GSU Blood Vessels of the Lower Limb Flashcards

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What is the pathway of blood from the heart to the aorta?

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Which side of the heart gets oxygenated blood and which side gets deoxygenated?

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right gets deoxygenated, left gets oxygenated


Which is the largest chamber of the heart and why?

left ventricle because it is discharging oxygenated blood into the circuit of the entire body


Draw a flowchart for pathway of blood in veins

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draw a flowchart for the pathway of blood in arteries

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What is the inferior vena cava?

large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.


Which three arteries are given off by the internal iliac artery?

obturator, inferior gluteal, and superior gluteal


The external iliac artery gives off which five arteries?

femoral, deep femoral, popliteal, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and fibular


draw external iliac artery tree

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What is the pathway of the external iliac artery?

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passes deep to inguinal ligament and continues into thigh as femoral artery


What is the pathway of the femoral artery?

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travels deep to sartorius in anterior thigh. becomes popliteal artery after passing posterior through adductor hiatus


What is the pathway of the deep femoral artery?

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non terminal branch of femoral artery. continues dorsilaterally from femoral artery. reflect sartorius to see it.


What is the pathway of the popliteal artery?

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passed behind the knee in the popliteal fossa, reaches the popliteus muscle, then divides into anterior and posterior tibial artery


What does the anterior tibial artery become? where?

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dorsalis pedis artery. at the ankle.


What does posterior tibial artery branch into?

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the fibular artery. lateral plantar artery, and medial plantar artery


how are deep veins named?

same as the arteries they accompany


what does the greater saphenous vein drain into?

femoral v


what does the lesser sapenous vein drain into?

popliteal v


Which two veins join together to form the IVC?

the two common iliac veins


The lesser saphenous runs (medial/lateral) and the greater saphenous runs (medial/lateral)

lateral; medial


Which muscles are fed by the obturator artery?

medial thigh muscles


Which muscles are fed by superior gluteal artery?

Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius,gluteus minimus and tensor fasciae latae


Which muscles are fed by inferior gluteal artery?

Gluteus maximus, piriformis


What does the femoral artery feed?

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anterior compartment of thigh


What does the deep femoral artery feed?

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posterior thigh muscles


what does the popliteal artery feed

popliteus muscle


What does the anterior tibial artery supply blood to

anterior compartment of the leg


what does the dorsalis pedis supply?

the dorsal surface of the foot


what does the posterior tibial artery supply

posterior compartment of the leg


what does the fibular artery supply?

the lateral compartment of the leg


what muscles does the medial plantar artery supply?

abductor hallucis flexor digitorum brevis

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what forms the great saphenous vein?

dorsal digital vein of great toe and dorsal venous arch of foot


Describe the pathway of the great saphenous vein, especially where it begins and empties

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ascends anterior to medial malleolus

passes posterior to medial condyle of femur (about a hand's breadth posterior to the medial border of the patella)

transverses the saphenous opening in the fascia lata

empties into the femoral vein


what forms the small saphenous vein?

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dorsal digital vein of the fifth digit and dorsal venous arch


what is the pathway of the small saphenous vein

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arises on the lateral side of the foot

ascends posterior to lateral malleolus as a continuation of lateral marginal vein

passes along the lateral border of the calcaneal tendon

inclines to the midline of the fibula and penetrates the deep fascia

ascends between the heads of gastroc

empties into popliteal vein in popliteal fossa


what are perforating veins?

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veins that connect the deep and superficial veins. blood can only flow from superficial to deep because of valves.


origin, course and distribution of superior gluteal artery

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O posterior division of internal iliac artery

C leaves pelvis through greater sciatic foramen, superior to piriformis

D gluteal muscles and tensor fascia latae


origin course and distribution of inferior gluteal artery

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O anterior division of internal iliac artery

C leaves pelvis through greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis

D piriformis, coccygeus, levator ani, and gluteal muscles


origin and course of external iliac artery

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O common iliac artery

C follows the iliopsoas muscle. becomes the femoral artery at the inguinal ligament. gives rise to inferior epigastric a and deep iliac circumflex a.


course of femoral vein

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continuation of popliteal vein proximal to adductor hiatus

fed by profunda femoris vein and great saphenous vein

becomes the external iliac vein after passing posterior to inguinal ligament

in adductor canal, lies posterlaterally and posterior to the femoral artery

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origin and course of femoral artery

