Exam 1 Chapter 17 Endocrine System Flashcards


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Chapter 17 Endocrine System
updated 6 years ago by aschoper
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anatomy & physiology 2
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1

Compare and Contrast the Endocrine System and the Nervous System

Endocrine =chemical, hormones, long or short distances, fast or slow response time, internal target

Nervous = Chemical/electrical, neurotransmitters, short distances, fast response time, internal and external targets

Both work together to maintain homostasis

2

What are autocrine signals and paracrine signals

autocrine= takes place within the same cell

Paracrine= induce response in neighboring cell

3

Describe hormones

The only cells with receptors specific to a given hormone will respond to that hormone.

*help regulate growth, reproduction, metabolism, sleep, fluid balance

If it doesn't fit the receptor, NO RESPONSE

4

Which hormones are charged? Anions?

Those from Amino Acids= peptides, proteins, amines

*they need a receptor to get through the cell membrane

5

Which hormones are lipid soluable?

Steroids ( no charge) they stick together, don't like water

Estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol

* melt right into the cell membrane, don't need a receptor, theirs are on the inside

6

Describe the G protein signaling pathway of action for hormones

1.-Ligand( hormone) binds to receptor ( second messenger)

2.-relay info into the cell ( made of G proteins) responsible for relaying hormonal information to downstream pathways

3.-The ligand ( hormone) binds to receptor, hits the enzyme, elicits response

7

What is downregulation?

excess hormones make the body decrease the # of receptors to lower the response

*they endocytosis, taken into the cell and used somewhere else

ex. Diet high in sugar, overload, insulin binds to receptor, opens door to lower the BS ( wear out receptor) causes t2 diabetes

8

What is upregulation?

Hormones are in small quantity-produce more receptors so even a small amt of hormones will give a response

9

Three ways hormones act on target cells

Permissive=enable one to act on another

ex. some reproductive hormones act on thyroid hormone

Synergist= work together to give amplified response

ex. FSH and estrogen=egg maturation

Antagonist= opposing

ex. Insulin ( lowers blood sugar) /Glucagon ( increase Blood sugar)

10

Describe regulation of hormone release?

Negative and positive feedback loops

Negative= stimulus, response, back to normal

Positive= snowball effect. Stimulus enhanced by response

11

Give an example of negative feedback loop

Blood sugar increases

insulin released

lowers blood sugar

12

Give an example of positive feedback loop

ex. hypertension

pressure in arteries

pressure on kidneys

kidney start to fail

more pressure

increased fluid =kidney failure

13

How do endocrine glands know what they are suppose to do? 3 ways

Humoral

Neural

Hormonal

14

What is a humoral change

changes in blood levels of non-hormone chemicals

ex. Increase sodium levels, pee more, drink more, response is because of a change

15

What is a neural change?

hormones are released in response to a neural stimuli

ex. adrenal gland = fight or flight

16

What is a hormonal change?

endocrine glands secrete hormones in response to another hormone

ex. pituitary gland

17

What is the master gland and what controls the master gland?

Pituitary gland is master gland controlled by the Hypothalamus

18

What is the function of the hypothalamus

feeding, fleeing, fighting, reproduction

19

Name the hormones that come from the anterior pituitary

GH- growth hormone

PRL- prolactin, milk production

TSH- thyroid stimulating

ACTH= from adrenal cortex, corticosteroid hormones

LH-Leutenizing ( like hairy apes) in males, females stimulates follicle maturity and triggers ovulation

FSH- sperm in males,

20

What is stored in the posterior pituitary

ADH=antidiuretic hormone ( retain fluid), detects osmolality ( level of salt and solute)

Oxytocin= tend and befriend, milk letdown, uterine contractions

21

Give an example of ADH in action

Eat salty Chinese food

Blood osmolality increases because of sodium

Body tries to retain fluid to dilute the sodium

Acts on kidney tubules to retain the excess water making you thirsty

22

If you drink alcohol why do you get dehydrated?

Increase in sugar

Increase in urine output

Alcohol inhibits antidiuretic so you loose fluids and feel awful

23

What is a vasopressin?

it regulates BP by negative feedback

Increase in blood osmolarity

response is to release ADH ( ADH is a vasopressin)

Causes=retention of fluid to balance it

24

what is a tropic hormone?

Targets other hormones

FSH=gonads

ACTH=adrenal glands

LH=gonads

TSH=thyroid

25

Where are melanocytes coming from?

intermediate pituitary gland

26

Discuss GH

Growth hormone is a somatotropin

Anabolic=regulates growth and promotes protein synthesis and tissue building

27

What are some growth hormone disorders?

