Psychology Ch 4 & 5

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by mckennachannell
2,358 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Which of the following is true regarding the distribution of intelligence in a population?
a. A larger proportion of the population scores above average than below average on tests of mental ability.
b. Half of the population is above average and exactly as many are below average in the capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activities.
c. A larger proportion of the population scores below average than above average on tests of mental ability.
d. We have not been able to come up with an accurate measure of the distribution of intelligence within a population because people vary too much from one another.

B

2

Which of the following defines the concept of reaction range?
a. the general mental ability that underlies overall performance on all tests of mental ability
b. ability to modify or change your behavior to best suit your environment
c. the inherited range of possibility that genes provide
d. the variation in intelligence due to genetic differences

C

3

Which of the following is true regarding language and communication?
a. Languages are more general then communication.
b. Language is a specific form of communication.
c. Language and communication are synonymous, that is, they are two words to refer to the same thing.
d. Communication systems use rules but languages may not.

B

4

Which of the following is true regarding critical periods?
a. If we are exposed to something during a special time period, we are more sensitive to it.
b. Critical periods apply only to language.
c. The critical period for language is up until about 6 years of age.
d. Research on critical periods suggests that language learning becomes easier as we get older.

A

5

"Human beings...are very much at the mercy of the particular language which" they speak. This quote supports which of the following?
a. linguistic relativity
b. critical periods
c. language vs. communication distinction
d. prototype theory

A

6

Lola was trying to fit a new piece of furniture into her room. She could not figure out how to get it through the door. Then, all of a sudden, she realized that if she turned it upside down and on its side, it would fit. Lola experienced which of the following?
a. intuition
b. algorithm
c. functional fixedness
d. insight

D

7

Allan is trying to hang a picture on the wall. He opens his tool box but only sees a screw driver, not his hammer. He spends the next 20 minutes looking all over his house for the hammer. Failing to realize that he could have used the handle of the screw driver to pound the nail into the wall is an example of which of the following?
a. intuition
b. trial and error
c. functional fixedness
d. insight

C

8

Angie is going on a trip but after hearing about so many plane crashes on the news recently, she decides it would be better to drive than fly. Angie is making her decision by using the _______.
a. availability heuristic
b. elimination by aspects
c. representativeness heuristic
d. single feature model

A

9

Peggy was looking for a new coat. She wanted it to be red, knee-length, and waterproof. As she looking through the racks at the store she quickly discarded coats first based on color, then length, and finally whether or not they were waterproof before making her final selection. Which decision making method was Peggy using?
a. single feature model
b. representativeness heuristic
c. additive model
d. elimination by aspects

D

10

Which of the following is an example of a test of non-verbal ability?
a. reasoning
b. reading comprehension
c. vocabulary
d. memory capacity

D

11

Peter is 14-months-old and tells his mom, "Mommy, up!" Which of the following is likely true?
a. Peter is using telegraphic speech to convey what he wants.
b. Peter is not yet using full sentences and may have a problem with language delay.
c. Peter is babbling which is typical of a child at 14 months..
d. Peter is using infant-directed speech which is common at his age.

A

12

"It's simple. I know it's a table because it has a flat top and four legs." The person who is making this statement would likely side with which of the following approaches to categorization?
a. prototype theory
b. exemplar approach
c. definitional approach
d. natural concept approach

B

13

Conrad is trying to guess the number of jelly beans in a jar at a fair. He thinks that the best approach is to count the number he can see in one tenth of the jar and then multiply that number by 10. Conrad is using which of the following problem solving strategies?
a. a heuristic
b. intuition
c. trial and error
d. an algorithm

A

14

Which is true regarding infant-directed speech?
a. It helps language development as it helps babies focus on the important words in a sentences.
b. It can hinder language development. Parents should not use babytalk.
c. When infants use it, it is a sign of language delay.
d. It is very common in the United States but less so in other cultures around the world.

A

15

Involves trying and testing different possibilities until a successful solution is reached.

a. Trial and error

b. Algorithm

c. Heuristic

D. Intuition

A

16

Step-by-step strategies that, if followed correctly, will guarantee you a solution to the problem.

a. Trial and error

b. Algorithm

c. Heuristic

d. Insight

B

17

Problem solving techniques that are like short cuts to a solution.

a. Trial and error

b. Algorithm

c. Heuristic

d. Intuition

C

18

Happens when you come to a solution to a problem without realizing how you got there

a. Heuristic

b. Mental set

c. Intuition

d. Insight

C

19

Occurs when you come to a solution all of a sudden, often without realizing that you are about to get there.

a. Insight

b. Intuition

c. Heuristic

d. Mental set

A

20

Making a list of features that you consider important (rank on scale of 1-5 for each feature, add up score for each option and decide which one reached the highest score)

a. Representativeness heuristic

b. Confirmation bias

c. Additive model

d. Availability heuristic

C

21

Rely on probabilities while making a decision

a. Confirmation bias

b. Representativeness heuristic

c. Availability heuristic

d. Additive model

B

22

Base your decision on the number of similar examples you can bring to mind

a. Availability heuristic

b. Belief bias

c. Confirmation bias

d. Single feature model

A

23

Occurs when we make decisions based on how believable the result is

a. Availability heuristic

b. Belief bias

c. Confirmation bias

d. Single feature model

B

24

Tend to look for evidence that reinforces a decision or rule, but does not look for exceptions to the rule

a. Availability heuristic

b. Belief bias

c. Confirmation bias

d. Single feature model

C

25

We tend to make decisions based on how the question is asked

a. Belief bias

b. Framing effect

c. Confirmation bias

d. heuristic

B

26

If an adult was speaking to a baby, which of the following should he/she use?

a. infant directed speech

b. telegraphic speech

c. cooing

d. babbling

A

27

The idea that the language you speak influences the way that you understand and perceive the world is known as which of the following?

a. cognition

b. displacement

c. language vs. communication distinction

d. linguistic relativity

D

28

The best or most typical instance of a category is called a ______.

a. prototype

b. exemplar

c. natural concept

d. formal concept

A

29

Which of the following explains why the definitional approach does not work?

a. There is no such thing as a true, actual example of a category.

b. Very few concepts have a clear definition or can be defined by a list of features.

c. Humans have a very difficult time grouping or organizing similar type of information together.

d. It is nearly impossible to come up with an ideal example of a category member.

