Makukutu Review 2 Flashcards
Which of the following reagents reacts with crystal violet as the mordant?
In a cell that has a diploid number of 8 chromosomes, how many chromatids will be present at the beginning of mitosis?
The metabolic processes called fermentation
use an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor
A unique feature of cytokinesis in algae is
the formation of a cell plate between daughter cells
a microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus epidermidis and Esherichia coli into a culture medium. Following incubation, only the E. coli grows in the culture. What is the most likely explanation?
the culture medium must be selective
The step involving ATP, hexokinase and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is
an example of substrate-level phosphorylation
Classification of viruses includes
orders and families
which of the following is an indirect method for estimating the number of microbes in a sample?
viable plate counts
the property of organisms to integrate catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve cell efficiency is called
which body system is mainly affected by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
the shape of a virion is a function of the ____ of the virus.
A single celled eukaryote that is both photosynthetic and a chemoheterotroph is an
The even that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is
injection of the viral nucleic acid into the host cell.
Observing and characterizing colonial growth for size, shape, edge, elevation, color, odor, and texture is part of
Bacteria described as "Low G + C"
have DNA composed of more that 50% AT pairs
Which of the following events occurs in the lytic cycle of bacteriophage T4 infection but NOT in the lysogenic cycle?
digestion of host DNA
The outermost layer of a virion fulfills which of the following functions of the virus?
both protection and recognition
Which of the following is not true of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
Generates glucose from CO2 and H20
Identify the processes of glucose metabolism represented in figure 5-1
A=glycolysis, B=fermentation, C=Kreb's cycle, D=electron transport chain
Which of the following explains why honey can be stored at room temperature for years without spoiling?
A flexible, spiral-shaped bacterium is called a
A cell that uses an organic carbon source and obtains energy from light would be called a
The viruses of fungi have RNA genomes and lack a capsid. They are therefore similar to
Each of the following are electron carriers except
Which of the following are not photosynthetic pigments?
Eukaryotic sexual reproduction requires the process known as
Mixed acid fermentation
produces several different acids plus CO2 and H2 gases
When a virus enters a lysogenic phase, it means
the virus is integrated into the DNA of the host cell and is latent
The correct sequence for the phases indicated by the letters A, B, C, and D is
lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, death phase
Which of the following quantification techniques can distinguish living cells from dead cells in a culture?
Which of the following is an approach to preventing the formation of biofilms?
increasing quorum sensing
Which of the following is present in cells only during virus infection?
Which of the following processes utilize inorganic phosphate?
both photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
A soil sample dilution spread on a plate containing carbohydrate-based medium yields a wide variety of colonies. One colony has no other bacterial colonies growing near it.Further investigation reveals the bacteria in the colony are Gram-positive and filamentous. The bacteria in the colony may be a member of the genus
The process known as ____ is a mechanism of release for enveloped viruses
Virus replication results in the death of the cell in ___ infections
Organisms that can grow with or without oxygen present are
either facultative anaerobes or aerotolerant anaerobes
A Petroff-Hauser counting chamber is a
glass slide containing an etched grid for counting microbes directly using a microscope
When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, what is the net production of ATP?
Students in a microbiology lab are provided plates of medium to use in their bacterial culturing. The growth of organisms that can metabolize mannose sugar will result in the agar turning yellow, while the agar color remains unchanged if the mannose is not metabolized. The plates contain a ___ medium.
What feature of mycobacteria is responsible for the unusually slow growth of these bacteria?
the mycolic acid in their cell walls requires signification metabolic investment.
