Microbiology: Chapter 9 Flashcards

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1) The following are steps used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?

A) Collect DNA.

B) Digest with a restriction enzyme.

C) Perform electrophoresis.

D) Lyse cells.

E) Add stain.

Answer: B

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2) How many pieces will EcoRI produce from the plasmid shown in Figure 9.1?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

Answer: B

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3) In Figure 9.1, after digestion with the appropriate restriction enzyme, what is the smallest piece containing the entire ampicillin-resistance (amp) gene?

A) 0.17 kbp

B) 0.25 kbp

C) 1.08 kbp

D) 1.50 kbp

E) 3.00 kbp

Answer: D

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4) In Figure 9.2, the enzyme in step 1 is

A) DNA polymerase.

B) DNA ligase.

C) RNA polymerase.

D) reverse transcriptase.

E) spliceosome.

Answer: C

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5) In Figure 9.2, the enzyme in step 2 is

A) DNA polymerase.

B) DNA ligase.

C) RNA polymerase.

D) reverse transcriptase.

E) spliceosome.

Answer: A


6) The reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase is

A) DNA → mRNA.

B) mRNA → cDNA.

C) mRNA → protein.


E) tRNA → mRNA.

Answer: B


7) Which of the following is an advantage of using E. coli to make a human gene product?

A) Endotoxin may be in the product.

B) It does not secrete most proteins.

C) Its genes are well known.

D) It cannot process introns.

E) Endotoxin may be in the product and it does not secrete most proteins.

Answer: C


8) Which of the following is NOT an agricultural product made by DNA techniques?

A) frost retardant

B) Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide

C) nitrogenase (nitrogen fixation)

D) glyphosate-resistant crops

E) pectinase

Answer: E


9) If you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is

A) transformation of coli with Ti plasmid.

B) splicing T DNA into a plasmid.

C) transformation of an animal cell.

D) inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.

E) inserting the Ti plasmid into a plant cell.

Answer: D


10) Biotechnology involves the

A) use of microorganisms to make desired products.

B) use of animal cells to make vaccines.

C) development of disease-resistant crop plants.

D) use of microorganisms to make desired products and the use of animal cells to make vaccines.

E) use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease-resistant crop plants.

Answer: E

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The figure at the left in Figure 9.3 shows a gene identified by Southern blotting. What will a Southern blot of the same gene look like after PCR?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer: D


12) Which of the following is NOT a desired characteristic of DNA vectors used in gene cloning procedures?

A) self-replication

B) large size

C) has a selectable marker

D) circular form of DNA or integrates into the host chromosome

E) may replicate in several species

Answer: B

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In Figure 9.4, the bacteria transformed with the recombinant plasmid and plated on media containing ampicillin and X-gal will

A) form blue, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

B) form blue, ampicillin-sensitive colonies.

C) form white, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

D) form white, ampicillin-sensitive colonies.

E) not grow.

Answer: C


14) An advantage of synthetic DNA over genomic or cDNA is the ability to

A) insert desired restriction sites into the DNA sequence.

B) isolate unknown genes.

C) make DNA from cellular RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

D) obtain genes that lack introns.

E) obtain genes that lack exons.

Answer: A


15) An advantage of cDNA over genomic DNA is that it

A) lacks exons.

B) lacks introns.

C) contains selectable markers.

D) can form very large DNA segments.

E) is very easy to isolate.

Answer: B


16) The restriction enzyme EcoRI recognizes the sequence G↓AATTC. Which of the following is TRUE of DNA after it is treated with EcoRI?

A) All of the DNA fragments will have single-stranded regions ending in AA.

B) All of the DNA fragments will have single-stranded regions ending in G.

C) Some of the DNA will have single-stranded regions ending in AA and others will end in G.

D) All of the DNA will have blunt ends.

E) All of the DNA will be circular.

Answer: A


17) Which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA?


  1. A) Enzyme Recognition



  1. B) Enzyme Recognition



  1. C) Enzyme Recognition



  1. D) Enzyme Recognition



  1. E) Enzyme Recognition



Answer: A


18) Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a

A) library.

B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.


Answer: A


19) A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

A) library.

B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.


Answer: B


20) Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a

A) library.

B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.


Answer: C


21) The Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was focused on

A) identifying all of the genes in the human genome.

B) determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

C) determining all of the proteins encoded by the human genome.

D) finding a cure for all human genetic disorders.

E) cloning all of the genes of the human genome.

Answer: B


22) A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is to

  1. A) look for a bacterium that makes the improved enzyme.
  2. B) mutate bacteria until one makes the improved enzyme.
  3. C) determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme.
  4. D) synthesize the gene for the improved enzyme.
  5. E) use siRNA to produce the enzyme.

Answer: C


23) You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. After 3 replication cycles, how many double-stranded DNA molecules do you have?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 8

D) 16

E) thousands

Answer: C


24) Which of the following places the steps in the PCR procedure in the correct order?

1) Incubate at 94°C to denature DNA strands;

2) Incubate at 72°C for DNA synthesis;

3) Incubate at 60°C for primer hybridization.

A) 1, 2, 3

B) 3, 2, 1

C) 1, 3, 2

D) 2; 1; 3

E) 3; 1; 2

Answer: C


25) Which of the following are used to silence specific genes and hold promise for treating cancer or viral diseases, such as hepatitis B?

A) RNA interference (RNAi)

B) complementary DNA (cDNA)

C) reverse transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)

D) tumor-inducing plasmids (Ti plasmids)

E) DNA fingerprinting

Answer: A


26) Which of the following techniques is NOT used to introduce recombinant DNA into plants?

A) gene guns

B) protoplast fusion

C) Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium

D) microinjection

E) electroporation

Answer: D

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27) In Figure 9.5, the marker genes used for selecting recombinant DNA are

A) HindIII, BamHI, and Eco

B) ampRand lacZ.