B

30

Which of the following is true regarding the distribution of intelligence in a population?

a. A larger proportion of the population scores below average than above average on tests of mental ability.

b. Half of the population is above average and exactly as many are below average in the capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activities.

c. A larger proportion of the population scores above average than below average on tests of mental ability.

d. We have not been able to come up with an accurate measure of the distribution of intelligence within a population because people vary too much from one another.

B

31

Which of the following defines the concept of reaction range?

a. the general mental ability that underlies overall performance on all tests of mental ability

b. the variation in intelligence due to genetic differences

c. the inherited range of possibility that genes provide

d. ability to modify or change your behavior to best suit your environment

C

32

The mental processes that we use to acquire, retain, and use knowledge defines which of the following?
a. intelligence

b. cognition

c. categorization

d. problem solving

B

33

Which of the following is the feature of language that allows us to communicate about things that are separated from us in time and space?

a. generativity

b. displacement

c. semantics

d. syntax

B

34

"Movies to the are we going." This sentence has incorrect English _____.

a. syntax

b. phonemes

c. semantics

d. generativity

A

35

Which of the following is the definition of cooing?

a. The way children talk to each other.

b. The sounds that adults make when speaking to infants to get their attention.

c. Infants' first language-like sounds that consist of mainly vowel sounds.

d. The sounds that birds make.

C

36

Which of the following is true regarding critical periods?

a. The critical period for language is up until about 6 years of age.

b. Research on critical periods suggests that language learning becomes easier as we get older.

c. If we are exposed to something during a special time period, we are more sensitive to it.

d. Critical periods apply only to language.

C

37

The ability to organize similar information together is called ______.

a. categorization

b. trial and error

c. problem solving

d. decision making

A

38

Concepts that have a strict definition are known as ______.

a. natural concepts

b. prototypes

c. formal concepts

d. exemplars

C

39

An equilateral triangle is a closed, three-sided figure in which all three sides are equal. If a shape does not meet these criteria, it is not an equilateral triangle. Therefore, according to our chapter, equilateral triangles are an example of a _____.

a. formal concept

b. fuzzy concept

c. natural concept

d. mathematical concept

A

40

A mental set is

a. a step-by-step strategy that, if followed correctly, will guarantee a solution to a problem.

b. a problem-solving technique that is like a shortcut to a solution.

c. a way of solving a problem based on a method that has worked in the past.

d. trying and testing different possibilities until a successful solution is reached.

C

41

Marco needed a new pair of shoes but only had $45 to spend. He went to the store and chose the only pair that fit within his budget. Which decision making method did Marco use?

a. elimination by aspects

b. additive model

c. single feature model

d. framing effect

C

42

Which of the following terms describes your ability to modify or change your behavior to best suit your environment?

a. g factor theory

b. adaptation

c. multiple intelligences

d. s factor theory

B

43

The s factor suggests

a. that there exists some general mental ability that underlies performance on all intelligence tests.

b. that people are able to change or modify their behavior in response to experiences.

c. that there exist various individual mental abilities.

d. that intelligence is primarily a factor of speed of processing.

C

44

Research on intelligence has shown that which of the following is true?

a. If you have an identical twin you will likely score similarly to one another on an intelligence test, but only if you grew up in the same environment, not if you grew up in separate homes.

b. If you have an identical twin the likelihood that you will score similarly on an intelligence test is no greater than for any other biological siblings.

c. If you have an identical twin you will likely score similarly to one another on an intelligence test.

d. If you have an identical twin you are less likely to have similar scores on an intelligence test than are other biological siblings.

C

45

Susan was in a horrible car accident when she was a young child — an accident in which her mother was killed. She claims that she always has been able to remember this accident. Which of the following statements about Susan’s claim is most likely to be true?

A. It is unlikely that Susan would be able to remember such a traumatic event because of the effects of repression.
B. It is unlikely that Susan would be able to forget such a traumatic event because of the effects of flashbulb memories.
C. Her memory probably is inaccurate in broad terms, although at least some details probably are accurate.
D. Her memory probably is accurate in broad terms, although at least some details probably are inaccurate

D

46

In a memory study, subjects watched a film of a minor car accident. Sometime later, they were asked questions about the film. One group of subjects was asked, “how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” The other group was asked, “how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” The group that heard the words “smashed into ” estimated that the cars were going faster than did the group that heard the word “hit.” This experiment shows the effects of

A. elaboration.
B. suggestion.
C. memory storage.
D. memory retrieval.

B

47

If an authority figure tells a person that he experienced a particular life event that, in reality, he never experienced, memory research has shown that the person will tend to

A. know immediately that the event never occurred.
B. rarely develop a false memory of the event.
C. almost always develop a false memory of the event.
D. sometimes develop a false memory of the event.

D

48

Kate was severely physically abused by a foster parent when she was 5 years old. She says that she has always been able to remember the abuse. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true?

A. Severe physical abuse generally leads to defensive forgetting, so Kate probably has constructed memories based on what she has been told.
B. Severe physical abuse generally leads to stress-induced forgetting, so Kate probably has constructed memories based on what she has been told.
C. Kate’s memories probably are inaccurate in broad outline, although at least some details probably are accurate.
D. Kate’s memories probably are accurate in broad outline, although at least some details probably are inaccurate.

D

49

It is difficult to study the process of repression because

A. it cannot be studied experimentally.
B. it cannot be studied analytically.
C. it is thought to occur preconsciously
D. it is thought to occur unconsciously.

D

50

If a person is repeatedly and intensely pushed to retrieve an episodic memory that she has forgotten, it is likely that she will develop a mostly false memory. Which theory of forgetting helps us to explain why this happens?

A. reconstruction theory
B. encoding-specificity theory
C. decay theory
D. All the above are needed to explain false memories.

A

51

Which of the following seems to be essential for the development of a false memory?

A. A person is experiencing a great deal of stress.
B. A person is experiencing the effects of amnesia.
C. A person tries repeatedly to remember a forgotten event.
D. A person tried repeatedly to store a forgotten event

C

52

It is difficult to know if repression has occurred in a particular individual because it is thought to

A. occur unconsciously.
B. occur preconsciously.
C.. result in episodic memories.
D. result in semantic memories.

A

53

Critics of therapeutic techniques for recovering repressed memories state that these techniques involve a great deal of

A. retrieval.
B. suggestion.
C. encoding.
D. emotion.

B

54

According to the reconstruction theory of forgetting, which of the following statements about long-term memories probably is true?