A plasmodium is a coenocytic structure associated with
The best method for preserving bacterial cells in storage for decades is
Diploid cell cultures and continuous cell cultures differ in which of the following ways?
both longevity and source of cells
Creating conditions in the laboratory that promote the growth of some microbes while inhibiting the growth of others is called
selective enrichment culturing
Microaerophiles are microbes that grow best at low
Microbial growth rates are controlled in a chemostat by
controlling the amount of a limiting nutrient
The enzyme lysozyme is critical for which of the stages of a bacteriophage T4 infection cycle?
entry and release
A laboratory protocol lists the following ingredients: 1 g sucrose, 16.4 g Na2HPO4, 1.5 g (NH4)3PO4, 0.02 g CaCO3, KNO3, water to 1 liter and autoclave. This recipe is for a
A single-celled eukaryote with two nuclei and cilia are classified as
In which stage of aerobic respiration is water produced?
electron transport system
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Gram-negative tiny bacilli that are intracellular parasites. They are in the genus
Phototrophic bacteria that use chlorophyll a are in the phylum
A fastidious organism might be grown on which of the following types of media?
A microorganism found living under conditions of high ____ is a barophile.
When conditions become inhospitable, members of the genus Clostridium produce an internal durable, dormant form by the process of
Which of the following membranes can give rise to a viral envelope?
the nucleur and cytoplasmic membranes, and the endoplasmic reticulum
In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the
A 100 ul sample containing 1000 bacterial cells/ ul in log phase growth is added to 9.9 ml of fresh culture medium broth. Assuming no nutrients are limited supply, and a generation time of 30 minutes, how many bacteria will be present in the entire broth culture after six hours?
4.096 x 10 8
What is one of the most difficult aspects of studying animal viruses?
the use of animals is expensive, and unethical to many people
The Gram-positive coccus _____ grows in irregular clusters, and is frequently found in the human nasal cavity. When it invades other parts of the body it can cause serious disease.
Termites are dependent on protozoa of the genus
Which of the following is not true of anaerobic respiration?
Prions cause disease in
Changes in temperature or pH can cause enzymes to lose activity. What is a common feature of these two effects?
temperature and pH both induce an enzyme to lose its precise three-dimensional shape
The arrow indicates the only protein component of this complex. This illustration represents a(n)
Which of the following agents is capable of inducing conversation of a prophage to the lytic cycle?
both UV light and X-rays
Single-celled algae that are major producers of oxygen and whose silica cell walls are useful in a variety of products for humans are the
vary in size and shape
Oncogenic viruses include all the following except
The "giant" bacterium Epulopiscium reproduces by means of
During ___, viral synthesis is suspended.
Members of the genus Chamydia are
The majority of reduced NAD is produced in
Each NADH that enters the electron transport system gives rise to ___ ATP.
The Six I's of studying microorganisms include all of the following except
Which virus is CORRECTLY matched with its method of entry?
HIV, membrane fusion
The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis.
Prokaryotes of the genus Pyrodictium are
What bacterial structure is responsible for separating the daughter DNA molecules after replication?
FAD, NADP, NAD, and coenzyme A are all ____ carriers.
In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum number of ATP generated?
Which of the following products of glucose catabolism is a substrate for fatty acid synthesis?
Fungi called Deuteromycetes are not known to reproduce sexually. Nonetheless, most of them are considered members of the ____ on the basis of genetic sequences.
The Gram-negative diplococci ____ are pathogenic members of the betaproteobacteria that infect mammalian mucous membranes.
Joan wants to discover a microbe capable of degrading an environmental contaminant. Which of the following is the process she should use?
Low G + C bacilli in the genus _____ are beneficial to humans as probiotics.
Which of the following is a protozoan with two nuclei and no mitochondria?
An oxidase detection test can be used to identify certain bacteria because they lack
The production of NADH takes place during the _____ stage(s) of glycolysis.
Some human viruses are difficult to study because
they only grow in normal human cells
Non-motile members of the Alveolata are
Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an
In aerobic non-photosynthetic organisms, the majority of ATP is generated by
Which of the following statements regarding meiosis is MOST accurate?
