SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS

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BLOOD VESSELS
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College: Third year
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1

HOW MANY PULMONARY ARTERIES EMPTY INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM OF THE HEART

NONE

2

AT ANY GIVEN MOMENT MOST OF THE BODY'S BLOOD IS IN

THE VEINS

3

VEINS ARE CALLED_____________________BECAUSE THEY CAN HOLD A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD

CAPACITANCE

4

BLOOD FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO

BLOOD VISCOSITY

5

HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK CAN BE CAUSED BY

PROFUSE SWEATING

6

THE LAST BRANCH OFF THE AORTIC ARCH IS

THE LEFT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY

7

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING VEINS DOES NOT OCCUR IN THE UPPER EXTREMITY

SMALL SAPHENOUS VEIN

8

BLOOD IN THE RADIAL ARTERY COMES FROM WHAT BLOOD VESSELS

BRACIAL ARTERY

9

THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TAKES BLOOD TO WHAT ORGAN

THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TAKES BLOOD TO WHAT ORGAN

10

WHAT ARTERY TAKES BLOOD DIRECTLY TO THE FEMORAL ARTERY

External iliac artery

11

THE FASTEST RATE OF AUTORHYTHMICITY IS NORMALLY CARRIED OUT BY

SA NODE

12

THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM IS MOST USEFUL IN DETERMINING WHICH COMPONENT OF CARDIAC OUTPUT

HEART RATE

13

Q = Stroke Volume × Heart rate
Q = SV × HR

...

14

THE VOLUME OF BLOD EJECTED FROM EACH VENTRICLE DURING A CONTRACTION IS CALLED THE

STOKE VOLUME

15

EACH OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS WILL INCREASE CARDIAC OUTPUT EXCEPT ONE

Increased parasympathetic stimulation

16

During the normal cardiac cycle, the ventricles contract when they are directly stimulated by
the

Purkinje fibers

17

Chordae tendineae function to:

Prevent movement of the AV valve cusps into the atria during ventricular systole

18

Which statement below concerning the coronary circulation is true?

The great cardiac vein lies alongside the anterior interventricular artery.

19

Blood in pulmonary arteries carry

deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary trunk to the lungs.

20

The atria contract during the

P-Q segment

21

Place these structures in the order that blood returning to the heart from the lungs would pass through them.

1. right ventricle 6. right atrium
2. bicuspid valve 7. left ventricle
3. left atrium 8. tricuspid valve
4. pulmonary semilunar valve 9. aorta
5. aortic semilunar valve 10. pulmonary trunk

3, 2, 7, 5, 9, 6, 8, 1, 4, 10

22

_________ occurs in ventricular systole before the semilunar valves open

Isovolumentric contraction

23

Atrial diastole and the ventricular ejection phase of ventricular systole occur at the same time. Please circle the number of which events below that are occurring in the heart at this time?

ventricular ejection of blood into great arteries
venous pressure > atrial pressure = venous return
ventricular pressure > atrial pressure = AV close
atria fill with blood, so atrial pressure increases
atria fill with blood, so atrial pressure increases

24

If a person’s EDV is 140 mL, the ESV is 55 mL, and the ejection fraction is 0.61, then the stroke volume must be about

85 mL

25

In order for blood to enter the heart

Venous blood returns to the atria
The AV valves are open.
The cardiac cycle may be in its quiescent period.

26

Which of the following statements concerning the functional characteristics of the chambers of
the heart is true?

Most ventricular filling occurs before the atria contract

27

The AV node is important because it:

Directs electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles.
Delays the transmission of electrical impulses to the ventricles to allow the atria

28

Resistance increses when

Decreases with increasing blood vessel length
Decreases if blood vessel diameter is reduced by 50%
Decreases in cases of polycythemia
Is not a major factor in the determination of mean arterial pressure
2 of the above are correct
None of the above correct ITS NONE OF THE ABOVE

29

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called

Arterioles

30

A deficiency of albumin would result in

Loss of water by osmosis from the bloodstream

31

As blood flows from the aorta to the capillaries of the gastrocnemius, its velocity of flow will:

Decrease

32

Increasing blood vessel length will cause peripheral resistance to

Increase

33

As you go from arteries to capillaries, the fluid pressure exerted by blood on the vessel walls

Decreases

34

If MAP increased by 10mmHg, how much must the diastolic pressure have changed

Cannot be determined from the information given

35

As heart rate decreases, diastolic pressure will

Decrease

36

The volume of blood moving through a given area in a given time is the:

Blood flow

37

If MAP=100mmHg, and SBP=120, then what must DBP be

90mmHg

38

Permitting the exchange of gases and nutrients between blood and tissue cells is the primary function of what blood vessel type

CAPILLIARIES

39

65% of the blood volume is contained within the

VEINS

40

The femoral artery is an example of a(n) ____________ artery

MUSCULAR

41

Arrange the following in the proper order for blood flow

Elastic arteries
Muscular arteries
Arterioles

42

Histologically, the tunica _________ is squamous epithelium underlain by a sparse connective tissue layer

INTERNA

43

Sinusoidal capillaries are found in the

Bone marrow

44

As you go from arteries to capillaries, the fluid pressure exerted by blood on the vessel walls

Decreases

45

As right atrial diastolic pressure increases, VR _______.

DECEASES

46

Which statement is true of arteries?

LACK VALVES

47

As cardiovascular shock progresses, sympathetic nervous system output _______.

DECREASES

48

As venous BP increases, tissue edema

INCREASES

49

As blood flows from the arteries into capillaries, velocity of flow

DECREASES

50

As sympathetic stimulation increases, peripheral resistance

INCREASES

51

As plasma histamine increases, venous return

DECREASES

52

As plasma ANP increases, blood volume

DECREASES

53

Large diameter capillaries found primarily in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow are called

Sinusoidal capillaries

54

Which of the following represents the primary kind of tissue found in the tunica media of blood vessels

Concentric layers of smooth muscle

55

The tunica interna

Includes a layer of simple squamous epithelium

56

The difference between the systolic and the diastolic pressures is known as the:

Pulse Pressure

57

patient with a hypothalamic tumor has hypersecretion of ADH. Which of the following BP readings would be most likely for this patient

165/100

58

As blood travels from the aorta to the capillaries

Resistance Increases

59

The blood vessels that play the most important role in the regulation of blood flow to a tissue and blood pressure are the:

Arterioles

60

When compared to arteries, veins generally

Are thinner walled

61

Each of the following statements about sinusoidal capillaries is correct EXCEPT

They are the least permeable capillary type

62

The basic tissue types found in large blood vessels include

Muscle
Connective Tissue
Nerve
Epithelium

63

The thickest layer of the wall of veins is the

Tunica externa

64

Which of the following arteries branches off the aorta first

Left coronary

65

A brief increase in blood pressure will cause the sympathetic tone on the blood vessels to

DECREASES

66

Baroreceptors project to the

Vasomotor, Cardioinhibitory, and Cardioacceleratory centers

67

Vasomotor, Cardioinhibitory, and Cardioacceleratory centers

INCREASES

68

ANP causes Na+ excretion in the urine to ____________ which causes blood volume to _____________.

Look here for the answerIncrease - Decrease

INCREASES AND DECREASES

69

Nitric Oxide is a:

Powerful vasodilator

70

Consider the following events and then put them in correct chronological order.
Sustained blood pressure depression
Release of aldosterone
Conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Release of renin
Cleavage of angiotensinogen

1,4,5,3,2

71

As you move from the arterial end of a capillary bed to the venous end, the capillary hydrostatic pressure will _______________.

DECREASES

72

Liver dysfunction would cause capillary osmotic pressure to ___________.

DECREASED

73

Dehydration causes capillary osmotic pressure to _____________.

INCREASED

74

The most common type of shock is: _____________.

Hypovolemic

75

Which of the following arteries is not paired

Inferior mesenteric

76

Which of the following veins does not drain into the inferior vena cava?

Subclavian

77

Blood in the hepatic portal vein tends to be high in ______________ and low in ______________.

NUTRIENTS/OXYGEN

78

Oxygenated blood is brought to the liver by the

HEPATIC ARTERY

79

A transient decrease in BP is detected by baroreceptors which respond by activating the __________________ center and the ___________________ center and inhibiting the __________________ center.

CARDIOACCELERATORY;VASOMOTOR;CARDIO INHIBITORY

80

The primary baroreceptors are found in the:

Carotid sinus
Aortic arch

81

At rest, the % of cardiac output received by the kidneys is greater than the % received by the heart

This statement is TRUE

82

An increase in tissue [lactic acid] will cause the arterioles feeding that tissue to

Dilate

83

Epinephrine causes the blood vessels serving skeletal musculature to:

Dilate

84

If the [O2] in the capillaries is less than the [O2] in the interstitial space, then the direction of O2 diffusion will be from the ________________ into the ________________.