A. Explicit long-term memories often are wrong in details, but implicit long-term memories typically are completely accurate.
B. Implicit long-term memories often are wrong in details, but explicit long-term memories typically are completely accurate.
C. Explicit memories are accurate in virtually all details, although we often have trouble retrieving the details.
D. Explicit memories may be accurate in broad terms, although they often are inaccurate in at least some of their details.

D

55

I cannot remember ever experiencing before the song that is written on the sheet music I’m looking at because my memory of the song is encoded as a melody that I once heard. Which theory of forgetting best explains my inability to remember the song?

A. encoding-specificity theory
B. interference theory
C. defensive theory
D. reconstruction theory

A

56

Paul’s girlfriend believes that he keeps forgetting the dates of his algebra exams because simply thinking about algebra causes him to become very upset. Which theory of forgetting is his girlfriend using to explain Paul’s inability to remember the dates of his algebra exams?

A. encoding-specificity theory
B. interference theory
C. defensive theory
D. reconstruction theory

C

57

Interference seems to have its effects on forgetting primarily by affecting the ___ of information.

A. encoding
B. storing
C. retrieving

C

58

According to the defensive theory of forgetting, explicit memories become implicit memories because a person unconsciously wants to avoid experiencing

A. negative emotions.
B. positive emotions.
C. negative reinforcements.
D. positive reinforcements.

A

59

Yesterday, at a stoplight, I saw a passenger in the next car who looked very familiar, but I couldn’t remember how I knew him. This morning when I walked into my class, I saw that he was one of my students. In fact, he often came to my office during office hours to ask questions. What is the best explanation for my forgetting who he was when I saw him at the stoplight yesterday?

A. I had reconstructed the memory incorrectly due to forming an inadequate memory code of his face (leading to retireval difficulties).
B. There was a mismatch between the retrieval cue (an image of his face at the stoplight) and my memory code (an image of his face in the classroom and my office).
C. My explicit memory code for him (an image of his face in the classroom and my office) had decayed significantly and was re-encoded only after seeing him again in class.
D. I probably had transformed my explicit memory code into an implicit memory code that produced a vague feeling of familiarity when I saw him at the stoplight

B

60

Interference is greatest when the memory codes for the competing information

A. are different from those of the information to be retrieved.
B. are similar to those of the information to be retrieved.
C. have been encoded as implicit episodic memories.
D. have been encoded as implicit semantic memories.

B

61

Defensive forgetting seems to have its effects on forgetting primarily by affecting the ___ of information.

A. encoding
B. storing
C. retrieving

C

62

According to reconstruction theory, the more often you recall an episodic memory, the more likely it is that your memory of the episode will become _____ over time.

A. less accurate
B. more accurate
C. less detailed
D. more detailed

A

63

According to reconstruction theory, we forget because

A. implicit memories eventually become explicit memories.
B. explicit memories eventually become implicit memories.
C. we add inaccurate information when retrieving implicit memories.
D. we add inaccurate information when retrieving explicit memories.

D

64

Which of the following statements about long-term memories is false?

A. A long-term memory is encoded as fragments of the information processed by sensory memory and working memory.
B. A long-term memory is encoded with virtually all of the information processed by sensory memory and working memory.
C. Some long-term memory codes are stored at the preconscious level, which are referred to as explicit memories.
D. Some long-term memory codes are stored at the unconscious level, which are referred to as implicit memories.

B

65

Lisa remembers that, when she turned 21 last year, three of her friends took her to a bar, where she had only one glass of wine. Afterwards, they had a late dinner at an expensive restaurant. According to reconstruction theory, Lisa’s memories of that evening should be

A. accurate in all details because the events surrounding her birthday would have been encoded as a flashbulb memory.
B. accurate in all details because the events surrounding her birthday would have been encoded as self-reference memories.
C. inaccurate in some details because the glass of wine probably would have caused her to experience major difficulties in memory formation.
D. inaccurate in some details because she would have encoded and stored only fragments of each of the events from that night.

D

66

Penfield and his colleagues stimulated portions of the cerebral cortex in the temporal lobes of patients, which resulted in the retrieval of what seemed to be vivid episodic memories in some of them. It is likely that stimulating the temporal lobes in these areas caused

A. the retrieval of unconscious episodic memories.
B. the retrieval of preconscious episodic memories.
C. vivid hallucinations that felt like memories.
D. vivid delusional beliefs that felt like memories.

C

67

Reconstruction theory focuses on _____ to explain the forgetting of details of life events.

A. where memory codes are located
B. how memories are encoded
C. the role of the central executive
D. none of the above

B

68

Two people often remember the same events differently, especially those that occurred a long time ago. Neverheless, both people usually insist that their own memories are completely accurate and that the other person either has a “bad memory” or is lying. According to reconstruction theory, why do people often insist that their own memories are accurate, even when they contain inaccuracies?

A. Because they probably either have bad memories or are lying.
B. Because the addition of inaccurate details occurs unconsciously.
C. Because the encoding of life events affects self-awareness.
D. Because the limbic system affects their emotional states.

B

69

According to reconstruction theory, episodic memories that are retrieved frequently typically should _____ than episodic memories that are retrieved only occasionally.

A. contain more inaccurate details
B. contain fewer inaccurate details
C. have memory codes with more associations
D. have memory codes with fewer associations

A

70

People who have had severe damage to both hippocampi are likely to experience the most difficulty with forming new _____ memories.

A. semantic
B. episodic
C. implicit
D. working

B

71

Which of the following is an example of a semantic memory?

A. I remember that I fed the dogs this morning at 8:30 AM.
B. I remember that there was nothing good on TV last night.
C. I remember getting a new book last week.
D. I remember that my sister’s name is Lois.

D

72

After recovering from injuries caused by an auto accident, Therese is not able to develop new episodic memories. According to memory research, which of the following is the most likely cause of her memory difficulties?

A. She probably is unable to form new long-term memories.
B. There is a disruption of neurotransmitter activity in the frontal lobes.
C. Structures in her limbic system probably have been damaged.
D. All the above are equally likely to be the cause of her amnesia.

C

73

Which of the following is the main type of memory that includes all the others?

A. long-term memory
B. semantic memory
C. episodic memory
D. implicit memory
E. explicit memory

A

74

A(n) ___ memory is a memory for some item of general knowledge (that is, a fact about the world).

