A&P Chapter 6 Flashcards

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The process of bones increasing in width is known as __________.

A) closing of the epiphyseal plate

B) concentric-growth

C) epiphyseal plate closure

D) appositional growth

Answer: D


What is the structural unit of compact bone?

A) spongy bone

B) the osteon

C) osseous matrix

D) lamellar bone

Answer: B


Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________

A) sherpey's fibers

B) elastic tissue

C) fat

D) blood-forming cells

Answer: C


The term diploe refers to the _______.

A) double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone

B) two types of marrow found within most bones

C) fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue

D) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

Answer: D


The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian Canal) is the site of ___________.

A) adipose tissue and nerve fibers

B) blood vessels and nerve fibers

C) cartilage and interstitial lamellae

D) yellow marrow and spicules

Answer: B


Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

A) somatomedins

B) growth hormone

C) prolactin

D) thyroid hormone

Answer: B


For intermembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

A) a medullary cavity forms

B) a bone collar forms around the cartilage model

C) the cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate

D) an ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue

Answer: D


The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called __________.

A) the struts of bone known as spicules

B) Volkmann's canals

C) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

D) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage

Answer: C


Osteomyelitis is ___________.

A) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism

B) literally known as "soft bones"

C) due to pus-forming bacteria

D) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium

Answer: C


Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

A) support

B) communication

C) production of blood cells

D) storage of minerals

Answer: B


A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the _______.

A) articular cartilage

B) epiphysis

C) metaphysis

D) diaphysis

Answer: D


Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

A) parathyroid hormone

B) thyroid hormone

C) calcium

D) growth hormone

Answer: D


Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?

A) ramus

B) foramen

C) fossa

D) meatus

Answer: A


Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

A) estrogen

B) parathyroid hormone

C) thyroxine

D) calcitonin

Answer: B


What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

A) hyaline cartilage

B) dense fibrous connective tissue

C) elastic connective tissue

D) fibrocartilage

Answer: A


Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

A) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

B) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

C) along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger

D) growth at the epiphyseal plate

Answer: A


In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

A) overproduction of thyroid hormone

B) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity

C) elevated levels of sex hormones

D) too much vitamin D in the diet

Answer: C


What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?

A) cartilage

B) membranes

C) fascia

D) bone

Answer: A


Wolff's law is concerned with __________.

A) the function of bone being dependent on shape

B) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

C) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of the osteoblast to osteoclasts

D) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

Answer: D


Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes the process?

A) osteoclast

B) osteocyte

C) stem cell

D) osteoclast

Answer: B


The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the _________.

A) osteoblast

B) osteoclast

C) chondrocyte

D) osteocyte

Answer: A


The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

A) amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone

B) amount of mineral salts in the bone

C) presence of osteoblasts in the bone

D) sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

Answer: D


Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

A) thyroid

B) pineal gland

C) parathyroid

D) spleen

Answer: A


Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ___________.

A) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D

B) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E

C) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

D) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Answer: D


The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

A) trabecular bone

B) compact bone

C) irregular bone

D) spongy bone

Answer: B