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continuation of external iliac artery distal to inguinal ligament

lateral to femoral vein in femoral triangle

descends on borders of iliopsoas and pectineus

enters adductor canal deep to sartorius

exits adductor canal passing through addcutor hiatus and becomes popliteal artery

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origin and course of deep femoral artery

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arises from femoral artery in femoral triangle. in middle third of thigh is separated from femoral artery by adductor longus. gives off three or four perforating arteries that wrap around posterior femur and feed adductor magnus, hamstring, and vastus lateralis muscles

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origin and course of lateral circumflex femoral artery

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can arise from deep femoral artery or femoral artery. encircles the thigh and anastosomes with the medial circumflex artery and supplies lateral thigh muscles and proximal femur.


origin and course of medial circumflex femoral artery

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most likely arises from deep femoral artery but may arise from femoral artery

supplies most of blood to head and neck of femur. it's branches are posterior retinacular arteries.

passes deep between iliopsoas and pectineus to reach posterior aspect of femoral neck where it runs deep to quadratus femoris


course and distribution of perforating arteries

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come from deep femoral artery

wrap around posterior aspect of femur

feed hamstrings, adductor magnus and vastus lateralis

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popliteal vein course

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continuation of posterior tibial veins

superficial to and in the same fibrous sheath as popliteal artery throughout course

popliteal v becomes femoral vein in adductor hiatus

small saphenous enters popliteal vein in popliteal fossa

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popliteal artery course and distribution

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continuation of femoral artery

begins where femoral artery passes adductor hiatus

passes through popliteal fossa

ends by dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries

branches into genicular arteries to feed the knee joint

muscular branches feed hamstrings, gastrocnemeus, soleus and plantaris


list the genicular arteries and area of the body

superior lateral, superior medial, inferior lateral and inferior medial genicular arteries feed the area of the knee joint capsule and ligaments.


course and distribution of anterior tibial a

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anterior branch of popliteal artery - smaller than posterior branch

supplies anterior compartment of the leg

begins at inferior border of popliteus m. and pierces interosseus membrane

becomes dorsalis pedis artery


course and distribution of posterior tibial a.

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supplies posterior compartment of leg and plantar area of foot

larger branch of popliteal artery

after if gives off fibular artery, passes inferomedially on posterior surface of tibialis posterior and then runs posterior to medial malleolus.

divides into medial and lateral plantar arteries


course and distribution of fibular artery

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largest branch of posterior tibial a. Arises near distal border of popliteus

descends obliquely toward fibula, usually through flexor hallucis longus

gives off muscular branches to posterior and lateral compartment of leg, nutrient artery of the fibula, and perforating branch of fibular artery which pierces the interosseus membrane and goes to the dorsum of the foot


course of lateral plantar artery

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from posterior tibial artery

courses laterally between first and second layer of plantar muscles continues into deep plantar arch


course of plantar arch

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beings at base of fifth metatarsal as continuation of lateral plantar artery

courses between third and fourth muscle layers

unites lateral plantar artery and deep plantar artery (branch of dorsal artery)

deep plantar arch gives rise to four plantar metatarsal arteries, three perforating branches and branches to skin, fascia, and muscles in the sole


course and distribution of medial plantar artery

feeds the muscles of the great toes and skin on the medial side of the sole

branch of posterior tibial artery

branches common plantar digitial a --> proper plantar digital a.


course and distribution of dorsalis pedis

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direct continuation of dorsalis pedis artery

begins midway between the malleoli and runs anteromedially deep to inferior extensor retinaculum between extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons on the foot

feeds the forefoot

gives off lateral tarsal artery, arcuate a, deep plantar a, and dorsal metatarsal a.


course and distribution of lateral tarsal artery

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branch of dorsalis pedis artery

deep to extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis

supplies extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis and articulations o the tarsus


course and distribution of arcuate artery

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branch of dorsalis pedis a

it passes laterally, over the bases of the lateral four metatarsal bones, beneath the tendons of the extensor digitorum brevis

terminates in lateral tarsal artery

communicates with plantar arteries through perforating arteries of the foot


course and distribution of deep plantar artery

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branch of dorsalis pedis

passes deeply between the heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle to enter the sole of the foot where it joints the lateral plantar artery to form the deep plantar arch


course of dorsal metatarsal arteries

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branches of dorsalis pedis.

each dorsal metatarsal arteries run to the cleft of the toe where they divide into two dorsal digital arteries


course of dorsal digital arteries

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branches of dorsal metatarsal arteries

run along each side of phalanges