A. semantic
B. explicit
C. working
D. episodic

A

75

I was just recalling the day that I married my first wife. I remembered that it occurred in the rabbi’s house on a very hot day in August. This type of memory is called a(n)

A. episodic memory.
B. procedural memory.
C. implicit memory.
D. semantic memory.

A

76

A person who has had damage to both hippocampi is least likely to show impairments in the development of new

A. explicit memories.
B. episodic memories.
C. implicit memories.
D. long-term memories.

C

77

I just recalled that Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States. The memory is stored as a(n)

A. episodic memory.
B. conditioned memory.
C. working memory.
D. semantic memory.

D

78

How does a semantic memory differ from semantic encoding?

A. Semantic encoding is a type of mental processing performed in working memory, whereas a semantic memory is a type of explicit memory in the long-term subsystem.
B. Semantic encoding is a type of rehearsal, whereas a semantic memory is a type of long-term memory.
C. Semantic encoding produces a memory code, whereas a semantic memory is retrieved by the activation of a memory code.
D. All the above are differences between semantic encoding and semantic memories.

D

79

Which of the following is the best way to create enduring (stable) long-term memories of verbal information — memories that can be activated by a wide range of retrieval cues?

A. semantic encoding
B. phonemic encoding
C. retrieval rehearsal
D. maintenance rehearsal

A

80

An eyewitness to a crime has been asked to describe what the perpetrator of the crime looked like so that a sketch artist can draw a picture of the perpetrator’s face. The eyewitness is being asked to perform a _____ task.

A. recall
B. relearning
C. priming
D. recognition

A

81

Which of the following tasks would allow an implicit long-term memory to affect conscious behaviors, thoughts, and emotions?

A. recognition
B. priming
C. recall

B

82

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the long-term memory subsystem?

A. It has a virtually unlimited capacity.
B. It stores memories for at least several minutes.
C. Its memory codes are stored outside of awareness.
D. All the above are characteristics of long-term memory.

D

83

An eyewitness to a crime is asked to identify the perpetrator of the crime in a police line-up of six individuals. This is an example of a _____ task.

A. recall
B. relearning
C. rehearsal
D. recognition

D

84

An essay test is a ___ measure of memory; a multiple-choice test assessing rote memorization is a ___ measure of memory.

A. relearning; recognition
B. recall; recognition
C. recall; relearning
D. recognition; recall

B

85

A recall task usually requires more effort than a recognition task because it requires that a person

A. encode several pieces of sensory information.
B. activate implicit-memory codes in working memory.
C. construct his or her own retrieval cues for the information.

C

86

Which of the following retrieval tasks would not be used to retrieve implicit memories?

A. priming
B. relearning
C. recognition
D. All the above could be used to retrieve implicit memories.

C

87

According to the SMM, attention is the mental process that activates explicit memory codes and transfers this information from

A. sensory memory to long-term memory.
B. long-term memory to short-term memory.
C. long-term memory to sensory memory.

B

88

Which of the following would be an example of an implicit memory?

A. Tom could not remember the phone number of a friend whom he hadn’t called in years, but he was able to dial it correctly anyways.
B. Ivan took a test on state capitals and remembered that the capital of New Hampshire is Concord.
C. Sara recalls that her great-grandfather fought in World War I and that his name was Henry.

A

89

William is receiving psychotherapy for major depression. He often mentions to his therapist how unhappy his childhood was, and he remembers a number of unhappy childhood events. Which of the following is the BEST comment to make about William’s childhood memories?

A. People who are depressed tend to remember the past MORE accurately than do people who are happy.
B. People who are depressed tend to remember the past LESS accurately than do people who are happy.
C. Because he is depressed right now, he is MORE likely to remember unhappy events from the past than happy ones.
D. Because he is depressed right now, he is LESS likely to remember unhappy events from the past than happy ones.

C

90

Two groups of people (Group 1 and Group 2) drank five cups of coffee very rapidly and then learned a list of 20 words. A day later, Group 1 again drank five cups of coffee whereas Group 2 drank five cups of water. Group 1 better recalled the word list than Group 2. These results are BEST described by the concept of

A. state-dependent memory.
B. the mood-congruence effect.
C. implicit memories.
D. explicit memories.

A

91

Which personal event from the past should be easiest for a HAPPY person to recall?

A. failing an important algebra exam
B. driving to the grocery store last week
C. being praised by the boss
D. studying for a psychology test

C

92

When a memory task requires consciously recalling one’s long-term memories, the task involves the retrieval of ___ memories.

A. state-dependent
B. mood-congruent
C. implicit
D. explicit

D

93

Classical conditioning often occurs without a person’s awareness. Thus, this type of learning usually results in the formation of _____ memories.

A. explicit
B. implicit
C. mood-congruent
D. state-dependent

B

94

The case of H. M. (and others like him) shows that the hippocampus probably is most important for the formation of _____ memories.

A. state-dependent
B. mood-congruent
C. implicit
D. explicit

D

95

Which memory subsystem contains the largest amount of information regarding what is happening around you at this very moment?

A. explicit memory
B. implicit memory
C. working memory
D. sensory memory

C

96

When trying to remember the difference between the words “stalactite” (an icicle-shaped deposit that hangs from the roof of a cavern) and “stalagmite” (a conical deposit built up on the floor of a cavern), I think of the letter “c” in stalactite, which stands for “ceiling,” and the letter “m” in stalagmite, which stands for “mountain.” In using these memory aids to help me to remember each word, I have made use of

A. maintenance rehearsal.
B. elaborative rehearsal.
C. semantic rehearsal.
D. phonemic rehearsal.

B

97

Which of the following people would be MOST likely to remember one hour later the notes on a sheet of music after looking it over only briefly?

A. John, who is very good at remembering names and dates.
B. Joan, who has been a musician for over 30 years.
C. Jean, who shows increased activity in the frontal lobes.
D. June, who has an extremely high IQ score.

B

98

I need to remember a list of sixteen numbers: 19611963196919741977. I want to keep the entire list in working memory for a short period of time. I realize that I can separate the numbers into five groups that represent the years in which new presidents took office: 1961, 1863, 1969, 1974, 1977. I have no trouble maintaining these numbers in working memory because I have ___ the numbers.

