Name the organisms in the Excavata clade.
Name all of the Stramenopilia ( SAR Clade).
Name the Alveolates.
Name the Rhizarians
Name the Archaeplastida.
Green Algae (Chlorophyta)
Green Algae (Charophyta)
Name the Unikonta.
“Living with each other on the inside”, believed that Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes engulfing other cells and becoming one – symbiotic relationship
Why can't Mitochondria be free living?
Over many years some of their DNA has been laterally transferred to the nucleus of their host cell.
What are Cyanobacteria?
How did plants originate from cyanobacteria?
They were engulfed by another cell and their chloroplasts remained, later forming plants
Who and when were protists named?
Ernst Haeckel 1866
Which protist causes malaria?
Plasmodium ( an apicomplexa, part of the alveolate clade)
What does plasmodium do in the body?
It invades liver cells first, then burst out and infects red blood cells to eat the hemoglobin therefore leading to anemia in people.
What is the difference between a Bikonta and a Unikonta?
Bikonta - Two Flagella
Unikonta - One Flagella
What shape do Excavata have?
Diplomonads have two nuclei, modified with modified mitochondria called what?
Parabasalid (Excavata) have modified mitochondria called what?
Termites have what in their gut to help digest wood?
What can lead to infections of the vagina?
What causes T. brucei African sleeping sickness?
The Kineotplastida, Trypanosomes
What causes Chagas disease also known as South American sleeping disease?
Are Euglenophyta (Excavata) mixotrophs or heterotrophs?
What does Stramenopila translate to?
What gives Golden Algae its golden color?
Diatoms have a unique glass-like wall made of what? This helps with what?
Hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix -Overlap like a shoebos and protects them from jaw-smashing predators
What is a major component in phytoplankton?
Hydrated silica (test)
What is the body of a Brown Algae?
What is the photosythentic pigment is Brown Algae called?
What are the alternation of generations?
1. Sporophytes undergo meiosis to make spores
2. Spores undergo mitosis to make gametophytes
3. Gametophytes undergo mitosis to make gametes
4. Gametes undergo fertilization to make sporophytes
What was responsible for the Irish potato famine?
Oomycota - Water Mold (SAR clade)
What are Coccolithophores?
Stramenopila that are aquatic protists. We make chalk from them. They are photosynthetic.
What is a bloom of Dinoflagellates (Alveolate)? Why is this dangerous?
A bloom of them is called a red tide, they can put out a toxin called saxitoxin – paralytic shellfish poisoning can come from eating shellfish that have absorbed the toxins from the dinoflagellates tides.
Noctiluca undergo bioluminescence. What is this?
The giving off light in response to physical shock
Why are Apicomplexa dangerous?
They have an apical complex that penetrates the host cell as a parasite. They secrete toxoplasma which is toxic to fetuses and is deadly in AIDS patients.
(90% of humans have been infected with it in their lifetime)
Ciliates (ciliophoran) (alveolate) are very complex heterotrophic cells covered in cilia. Why are the cilia important for the organism to be heterotrophic?
Some have barb like structures called trichocytes that are used to harpoon prey. They can also control each individual cilia.
What are Rhizaria known for?
Thread like pseudopods.
What are Radiolarian?
Photosynthetic marine with spiral pseudopods - part of the Rhizaria clade
What are Cercozoa?
Mixotrophic predatory amoebae with test - Rhizaria Clade
Why can Red Algae (archaeplastida) live in deeper water?
They have a pigment called phycoerythrin that can absorb the type of light that reaches deeper parts of water
What gives Green Algae (archaeplastida) their color?
Chlorophylls A and B
What is significant about Chlamydomonas flagella?
They can swim in a stoke like fashion
What is a Volvox?
A colony of green alga
What is Phycology?
The study of algae
Unikonta are distinct because of what?
They only have a singular flagella
What is Entamoeba? How is it spread?
It is a parasite in humans that leads to dysentery. It is usually spread through contaminated water.
Naegleria is Unikonta that lives in hot springs. Why is it dangerous?
It crawls into nasal cavities and kills the host because of brain damage
What are Nucleariidia?
Unikonta - with long threadlike pseudopods
What are special about Choanoflagellata's flagella?
They can beat their flagella to capture food. They can also form multicellular groups. - Heterotrophic!
How are all protists similar?
They are all Eukaryotes
What were the dangers of plants moving on land?
desiccation, uv light, lack of buoyancy
What helped plants move onto land?
Waxy cuticle, stomata (air holes), chlorophylls, xanthophyll’s, retain embryos “embyrophytes”, ligand to give strength to cell wall
What are the similarities between charophytes and plants?
Cellulose cell walls, chlorophylls A and B, and Beta carotenoid, Rosettes of cellulose secreting enzymes, stacked thylakoid membranes
How do mosses survive without a vascular system?
Perfusion - hence why they can't grow tall
Why do Bryophytes have Rhizoids?
They anchor them to the soil and acts as a conduit for water and nutrients
Name the stage of Bryophytes reproduction.
Haploid gametophyte stage to diploid sporophyte stage
What are male and female Bryophytes and what do they do?
• Female Archegonium produces egg (in a female gametophyte) (retain
• Male Antheridium produces sperm – release sperm
Why do Bryophytes need water for reproduction?
The sperm needs to swim to the egg
What is a sporangium?
A tip of a sporophyte that holds and releases spores
Describe peat blogs. What are they used for?
Layers of anaerobic and acid moss. They are used for fertilizer and fuel.
What are Phloem and Xylem?
What is a Lycophyta?
Seedless - Vascular plant - club moss
What is a Monilophyta ?
seedless vascular plant - fern