A diploid cell produces haploid daughter cells
Pleomorphic Gram-negative members of the Firmicules that colonize mammalian respiratory mucous membranes are the
Classification of bacteria into different phyla is based on comparisons involving which of the following?
both DNA and protein sequences
Zones of clearing in cell cultures that are the result of virus infection are called plaques. Sometimes "cloudy plaques" are seen on bacterial cultures infected with bacteriophage. What type of viral infection might cause this appearance?
During the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvic acid, ____ is produced.
In what way do algae differ from plants?
All algae are unicellular (best guess)
Many metabolites for anabolic pathways are produced by the _____ pathway.
When cells are metabolically active but not dividing, they are in the ____ phase.
Each FADH2 from the Krebs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to ___ ATP's.
Recombination of genetic material between homologous chromosomes occurs during
early prophase 1 of meiosis
Chemical reactions that are reversible, proceeding anabolically or catabolically, are called
Host specificity of a virus is due to
interactions between viral and cellular surface molecules
How are fungal viruses different from viruses that infect other organisms?
they have no extracellular state
When mitosis occurs without cytokinesis, which of the following is produced?
Replication of the DNA occurs during
Bacterial binary fission results in _____ growth
The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell during
In contrast to most dsDNA animal viruses, the poxviruses replicate solely in the cytoplasm of the host cell. This fact implies that the viral genome may encode
a DNA polymerase
uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP and requires oxygen (best guess)
A material useful in microbiological media is derived from
The envelope portion of an enveloped virus is composed of
host cell membranes containing virus-encoded glycoproteins
A pure culture contains only
one species of microorganism
During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
The Gram-positive obligate anaerobe ____ causes a severe diarrhea.
Which of the following is not involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
Pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH
Halophiles are found living in high _____ conditions.
The anaerobic Clostridium species are troublesome pathogens in part because of their capacity for
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the structure and function of enzymes?
After an enzyme has catalyzed a reaction, it resumes its original shape and can interact with a new substrate molecule.
A species of the genus Streptococcus is the leading cause of
"flesh-eating" bacterial infections
During which growth phase do antimicrobial drugs have the greatest inhibitory effect?
the susceptibility is the same for all phases
What is the major product of the Calvin-Benson cycle that can then be used to form glucose?
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)
How will E. coli appear if the mordant is not applied?
Protozoa that have a single large mitochondrion and are found living in animals are
Which of the following types of animal virus requires RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase to be replicated?
How many ATP molecules can theoretically be produced from the NADH generated by the catabolism of a molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration?
Plaque assays are used for
determining the density of a phage in a culture
The redox carriers of the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are
Sodium thioglycollate is found in which of the following types of media?
Infection with ____ is likely to result in destruction of the host cell by lysis.
Gram-negative nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in association with plant roots are
How is the HIV provirus different from a lambda-phage prophage?
the HIV provirus is integrated permanently into the host cell's DNA
Sister chromatids separate during _____ of meiosis
requires an organic electron acceptor
The psychrophilic Gram-positive bacillus ____ can become an intracellular parasite of white blood cells
Which of the following is involved in the attachment of a bacteriophage to a bacterial cell?
random collisions, chemical attractions, and receptor specificity
The principle sites of amphibolic interaction occur during
glycolysis and Krebs cycle
An epidemiologist is investigating a new disease and observes what appear to be bacteria inside tissue cells in clinical samples from victims. The scientist wants to try to isolate the bacteria in the lab. What culture conditions are most likely to be successful?
inoculation of cell cultures
High G + C Gram-positive filamentous bacteria of the genus _____ are capable of metabolizing a diverse range of environmental contaminants.
Which of the following is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?
The genus Mycobacterium includes species responsible for
The genome of which of the following types of animal virus can act directly as mRNA?
The method of obtaining isolated cultures that utilizes surface area to physically dilute specimens is
the streak-plate technique
What is the correct order for the stages of a lytic replication cycle, from earliest to latest stages?