A. perceived
B. retrieved
C. chunked
D. primed

C

99

As you read this section, you should be stopping yourself after each paragraph and summarizing it in your own words. In addition, you should be trying to think of good examples for each of the major concepts. If you are studying in this way, you are

A. placing the information directly in the episodic buffer, both semantic and phonemic.
B. placing the information directly into long-term memory, both episodic and nonepisodic.
C. using maintenance rehearsal to semantically encode the information in the reading.
D. using elaborative rehearsal to semantically encode the information in the reading.

D

100

Let’s say that you were asked to memorize a 12-item word list that was read to you aloud. The list included the following words: dog, cap, box, lamp. If you encoded this information in working memory using maintenance rehearsal, which of the following MISTAKES would you be MOST likely to make when retrieving the words immediately after the word list had been read?

A. canine, hat, container, light
B. frog, sap, fox, cramp
C. cat, pants, plate, night

B

101

Elaborative rehearsal is MOST important for

A. moving information from long-term to sensory memory.
B. moving information from short-term to long-term memory.
C. moving information from sensory to short-term memory.

B

102

Let’s say that you are asked to listen to a word list read out loud and then to perform another task for 15 seconds before being asked to recall the word list. The 15 seconds between the end of encoding and storing the word list and being asked to retrieve it is called the

A. retention interval.
B. retrieval time.
C. decay period.
D. recall point.

A

103

Elaborative rehearsal involves

A. linking new information to information already stored in long-term memory.
B. repeating new information over and over, thereby forming long-term memories.
C. the mental processes of storing and retrieving working and long-term memories.
D. maintaining new information in working memory for several minutes.

A

104

The concept of working memory is important because it

A. focuses on the fundamental importance of the iconic and echoic memory subsystems.
B. emphasizes that active information processing occurs in short-term memory.
C. is the place where preconscious and unconscious memories are initially processed.
D. all the above

B

105

The central executive is most closely associated with activity in the

A. hippocampus.
B. frontal lobes.
C. temporal lobes.
D. limbic system.

B

106

Which of the following statements about short-term memory is TRUE?

A. Short-term memories are lost through the rapid disappearance of engrams.
B. Short-term memories consist of everything you are paying attention to right now.
C. Short-term memories are lost when new information pushes out older information.
D. All the above are true

D

107

If you learn a word list and misremember the word “fan” as “tan,” this shows that you encoded the word “fan”

A. phonemically.
B. semantically.
C. structurally.

A

108

Which of the following statements about short-term memories is FALSE?

A. Short-term memories are encoded as reproductions of the sensory stimulus.
B. Short-term memories often are forgotten rapidly when they no longer are attended to.
C. Short-term memories can be held longer in the short-term store when they are rehearsed.
D. All the above are false.

A

109

When you listen to a show on television, the information that you are attending to right now is being held in

A. sensory memory.
B. short-term memory.
C. long-term memory.
D. all three memory systems.

B

110

Forgetting from short-term memory is best explained by all of the following theories EXCEPT:

A. decay theory
B. displacement theory
C. defensive theory

C

111

A student asked me a question during class. Just after she finished asking the question, my attention was distracted by another person who stood up and began to sing aloud. My attention came back to the question after the singing stopped; but now I no longer could remember what I was asked just 40 seconds earlier. This was probably due to the fact that the memory was lost from the ___ because I was not able to ___.

A. short-term store; rehearse the information
B. short-term store; retrieve the information
C. sensory store; rehearse the information
D. sensory store; retrieve the information

A

112

Displacement theory explains forgetting when a memory subsystem is limited in terms of its

A. duration.
B. level of awareness.
C. capacity.
D. encoding

C

113

The LONGEST duration of unrehearsed information in the short-term store is about

A. 1-5 seconds.
B. 5-10 seconds.
C. 15-20 seconds.
D. 10 minutes.

C

114

Sensory memories are encoded

A. phonemically.
B. semantically.
C. as reproductions of the sensory stimulus.
D. as cognitive maps of the sensory stimulus

C

115

Which of the following is an example of an iconic memory?

A. a visual image held in the short-term memory store.
B. a visual image held in the sensory-memory store.
C. a sound held in the short-term memory store.
D. a sound held in the sensory-memory store

B

116

The explanation that states that forgetting is due to the disappearance over time of a physiological “memory trace” is called

A. decay theory.
B. interference theory.
C. displacement theory.
D. reconstruction theory.

A

117

When an external event occurs, information about it FIRST goes to _____ memory, and then, if we _____ the information, it goes to _____ memory.

A. short-term; attend to; sensory
B. sensory; encode; long-term
C. short-term; encode; long-term
D. sensory; attend to; short-term

D

118

When a person shows better memory for items depending upon where these items are located in a list, the person is showing something called

A. the serial-position effect.
B. the primacy effect.
C. the recency effect.

A

119

Subjects in a study are given the following list of numbers to memorize:

55 34 98 53 23 76 82 45 13 21 95 68 26

If they remember best the numbers 95, 68, and 26, they are showing a ___ effect; if they remember best the numbers 55, 34, 98, they are showing a ___ effect.

A. primacy; serial
B. primacy; recency
C. recency; primacy
D. serial; recency

C

120

Because the first items in a word list tend to be repeated more than other items in the list, they are more likely to be in the ___ store.

A. long-term
B. short-term
C. sensory

A

121

Which of the following is NOT a type of memory storage in Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Standard Model of Memory?

A. sensory
B. motor
C. short-term
D. long-term

B

122

The recency effect is due to the fact that these items are most likely to be in the ___ store.

A. long-term
B. short-term
C. sensory

B

123

Oscar is unable to remember anything about the car accident and for a few minutes after, probably because his head hit the dashboard very hard, which left him dazed and confused. Oscar’s inability to remember the car accident was caused by his inability to _____ information about the car accident.

A. store
B. retrieve
C. encode

C

124

This morning I was trying to recall the name of a famous psychologist of the past. I knew that his name began with an “F” and was one syllable long. So I started listing possible names: “Fruit, Frolt, Fred, Freed, Frod, Froud.” All of a sudden, it hit me, “Freud”! This difficulty shows that I was having problems with the ___ of a memory.

A. encoding
B. retrieval
C. storing

B

125

When processing verbal information, semantic encoding is a type of processing involving the information’s

A. sound.
B. physical structure.
C. meaning.
D. feeling.

C

126

The recovery of information from the memory system is referred to as

A. storage.
B. encoding.
C. retrieval.

C

127

The three fundamental mental processes of the memory system are

A. sensory store, short-term store, long-term store.
B. structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding.
C. encoding, storing, and retrieving.

