soa study packet for exam 1 Flashcards


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1

Many news sources attribute the beginning of the Tunisian revolution and the Arab Spring to the death of Mohamed Bouazizi, who set himself on fire before a government office as a form of protest. In the textbook, Ritzer says that sociologists would:

c. disagree. Political and economic preconditions led to Arab Spring.

2

Mohamed Bouazizi’s public suicide was a spark that set in motion the revolution in Tunisia, which spread throughout much of the Middle East. The author uses this to demonstrate what important lesson that can be learned from studying sociology?

a. Individual thought and action is influenced by groups, culture, and society

3

An important lesson in sociology exemplified by the introductory story about how the Arab Spring began is to show the impact that an individual can have on societal structures and processes. The idea that a person can impact large-scale structures is called:

c. the butterfly effect

4

The introduction of mobile phones, and their widespread use by individuals all over the world, has influenced all kinds of factors, including car accident rates, dinner etiquette, and how freshman college students communicate with their parents. This is an example of:

b. the butterfly effect

5

The mass introduction of high-speed internet has allowed people around the world to obtain information faster than ever before. It has influenced many factors around the globe, including how people meet through networks and how often people can communicate. Sociology would point to high-speed internet as an example of:

a. the butterfly effect

6

The main focus of sociology is:

c. to study how people affect and are affected by social structures and social processes

7

Sociology was founded in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, when the study of __________________ became a special focus of attention.

b. the Industrial Revolution

8

_____________ sociology collaborates outside of academia with practical problems, addressing a wide range of social issues that concern local, national, and global groups.

c. Public

9

Sociologists are interested in the development of a new “_____________” economy, where businesses such as Uber, Airbnb.com, and others are a growing model for providing services using technology.

c. sharing

10

According to the author, George Ritzer, no social change is as important today as _______________.

b. globalization

11

During the increase of globalization, what effect has social structures had on the flow of products and information?

c. Social structures exist to both increase and limit global flows

12

When globalization increases negative flows, such as spreading diseases or pollution, it is called:

b. deviant globalization

13

The rise in credit card debt from 1969 to the present day is used as evidence of what trend?

c. The dramatic increase in personal consumption among Americans

14

The iPhone has been purchased by millions of people and has revolutionized the ways phones function in society. This shows that increased consumption patterns:

b. influences not just the economy but also culture

15

McDonaldization is a concept that describes:

b. the creation of rational systems that can guide mass production

16

There are four defining characteristics of McDonaldization. Which of the following is NOT one of these characteristics?

d. Expansion

17

One of the four defining characteristics of McDonaldization is predictability. What does predictability refer to here?

b. The ability to predict one’s experience across different settings

18

When it comes to the digital world, which of the following questions IS LEAST LIKELY to be a research interest of sociology:

c. How does the increase in technology affect cognitive growth of teenagers?

19

Dr. Ritzer presents three main concerns as the centerpiece for his text. These concerns are:

a. globalization, consumption, and the digital world

20

As a college student, the choices in how to obtain your education are affected by which main sociological issue(s) that Dr. Ritzer presents in his text?

d. Three interrelated themes of globalization, consumption, and the digital world

21

The Power Elite was written by:

B. C. Wright Mills

22
  1. ________________ was a social reformist who focused on the relationships between the military and influential leaders of major corporations.

c. C. Wright Mills

23
  1. __________________________ is the ability to look at the social world from different perspectives.

a. Sociological imagination

24
  1. A 2011 White House report describes how women are more likely than men to work in positions that are more poorly paid within the same occupational field—an example is that women are more likely to be dental hygienists than dentists, or legal assistants rather than lawyers. Many women might feel that this is a personal shortcoming, but it also affects society because women who might contribute a great deal to a field are in limiting roles. This is an example of:

d. the links between private troubles and public issues using sociological imagination

25
  1. ___________ is often considered one of the earliest important sociologists who studied the link between micro and macro issues when he studied workers in the capitalistic economic systems.

a. Karl Marx

26
  1. ________________ is the significance of the individual to have the capacity to influence the shape of society and culture.

b. Agency

27
  1. According to sociologist Erving Goffman, individuals are _______________ because they can disrupt and destroy the structures in which they participate.

c. dangerous giants

28
  1. According to Erving Goffman, the Vietnam War protestors would be considered _______________________ as they realized their power to create change and affect the entire society.

a.dangerous giants

29
  1. ______________ invented the term sociology.

b. Auguste Comte

30
  1. There is a continuum that runs from the most microscopic of social phenomena to the most macroscopic of social realities, with phenomena at roughly the midpoint of this continuum best thought of as _____ realities.

d. meso

31

___________ allow(s) a group of people or a society to carry out their collective lives in relative order and harmony.

a. Culture

32
  1. Freedom of expression, democracy, and family are examples of _________________ in U.S. culture.

b. values

33
  1. A formal norm can also be classified as a:

b. law

34
  1. The tangible forms of culture are also referred to as ________________________.

c. material culture

35
  1. The Shamrock, Claddagh rings, and certain types of clothing are all part of the _________________________, which originated in Ireland.

d. material culture

36
  1. Aspects of culture that exist in intangible forms, such as norms and values, are called:

d. Symbolic culture

37
  1. The United States values equality, which represents __________________, yet racism, sexism, and ageism are still prevalent, which represents _________________.

d. ideal culture; real culture

38
  1. An example of a __________________ in the United States are computer hackers, whose members engage in actions that subvert authority, disrupt the Internet, and steal personal data in opposition to values and norms of dominant culture.

b.counterculture

39
  1. The United States recently legalized gay marriage. Many people celebrated, but others oppose the law and refuse to sell goods or services to gay couples because they believe that marriage should only occur between men and women. The struggle between these two groups is an example of a(n) _________________________.

b.culture war

40
  1. When cultural differences are accepted and appreciated by both the state and the majority group, it is called __________________.

c. multiculturalism

41
  1. Bullfighting is seen as a barbaric sport to many Americans, but Mexicans are more likely to see it as part of their history and hold it in high regard. Understanding this sport from the viewpoint of Mexicans instead of the viewpoint of Americans would be an example of practicing ______________________________.

c. cultural relativism

42
  1. ______________________ refers to understanding why cultural practices take place in certain societies.

c. Cultural relativism

43
  1. John believes that democracy is the best form of government in the world and believes that every country should follow suit and create a democratic system. Based on this, John could be described as _________________________.

a. ethnocentric

44
  1. Recently, Democrats and Republicans have battled over balancing the budget and health care reform, with each side believing that their agenda is the best. This struggle between the two political parties is an example of:

c. culture war

45
  1. Shows such as My Super Sweet 16 showcase lavish birthday parties that are given for children who are turning 16 years old. The show often ends with these children receiving luxury automobiles as a birthday present. This show is about:

b. conspicuous consumption

46
  1. Some Iraqis have been resistant to a democratic government, which was imposed on them by the United States. Therefore, some Iraqis see this imposition as a form of:

b. cultural imperialism

47
  1. The National Organization for Women, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Hispanic American Organization are all examples of groups who are working for the rights of minorities. Therefore, they are engaged in:

b. identity politics

48
  1. Today, millions of people have joined Internet sites such as Facebook. These sites have norms and specific rules are enforced. Sites such as Facebook are examples of:

b. cyberculture

49
  1. Avid users of Apple products who identify with a community of other Mac users is an example of a(n):

b. subculture

50
  1. The most controversial aspect of consumer culture according to Dr. Ritzer is:

d.the direct marketing of consumer items to children