Attachment, Entry, Synthesis, Assembly, Release
Protozoa that move by means of lobe-like pseudopods and lack shells are classified as
A ____ is a mass of neoplastic cells
A microbiologist inoculates a growth medium with 100 bacterial cells/ml. If the generation time of the species is 1 hour, and there is no lag phase, how long will it be before the culture contains more than 10,000 cells/ml?
Retrovirus require the activity of ______ to complete their infection cycle.
Which of the following may occur in a lysogenic infection, but NOT a latent one?
the inserted viral DNA may leave the host DNA
Asexual reproduction within a hypha produces
Cocci which divide along alternating planes may stick together to form
Multicellular organisms with hard exoskeletons, segmented bodies and four pairs of jointed legs in the adult stage are
The development of a cancerous cell is said to require "multiple hits" This means
a series of separate events over time lead to the loss of cell cycle regulation
The arrangement represented in the figure is typical of which of the following genera of bacteria?
Which of the following statements regarding virus taxomony is TRUE?
some virus family names are derived from the name of an important member of the family
Which of the following is associated with meiosis but NOT with mitosis?
Naked capsid animal viruses gain entry to host cells by
both endocytosis and direct penetration
In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's ____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____.
MacConkey agar plates represent _____ medium.
both a differential and a selective
Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex organic substances are called
All of the following is correct about treating viral diseases except
viruses are killed by the same antibiotics that kill bacteria
Which of the following is a cell type produced during sexual reproduction in fungi?
Mycloplasmas are pleomorphic because they
have no cell walls
Which of the following oxidizing agents is sometimes produced during aerobic respiration?
A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loeffler's methylene blue. All the cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of
All of the following pertain to glycolysis except
degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O
Gram-negative facultative anaerobes that metabolize carbohydrates via glycolysis are members of
The ____ is the entire interwoven mass of one multicellular fungal organism.
Simple eukaryotes that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and reproduce by means of alternation of generations are known as
A ____ is a virus that infects bacterial cells
The current taxonomy of the bacteria as described in Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology
is primarily based on genetic sequences
In reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases an electron donor is
Which of the following characteristics distinguishes that archaea from the bacteria?
cell wall composition, cytoplasmic membrane lipids, and 16S rRNA sequences
Which of the following is an accurate description of a virion?
an infectious particle of protein and nucleic acid outside a host cell
The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins
the Krebs cycle
The conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates is an example of
Hydrolases are generally involved in ______ reactions
Small circular RNA molecules without capsids are characteristic of
All of the following are examples of basic dyes except
The process of metastasis results from
One mechanism by which viruses may cause cancer is to interrupt the genetic regulatory sequences of repressor proteins. Which of the following types of viruses is most likely to be involved in causing cancer by this mechanism?
An aligned pair of homologous chromosomes is called a
All of the following are ways in which cells regulate metabolism EXCEPT
use of the same coenzymes for anabolic and catabolic reactions that share substrate molecules
A change in one partner in a close relationship that leads to a change in the other partner is
Which of the following types of microbes might be found in a boiling hot spring?
Which of the following is a feature shared by viruses and living organisms?
possession of a genome that directs synthesis of materials necessary for replication
Why is lysogeny advantageous to a bacteriophage?
the genetic material of the bacteriophage is amplified many times over that seen in a lytic phage.
Multiple mitoses followed by a single cytokinetic event is known as
How are prions different from all other known infectious agents?
they lack nucleic acid
Which type of media can be used to determine if a bacteria is motile?
Which process is represented by this figure?
Single-celled eukaryotes lacking a cell wall are
In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate
A cell is infected with a virus carrying an oncogene sequence in its genome. What process may occur if the oncogene is expressed in the infected cell?
Aerobic free-living Gram-negative bacilli in the phylum Proteobacteria that are capable of metabolizing a wide range of organic compounds are members of the genus
Mites are responsible for the spread of
diseases are caused by Rickettsias
Cultures of bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab bench top, on the shelf of 37 degrees celsius, and 50 degrees celcius, slight growth out on the bench top and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?