C

128

I write the word “proprium” on the chalkboard. If you encode this word in terms of its definition, you are encoding it ___; if you encode it by saying it rhymes with “throw thee, bum,” you are encoding it ___; if you encode it by noting that it is written in lower-case letters, you are encoding it ___.

A. semantically; phonemically; structurally
B. structurally; phonemically; semantically
C. phonemically; structurally; semantically
D. semantically; structurally; phonemically

A

129

The input of information into the memory system is called

A. storage.
B. encoding.
C. retrieval

B

130

When processing verbal information, structural encoding is a type of processing involving the information’s

A. sound form.
B. physical form.
C. meaning.
D. feeling.

B

131

My very first memory involves an event that occurred around the time I turned four years old. I am unable to remember anything from before this time, which is a type of forgetting known as

A. anterograde amnesia.
B. retrograde amnesia.
C. infantile amnesia.

C

132

Repression of memories is thought to occur because people are motivated to avoid

A. negative emotions.
B. negative reinforcements.
D. negative punishments.

A

133

The cognitive approach in psychology also is known as the

A. information-processing approach.
B. gestalt approach.
C. structuralist-functionalist approach.
D. behavioral approach.

A

134

Which of the following people has anterograde amnesia?

A. Jan, who cannot remember anything that has happened since she suffered a blow to the head.
B. Jane, who cannot recognize long-time friends, family members, or pictures of famous celebrities.
C. Janet, who cannot remember anything from her life before the age of about 3 years.

A

135

Cognitive researchers of memory would be most interested in studying

A. learning processes such as associative conditioning.
B. brain structures important for remembering.
C. our motivations to remember and forget information.
D. the mental processes that allow us to remember.

D

136

I do not like asparagus because I once saw someone throw up after he ate asparagus. Which of the following types of learning best explains how I acquired my current attitude about asparagus?

A. operant conditioning
B. vicarious conditioning
C. latent learning
D. taste-aversion learning

B

137

In the learning of a phobia, the two-factor theory states that, first, there is _____ and, second, the _____.

A. positive reinforcement of a fear response; negative reinforcement of avoidance (escape) behavior
B. negative reinforcement of a fear response; positive reinforcement of avoidance (escape) behavior
C. operant conditioning of a fear response; classical conditioning of avoidance (escape) behavior
D. classical conditioning of a fear response; operant conditioning of avoidance (escape) behavior

D

138

With respect to the two-factor theory, exposure therapy for phobias is focused on extinguishing

A. the classically conditioned avoidance response.
B. the operantly conditioned avoidance response.
C. the classically conditioned fear response.
D. the operantly conditioned fear response.

C

139

Some treatments for alcoholism train people to avoid people, places, and situations strongly linked to past drinking episodes because these things often increase cravings. Which of the two factors in the two-factor theory is being addressed by having people not come into contact with people, places, and situations linked to past drinking?

A. classically conditioned responses to these people, places, and situations
B. positively reinforced responses to these people, places, and situations
C. negatively reinforced responses to these people, places, and situations

A

140

Whenever I take the 101 to work, I always get stuck in a traffic jam. Now, I no longer take the 101 to work. Getting stuck in a traffic jam after I get on the 101 is a _____ and getting on the 101 is a(n) _____.

A. negative punishment; operant response
B. negative punishment; discriminative stimulus
C. positive punishment; operant response
D. positive punishment; discriminative stimulus

C

141

Your child’s bedtime is 9:00 pm. Let’s say that, every night at 9:00 pm, your child whines when you tell her it’s time to go to bed. And every night, after a few minutes of whining, you eventually relent and allow her to stay up later. Over time, her whining has increased so much that you now hate seeing 9:00 pm roll around. In this example, your child’s whining is a(n) ______ and your telling her that she can stay up later is a(n) _____.

A. positive punishment; operant response
B. negative punishment; operant response
C. operant response; negative reinforcer
D. operant response; positive reinforcer

D

142

Which of the following will cause the frequency of an operant response to decrease?

A. negative reinforcement and positive punishment
B. negative reinforcement and negative punishment
C. reinforcement (positive or negative) and extinction
D. punishment (positive or negative) and extinction

D

143

Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?

A. before a boy disobeys his mother, she takes away his favorite toy
B. after a boy disobeys his mother, she takes away his favorite toy
C. before a girl steals a cookie, her mother scolds her
D. after a girl steals a cookie, her mother scolds her

D

144

Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?

A. before a boy disobeys his mother, she takes away his favorite toy
B. after a boy disobeys his mother, she takes away his favorite toy
C. before a girl steals a cookie, her mother scolds her
D. after a girl steals a cookie, her mother scolds her

B

145

My dog has learned to push open the door of the cabinet in which his food is stored. This is an example of

A. classical conditioning.
B. operant conditioning.
C. discriminative conditioning.
C. antecedent-consequent conditioning.

B

146

In classical conditioning, one knows that an association has formed when a(n) _____ appears; in operant conditioning, one knows that an association has formed when a(n) _____ appears.

A. conditioned stimulus; discriminative stimulus
B. unconditioned stimulus; reinforcement
C. conditioned response; operant response
D. unconditioned response; operant response

C

147

In operant conditioning, a(n) _____ is associated with a _____.

A. reflexive response; consequence of that response
B. nonreflexive response; consequence of that response
C. environmental event; reflexive response
D. environmental event; consequence of that event

B

148

When the light turns yellow at intersections with “red-light-running” cameras, I often slam on my brakes in order to make sure that I don’t get a ticket. In this example, getting a ticket is a(n)

A. operant response.
B. instrumental stimulus.
C. discriminative stimulus.
D. punishment.

D

149

When my cat hears me open a can of cat food, he comes running into the kitchen, which typically is followed by his being allowed to eat the food. In this example, the operant response is

A. my cat running into the kitchen.
B. the sound of the cat food being opened.
C. being allowed to eat the food.

A

150

My dog knows that, when I tap my hand several times on my leg, he will get a treat if he comes to me. This example illustrates a type of learning called

A. classical conditioning.
B. operant conditioning.
C. discriminative conditioning.
C. antecedent-consequent conditioning

B

151

In which of the following ways does classical conditioning differ from operant conditioning?

