Biology Chapter 15 & 18 Flashcards

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The synthesis of DNA and RNA from the organic soup would have been guided by the actions of enzymes in the

A. clay-catalyst hypothesis
B. protein-first hypothesis
C. RNA-first hypothesis
D. chloroplast



Fossils used to identify geological periods are _________ fossils.

A. index
B. body
C. trace
D. stromatolite



Some viruses never use DNA to carry out protein synthesis and have only RNA as their genetic material. This would lend evidence to which theory?

A. endosymbiotic theory of eukaryote evolution
B. RNA-first hypothesis
C. simultaneous evolution of RNA & proteins
D. protein-first hypothesis



Birds and insects both have wings, but we do not consider this similarity as evidence of relatedness because

A. bird wings function on different physics principles of lift
B. there is no fossil link between these groups
C. the wings are not homologous structures with a common ancestral origin
D. they did not evolve in the same region or live at the same time period



Marsupials are more numerous in Australia than South America because of less competition with placental mammals.



A line of evidence NOT considered by Darwin in his development of the theory of natural selection is

A. comparative biochemistry
B. biogeography
C. the fossil record
D. comparative anatomy



Analogous structures serve the same function, are similarly constructed and are inherited from a common ancestor.



The first cell gave rise to

A. bacteria and archaea
B. archaea and protists
C. bacteria and fungi
D. eukaryotes and bacteria



Africa, Asia, South America, and Antarctica share some patterns of primitive (fossil) plants and early reptiles, but do not have similar mammal populations. These findings

A. suggests that the mammals evolved earlier while continents were joined, but plants & reptiles radiated into diverse groups after separation.
B. cast serious doubts upon the theory of continental drift & fused land.
C. suggest that the earlier plants and reptiles evolved with continents were joined, but mammals radiated into diverse groups after separation.
D. suggests that a pattern of land bridges existed at different times in geological history.
E. are an unsolved puzzle probably due to the random nature of biological evolution



Which of the following is NOT involved in natural selection?

A. organisms differ in reproductive success
B. there are inheritable variations in populations
C. there is always competition for resources
D. the desired traits are chosen by a breeder



Darwin observed that

A. members of a population vary in their functional, physical and behavioral characteristics.
B. there is constant struggle for survival of organisms.
C. organisms in a normal population differ in reproductive success.
D. all of the choices are correct.
E. none of the choices are correct



Mass extinctions

A. have occurred at least 5 times in the Earth's history.
B. may have been due to climatic changes after meteorite collisions.
C. may have been due to changing environments caused by continental drift.
D. all of the choices are correct.



It is likely that the protocell was

A. heterotrophic
B. chemoautotrophic
C. photoautotrophic
D. a decomposer
E. either heterotrophic or chemoautotrophic



Which piece of evidence would be best support the theory of continental drift?

A. the east coast of Africa matches up with the western coast of South America.
B. the reptilian diversity on Earth is very different due to the separation of the continents billions of years ago.
C. Australia, South America and Africa all share similar mammalian fauna due to the lineage being present on Gondwana.
D. fossils of seed ferns can only be found on North America and Europe but no where else in the world.
E. all of the choices are correct.



Which statement is NOT true about a protocell?

A. it would have been present before the development of a true cell.
B. it would have contained a biochemical pathway for energy metabolism.
C. it might have been like a coacervate droplet in which a semipermeable boundary allows some materials to be absorbed from the surrounding environment.
D. it would have a lipid and protein membrane forming the outer layer.
E. it would have contained DNA as its genetic material



All of the following statements concerning the theory of continental drift are true EXCEPT

A. the unique distribution patterns of several fossils is explained by continental drift.
B. continental drift has ceased.
C. similar geological structures are found in areas where the continents touched.
D. the coastlines of several continents are mirror images.



When we compare amino acid differences to estimate the evolutionary "distance" between organisms, what assumptions are being made about the rate at which mutations occur over time?

It is constant, linearly, and at the same pace. It also assumes that the following changes are not undoing the previous ones, that's because mutations occur randomly and not at a constant rate.


The organisms on the Galápagos Islands that were most important to the development of Darwin's theory of natural selection were

A. rabbits and hares.
B. plants and fungi.
C. snails and fish.
D. monkeys and armadillos.
E. tortoises and finches.



________ discovered that a variety of amino acids and organic acids could be produced in the laboratory in a reducing atmosphere with electrical sparks.

A. Sidney Fox
B. Aleksander Oparin
C. Stanley Miller
D. Graham Cairns-Smith
E. Thomas Cech



The first person who proposed that small organic molecules could have arisen by chemical evolution was

A. Sidney Fox.
B. Thomas Cech.
C. Stanley Miller.
D. Aleksander Oparin
E. Graham Cairns-Smith