INTERSTITAL SPACE; CAPILLARIES

85

Rank the following forces in order of magnitude.
HPCAPILLARY at the arterial end
HPINTERSTITIAL SPACE
HPCAPILLARY at the venous end

HPCAPILLARY at the arterial end
HPCAPILLARY at the venous end
HPINTERSTITIAL SPACE

86

Pulmonary arteries are like veins because they have thick walls and small lumens

This statement is FALSE

87

The intrinsic autoregulation of blood pressure is

Metabolic
Myogenic
Not suited to respond to long term changes in BP

88

Vascular smooth muscle responds to stretch by:

Contracting

89

If a segment of pulmonary tissue has a low [O2], then the arterioles serving that segment will:

Constrict

90

The blood-brain barrier protects the brain tissue from being affected by:

Decreases in plasma pH

91

These are the given values:
30 year old non pregnant female, 5'4", 134 lbs.
Resting state - NOT scared of being at Dr. office
Heart rate = 70 bpm
Stroke volume = 80 mL
Diastolic Pressure = 100 mmHg
Peripheral resistance = 20
With all this information, I need to find:
Cardiac output,
Mean arterial pressure,
Pulse pressure,
Systolic pressure,
and What is her blood pressure, and should she be concerned

Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume
= 5.6 L/min

Mean arterial pressure = cardiac output x peripheral resistance
= 5.6 x 20 = 112mmHg

Mean arterial pressure = Diastolic pressure + 1/3 (Systolic - Diastolic pressure)
112 = 100 + 1/3 (Systolic pressure - 100)
12 = 1/3 (sys -100)
12 + 100/3 = sys / 3
136 mmHg = Systolic pressure

Pulse pressure = Systolic - diastolic pressure
= 36 mmHg

Recomened normal BP is less than 140/90

92

THE COMPOSITION OF LYMPH IS THE MOST SIMILAR TO

interstitial fluid

93

THE THORACIC DUCT EMPTIES LYMPH INTO THE

left subclavian vein

94

Which of the following correctly lists the structures according to the sequence of fluid flow?

blood capillaries, interstitial spaces, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, subclavian veins

95

One known function of the cells of the thymus is to

produce and secrete thymic hormones

96

The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of

VEIN

97

The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the

thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct

98

The formation of lymph increases as a result of

increasing osmotic pressure in tissue fluid

99

Lymph differs from plasma in that

plasma contains more protein than lymph

100

If lymphatic tissue is removed from an axillary region, the arm on that side is likely to

become edematous

101

Tissue fluid is _____ and lymph is _______.

forced out of blood plasma and generally lacking in proteins; absorbed into lymph capillaries and rich in proteins and foreign particles

102

The structure of a lymph node can be described as

being divided into compartments that contain masses of lymphocytes and macrophages
afferent vessels circulating lymph into the node on its convex surface
efferent vessels circulating lymph out of the node at its hilus

103

Which of the following is not a function of the spleen?

site of stem cell maturation into T and B cells

104

The ability of T-lymphocytes to recognize self from non-self antigens is developed in the

thymus

105

Which person most likely has the largest thymus gland

TWO YEAR OLD`

106

The spleen is much like a lymph node except that the spleen

filters blood

107

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

production of plasma proteins

108

People that are confined to bed for long periods of time often develop edema because

without skeletal muscle contraction to force lymph through lymphatic vessels, fluid tends to accumulate in the interstitial spaces

109

Foreign particles that are injected into the skin are likely to enter the lymphatic system

rapidly

110

The functions of the lymphatic system do not include

transporting hormones to intestinal smooth muscle

111

A lysozyme is

an enzyme found in body fluids that flow over epithelial surfaces to destroy certain bacteria

112

Which of the following is a nonspecific mechanism of resistance

activation of the complement via the alternative pathway

113

Which of the following would most likely increase a person's risk of invasion by pathogenic microbes?

loss of epidermal tissue

114

The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are

lymphocytes and macrophages

115

Which of the following is an example of a specific body defense mechanism

antibody production

116

Antibodies are

gamma globulin proteins

117

T-cells and B-cells are

ymphocytes

118

In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed toward

self-antigens

119

Following a primary immune response, plasma cells give rise to

memory cells

120

T-lymphocytes are responsible for

cell-mediated immunity

121

B-cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in the

lymph nodes