Gigantism= excessive GH in children

Acromegaly= in adults, large hands, feet, face

Pituitary dwarfism= low GH

28

What is the TSH

thyroid stimulating hormone called thyrotropin( t3,t4)

negative feedback ( low t3t4,TSH released or inhibited)

regulates metabolism and calcium homeostasis

29

Discuss the thyroid gland

thyroid hormone made in colloid cells

needs iodine to facilitate TSH ( it binds to the AA to produce t3, t4)

metabolism, protein synthesis and reproductive hormones, can cause sensitivity to E, NE

30

What disorder is the cause of a Goiter?

thyroid disorder

not enough iodine, hormone accumulates in the colloid cells

31

What is hypothyroidism

low thyroid hormone levels

weight gain, cold hands, not producing the energy needed

32

What is hyperthyroidism?

elevated thyroid hormone

can be from tumor?

increased metabolism, anxiety, trembling

*graves disease

33

What is the role of calcitonin in they thyroid hormone?

decreases osteoclast activity

ex. too much blood calcium, calcitonin helps inhibit osteoclast to keep more calcium from going into the blood

34

How is thyroxine released?

TSH bind to receptors (needs iodine to do so) transporting to follicular cells

Iodine binds to the AA in thryroglobulin to produce t3,t4

TSH stimulates the release of t3,t4 into the bloodstream

35

give and example of negative feedback for thyroid hormone

Low T3T4 stimulate thyrotropin- cause release of TSH which release TsT4 into the bloodstream

High levels of T3T4 decrease the production and secretion of TSH

*thyroid regulates metabolism

36

How does TH affect mitochondria?

ATP- regulates metabolism

Protein synthesis for tissue and neurological development

Catecholamine- NE,E sensitivity

37

T4, T3 is what type of system

Second messenger -G protein

38

What is the key role of the PTH

Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium uptake

It increases blood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts

*causes reabsorption increase of calcium in the kidney tubules

*activates vitamin D which helps in digestion and calcium absorption

39

What is hyperparathyroidism

Over production of PTH

Bones break, calcium deposits

40

Hyperparathyroidism?

Low PTH

Low blood calcium

muscle twitches, cramping, spasms, can't build teeth enamel

41

Describe the adrenal glands

Cortex- endocrine

Medulla- Neural ( E, NE)

*secrete adrenaline-

Lipids

-respond to stress, BP, fluid and electrolyte balance, inflammation

42

Which layer is aldosterone secreted

Zona glomerulosa ( salt)

Aldosterone increase BP in response to the adrenal hormone.

It causes kidneys retain sodium ( angiotensin- asso. with kidneys and lungs)

43

What hormone is a synergist to Aldosterone

Aldosterone and ADH- they both retain fluid

44

What layer are the glucocorticoids in?

Zona Fasiculata- Sugar

Cortisol- increases blood sugar( glucose), inhibits tissue building

inhibits tissue building- down regulates immunity ( inhibits inflammation) so you can do things longer under stress

45

Which layer is the Androgens found

Zona reticularis- Sex

estrogen and testosterone, sex drive in women

46

What does the Adrenal Medulla do?

Nervous tissue

Produce NE, E

Catecholamines ( chemical class)

Sympathetic stress pathway

47

Which hormone increases sodium

Which hormone increased glucose

Aldosterone

Cortisol

48

What disorder is caused by hypersecretion of cortisol or ACTH

Cushing Disease-fatty deposits in neck and face, rounded face

49

What is Addison disease

Hypo secretion=low glucose and sodium

* crave salt, weakness, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, weightloss

50

Discuss the function and release of melatonin

comes from pineal gland

influences circadian rhythms

51

Compare and contrast the two major pancreatic hormones

Insulin= lowers blood glucose ( facilitates glucose uptake)

Glucagon= increases blood glucose. Stimulates the liver to convert glycogen back to glucose ( glycogenolysis)* breaks down excess sugar

52

Where are the hormones of the pancreas secreted from

islet of langerhans

53

What do the alpha cells secrete

Glucagon- increase blood glucose to break down excess sugar ( glucose) 15-20 mins

54

Give an example of Glycogenolysis

When you don't eat , breakdown glycogen stored in liver

55

What hormone is secreted from the beta cells?

Insulin. ( gets produced in response to high glucose levels)

Lowers blood sugar

* opens the door to push glucose into the cell quickly to lower the blood sugar

56

What causes type 2 diabetes

Excess sugar consumption wears out the receptors because insulin is always high

57

What turns glucose into glycogen

Glucagon stimulates glucose to breakdown into glycogen

58

What hormone is from the heart

ANP- atrial natriuretic peptide- it reduces sodium, water

vasodilator- opens the blood vessels

59

What is an Antagonist of ANP

Aldosterone- increases BP while ANP decreases BP

ANP= amy needs to pee

60

Describe Aldosterone again

It is a mineralocorticoid- raises BP

Secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to a drop in BP.

Tells the kidneys to retain sodium