99

If the concentration of sodium chloride in the interstitial fluid surrounding cell decreases and the concentration of other solutes remains constant,

the cells will swell

100

Assume that the transport of a particular amino acid across the plasmalemma is observed (1) to occur only
down its concentration gradient and (2) to slow when a similar amino acid is added to the extracellular fluid.
The movement of the amino acid through the membrane is most likely by

facilitated diffusion

101

Generally, cells with a very brief interphase and lacking a G0 phase

are stem cells

102

There is a direct correlation between the potency of a general anesthetic such as ether and its ability to

dissolve in lipids

103

Cancer cells

may exhibit metastasis

104

The mRNA sequence that is complementary to the sequence ATC on DNA is

UAG

105

The anticodon for the triplet UCA is

AGU

106

Before the mRNA transcribed from a gene can be used to translate into a protein, it must be

Both A and C

107

Microscopic analysis of a tissue sample indicates that it contains abundant myosin and actin filaments. This tissue is probably formed from

muscle cells

108

Examination of a sample of glandular cells reveals an extensive network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Which of the following is the likeliest product of these cells?

steroid hormones

109

Breathing faster and deeper eliminates more carbon dioxide from the body than normal breathing. Under these circumstances

more carbon dioxide will diffuse out of the blood

110

A membrane transport process is found experimentally to have a saturation limit. Which of the following is a possible property of the process?

all of the above

111

In a series of measurements of resting transmembrane potential, the following values were recorded. Which one is likeliest to be an error?

+100 mV

112

Mitosis is to somatic cells as meiosis is to

reproductive cells

113

cell diagram

look in phone

114

Synthesis of carbohydrates and lipids occurs in the structure labeled

7

115

Which structure produces ATP for the cell?

3

116

Which organelle renews the cell membrane and modifies and packages proteins for secretion?

8

117

The structure labeled "1" permits the cell to

increase surface area for increased membrane transport