A. In operant conditioning, individuals learn new reflexive behaviors, whereas in classical conditioning, individuals learn new nonreflexive behaviors (habits).
B. In operant conditioning, individuals learn an association between a response and the consequence of that response, whereas in classical conditioning, individuals learn an association between a stimulus and a second stimulus that follows it.
C. In classical conditioning, individuals respond to a stimulus, whereas in operant conditioning, individuals respond to another response.
D. In classical conditioning, individuals learn an association between stimuli, whereas in operant conditioning, individuals learn an association between responses.

B

152

Amy became very sick after eating cream cheese that had gone bad. Now, she can’t stand the taste of cream cheese. In this example, the disgust Amy feels when she tastes cream cheese is a(n)

A. UCR.
B. CR.
C. UCS.
D. CS.

B

153

John Garcia paired a taste (the CS) with feelings of nausea (the UCS) in one group of rats (the “nausea group”). In a second group of rats (the “pain group”), he paired a taste (the CS) with pain (the UCS). According to what you’ve learned about conditioned taste aversion, which group do you think should learn best and why should they learn best?

A. the nausea group because rats easily perceive nausea, whereas they don’t easily perceive pain
B. the pain group because pain is a stimulus that is much harder to ignore than is nausea
C. the nausea group because rats have evolved to easily learn an association between a taste and nausea

C

154

The “learned disgust” that occurs to a taste or smell when we have become nauseous (even hours after experiencing it) is acquired by the process of

A. spontaneous recovery.
B. nonassociative learning.
C. classical conditioning.

C

155

Amy became very sick after eating cream cheese that had gone bad. Now, she can’t stand the taste of cream cheese. In this example, the taste of cream cheese is a(n)

A. UCR.
B. CR.
C. UCS.
D. CS.

D

156

My dog begins to salivate whenever he hears the electric can opener because this sound has often been paired with food in the past. Recently we got a new can opener that sounds somewhat different from the old one, yet my dog began salivating to this new sound the first time he heard it. The salivation to the new sound best illustrates which of the following?

A. stimulus discrimination
B. stimulus generalization
C. spontaneous recovery
D. an unconditioned response

B

157

A person who has made over 50 parachute jumps now becomes anxious whenever he sees the plane out of which he usually jumps. Since he began jumping, he also becomes anxious whenever he looks at any airplane. In fact, he becomes anxious even when he simply thinks about airplanes. The fact that this man now feels anxious in response to stimuli other than the plane that he usually jumps out of best illustrates which of the following?

A. stimulus generalization
B. stimulus discrimination
C. spontaneous recovery
D. an unconditioned response

A

158

Which of the following is an example of stimulus discrimination?

A. A dog barks at the sight of strangers when they are at the front door and when they are in the backyard.
B. A woman wears perfume whenever she goes out with her husband because he likes the fragrance.
C. A man is disgusted by the sight of peaches and salivates when he see nectarines.

C

159

Which of the following is an example of stimulus generalization?

A. A girl feels happy when she goes to school and also when she goes shopping with her mother.
B. The first time he sees her, a man immediately likes the identical-twin sister of his girlfriend.
C. Whenever a man watches football, he enjoys the taste of beer, just as he does whenever he watches baseball.

B

160

The fact that spontaneous recovery often occurs shows that

A. acquisition does not necessarily involve the development of an association between the CS and the UCS.
B. acquisition does not necessarily involve the development of an association between the CR and the UCR.
C. extinction does not necessarily cause the unlearning of an association between the CS and the UCS.
D. extinction does not necessarily cause the unlearning of an association between the CR and the UCR.

C

161

The stage in which an animal first develops a conditioned response is called

A. the spontaneous recovery phase
B. the acquisition phase.
C. the extinction phase

B

162

Which of the following is a major limitation of exposure therapy for people with severe phobias?

A. Spontaneous recovery of the anxiety response often occurs.
B. Acquisition of the anxiety response often occurs.
C. Extinction of the anxiety response often occurs.

A

163

How do we know that the extinction of a CR does not necessarily mean that an individual has unlearned the association between a CS and a UCS?

A. Acquisition of the CR often occurs.
B. Acquisition of the UCR often occurs.
C. Spontaneous recovery of the CR often occurs.
D. Spontaneous recovery of the UCR often occurs.

C

164

According to John Watson, classical conditioning

A. is not as important as are inborn emotional responses.
B. is the most important influence on adult emotional responses.
C. may be less important than are hereditary influences on emotions.

B

165

A man has a severe phobia involving cockroaches. He has this phobia because, as a child, he used to observe his mother scream everytime a cockroach appeared. In this example, the screaming mother is a(n)

A. CS.
B. CR.
C. UCS.
D. UCR.

C

166

Mary becomes anxious whenever she walks by a particular alley. Two years ago, a man held a gun to her head and stole her purse in this alley. In this example, the CS is

A. the alley.
B. feeling anxious when she walks by the alley.
C. being robbed by a man with a gun.
D. feeling anxious when she was robbed by a man with a gun

A

167

A man has a severe phobia involving cockroaches. He has this phobia because, as a child, he used to observe his mother scream everytime a cockroach appeared. In this example, the cockroach is a(n)

A. CS.
B. CR.
C. UCS.
D. UCR.

A

168

Jim became very sick after drinking a case of beer all by himself. Now, if he even smells beer, he begins to gag and retch. In this case, the smell of beer is a(n)

A. CS
B. UCS
C. CR
D. UCR

A

169

How do we know when an association has formed in classical conditioning?

A. when a UCS occurs consistently after a UCR is presented
B. when a CS occurs consistently after a CR is presented
C. when a UCR occurs consistently after a UCS is presented
D. when a CR occurs consistently after a CS is presented

D

170

Habituation is a type of

A. learned trait.
B. learned motive.
C. associative learning.
D. nonassociative learnin

D

171

My alarm clock makes a soft clicking noise just before the alarm goes off. The alarm wakes me up. After being paired with the alarm on a number of occasions, the click now also wakes me up (although it did not do so at first). The UCR in this example is:

A. the click
B. the alarm
C. waking up to the click
D. waking up to the alarm

D

172

My alarm clock makes a soft clicking noise just before the alarm goes off. The alarm wakes me up. After being paired with the alarm on a number of occasions, the click now also wakes me up (although it did not do so at first). The CS in this example is:

A. the click
B. the alarm
C. waking up to the click
D. waking up to the alarm

A

173

Classical conditioning is a type of

A. learned trait.
B. learned motive.
C. associative learning.
D. nonassociative learning.

C

174

Todd feels happy whenever he smells chocolate-chip cookies baking because, when he was a child, his grandmother, whom he loved very much, used to bake chocolate-chip cookies for him whenever he visited her. The CS in this example is:

A. the smell of chocolate-chip cookies baking.
B. the happiness Todd feels when he smells chocolate-chip cookies baking.
C. Todd’s grandmother.
D. the happiness Todd felt when he visited his grandmother.

A

175

A man becomes sexually aroused whenever he smells the perfume that his wife uses. The UCS in this example is:

A. his wife.
B. becoming sexually aroused by the perfume.
C. the perfume.
D. becoming sexually aroused by his wife

A

176

What is being associated in classical conditioning?

A. the CR with the UCR
B. the CS with the CR
C. the CS with the UCS
D. the CR with the UCR

C

177

When I was a child, as a joke my mother used to put on a goalie mask, start up her chain saw, and chase the neighborhood children around until they passed out from fright. Even now I have a phobia of goalie masks and cannot watch a hockey game without soiling myself. For me, the goalie mask is a(n)

A. CS.
B. CR.
C. UCS.
D.UCR

A

178

We know that an association has developed in classical conditioning when

A. there is a decrease in the UCR.
B. there is a decrease in the CR.
C. there is an increase in the UCR.
D. there is an increase in the CR.

D

179

Which of the following defines encoding specificity?

a. grouping multiple items into a single unit

b. method of encoding affects later recall

c. remembering first and last items better than those in the middle of a list

d. remembering better when you apply material to yourself

B

180

Which of the following would likely lead to the poorest recall?

a. spaced practice

b. deep processing

c. massed practice

d. prospective memory

C

181

When new information interferes with recalling old, previously learned information this is known as ______.

a. retroactive interference

b. forgetting theory

c. proactive interference

d. Inference theory

A

182

Which of the following defines repression?

a. inability to remember things from first few years of life

b. deliberately pushing information out of your mind

c. information is not encoded so it is unable to be retrieved

d. unconscious forgetting

D

183

Visualizing a fabricated scenario, making it seem even more probable is known as _______.

a. false memory

b. misinformation

c. imagination inflation

d. source confusion

C

184

The area of the brain responsible for temporary storage of information is the _____.

a. amygdala

b. prefrontal cortex

c. hippocampus

d. cerebellum

B

185

Which of the following defines memory consolidation?

a. functions are spread throughout the brain

b. specific brain areas are responsible for specific functions

c. establishing memories over the long term

d. flexibility in the brain

C

186

The inability to create new memories following an illness or injury is known as _______.

a. Alzheimer's disease

b. retrograde amnesia

c. dementia

d. anterograde amnesia

D

187

Brooke gets sick after eating eggs at a popular breakfast restaurant. Which concept explains why Brooke now dislikes all breakfast foods?

a. stimulus generalization

b. spontaneous recovery

c. stimulus extinction

d. temporal continuity

A

188

A student is trying to teach herself to focus on her homework. After every third homework question she answers correctly, she rewards herself with a gummy bear. What kind of reinforcement schedule is this?

a. variable ratio

b. fixed ratio

c. fixed interval

d. variable interval

B

189

A person sitting next to you in the library is chewing gum. You hardly notice it at first, but after two hours the sound seems louder and extremely annoying. Which concept explains this change?

a. repeated pairings

b. sensitization

c. punishment by application

d. habituation

B

190

Mara finds that she can type while listening to her roommate who is asking her a question about what she needs at the store. Mara is engaging in _______.

a. effortful processing

b. explicit memory

c. supression

d. automatic processing

D

191

In middle school, Sarina was on the school dance team. Even 10 years later she still remembers the moves to the dance they did to the Spice Girls song and can't stop herself from doing it when the music comes on the radio. This information would be considered part of her ____ memory.

a. episodic

b. implicit

c. explicit

d. semantic

B

192

Dr. Hendricks tells his class that their exam will be a recognition test. Given this information, Marcus should prepare for which of the following kinds of exams?

a. all of these are possible on a recognition test

b. essay

c. matching

d. fill in the blank

C

193

Harper read the page in his chemistry book at least three times but can't seem to remember any of it even right after finishing the last paragraph. The most likely explanation is because Harper was engaging in _____.

a. spaced practice

b. shallow processing

c. deep processing

d. chunking

B

194

It's not that you don't remember it. The truth is you never learned it to begin with. This statement fits with which of the following terms?

a. encoding failure

b. decay theory

c. proactive interference

d. repression

A

195

Evie says that she remembers watching the footage of United Flight 93 crashing in a Pennsylvania field on Sept. 11, 2001. However, in truth, such footage does not exist. Evie is experiencing _____.

a. dementia.

b. retroactive interference.

c. a false memory.

d. encoding failure.

C

196

Jasper was in a car accident and has trouble remembering things that happened a few days after the accident. He is experiencing ______.

a. proactive interference

b. retrograde amnesia

c. source confusion

d. anterograde amnesia

D

197

The key brain structure involved in the processing of an emotional memory like the death of a loved one is the _____.

a. amygdala

b. neural circut

c. cerebellum

d. prefrontal cortex

A

198

Stimulus generalization occurs when

a. there is a reappearance of the conditioned response which had been diminished after a rest period.

b. when an organism first learns the association between a stimulus and a response.

c. there is a breaking of the association between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus.

d. things that are similar to the conditioned stimulus also produce the conditioned response.

D

199

Which schedule of reinforcement occurs when behaviors are reinforced after a set number of behaviors are performed?

a. fixed interval

b. variable interval

c. fixed ratio

d. variable ratio

C

200

Cramming studying into one long session is known as _____.

a. shallow processing

b. spaced practice

c. serial position effect

d. massed practice

D

201

Non-conscious processing which occurs without awareness, does not require large amount of cognitive resources is known as _____.

a. automatic processing

b. effortful processing

c. maintenance encoding

d. depth of processing

A

202

When the removal of an unpleasant even strengthens the behavior it follows this is known as ____.

a. positive reinforcement

b. punishment by application

c. negative reinforcment

d. punishment by removal

C