C) ori.

D) ampRand ori.

E) lacZ and ori.

Answer: B


28) In Figure 9.5, the gene that allows the plasmid to be self-replicating is

A) Hind

B) ampR.

C) ori.

D) Eco

E) lacZ.

Answer: C


29) Which of the following methods would be used to introduce the plasmid shown in Figure 9.5 into E. coli?

A) microinjection

B) transformation

C) gene guns

D) Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium

Answer: B


30) A source of heat-stable DNA polymerase is

A) Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

B) Thermus aquaticus.

C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

D) Bacillus thuringiensis.


Answer: B


31) The Pap test for cervical cancer involves microscopic examination of cervical cells for cancerous cells. A new, rapid diagnostic test to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA before cancer develops is done without microscopic exam. The steps involved in this FastHPV test are listed below. What is the second step?

A) Add an RNA probe for HPV DNA.

B) Lyse human cells.

C) Add enzyme-linked antibodies against DNA-RNA.

D) Add enzyme substrate.

E) The order is unimportant.

Answer: A


32) Gene silencing involves all of the following EXCEPT

A) small interfering RNAs.

B) production of double stranded RNAs.

C) small interfering RNA binding to a gene promoter.

D) Dicer.

E) RNA-induced silencing complex.

Answer: C


33) You want to determine whether a person has a certain mutant gene. The process involves using a primer and a heat-stable DNA polymerase. This process is

A) translation.

B) restriction mapping.

C) transformation.


E) site-directed mutagenesis.

Answer: D


34) Which of the following are used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to track outbreaks of foodborne disease?

A) DNA fingerprints

B) restriction fragment length polymorphisms

C) reverse-transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)

D) DNA fingerprints and restriction fragment length polymorphisms

E) DNA fingerprints, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and reverse-transcriptase PCR(rtPCR)

Answer: E


35) Assume you have discovered a cell that produces a lipase that works in cold water for a laundry additive. You can increase the efficiency of this enzyme by changing one amino acid. This is done by

A) irradiating the cells.

B) site-directed mutagenesis.

C) enrichment.

D) selective breeding.

E) selection.

Answer: B


36) The use of an antibiotic-resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes

A) replica plating possible.

B) direct selection possible.

C) the recombinant cell dangerous.

D) the recombinant cell unable to survive.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: B


37) The following steps must be performed to make a bacterium produce human protein X.


2-Restriction enzyme

3-Prokaryotic transcription

4-DNA ligase


6-Eukaryotic transcription

7-Reverse transcription

Which of the following places the steps in the correct order?

  1. A) 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6, 1
  2. B) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4, 7, 6
  3. C) 6, 7, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1
  4. D) 6, 7, 2, 4, 5, 3, 1
  5. E) 6, 2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7

Answer: D


38) The use of "suicide" genes in genetically modified organisms is designed to

A) prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment.

B) kill the modified organisms before they are released in the environment.

C) delete genes necessary for modified organism's growth.

D) provide for resistance of the modified organisms to pesticides.

E) provide a means to eliminate non-modified organisms.

Answer: A


39) A restriction fragment is

A) a gene.

B) a segment of DNA.

C) a segment of mRNA.

D) a segment of tRNA.

E) cDNA.

Answer: B


40) In the Southern blot technique, which of the following is NOT required?

A) transfer of DNA to nitrocellulose

B) addition of a labeled probe to identify the gene of interest

C) restriction enzyme digestion of DNA

D) electrophoresis to separate fragments

E) addition of heat-stable DNA polymerase to amplify DNA

Answer: E


41) Which of the following processes is NOT involved in making cDNA?

A) reverse transcription

B) RNA processing to remove introns

C) transcription

D) translation

Answer: D


42) PCR can be used to identify an unknown bacterium because

A) the RNA primer is specific.

B) DNA polymerase will replicate DNA.

C) DNA can be electrophoresed.

D) all cells have DNA.

E) all cells have RNA.

Answer: A


43) The random shotgun method is used in

A) amplification of unknown DNA.

B) transforming plant cells with recombinant DNA.

C) genome sequencing.

D) RFLP analysis.

E) forensic microbiology.

Answer: C


44) Restriction enzymes are

A) bacterial enzymes that splice DNA.

B) bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA.

C) animal enzymes that splice RNA.

D) viral enzymes that destroy host DNA.

Answer: B


45) The study of genetic material taken directly from the environment is

A) bioinformatics.

B) proteomics.

C) reverse genetics.

D) forensic microbiology.

E) metagenomics.

Answer: E


1) The term biotechnology refers exclusively to the use of genetically engineered organisms for the production of desired products.

Answer: FALSE


2) In recombinant DNA technology, a vector is a self-replicating segment of DNA, such as a plasmid or viral genome.

Answer: TRUE


3) The practice of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits, such as high crop yield, is called natural selection.

Answer: FALSE


4) A shuttle vector is a plasmid that is used to move pieces of DNA among organisms, such as bacterial, fungal, and plant cells.

Answer: TRUE


5) Nearly all cells, including E. coli and yeast, naturally take up DNA from their surroundings without chemical treatment.

Answer: FALSE


6) The disadvantage of genomic libraries over cDNA libraries is that genomic libraries contain gene introns.

Answer: TRUE


7) One of the first commercial successes of recombinant DNA technology was the production of human insulin using genetically engineered E. coli.

Answer: TRUE


8) Bioinformatics is the use of computer technology to compare and analyze genome sequence.

Answer: TRUE


9) The Ti plasmid isolated from Agrobacterium can be used to insert DNA into any type of plant.

Answer: FALSE


10) The Bt toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been introduced into some crop plants to make them resistant to insect destruction.

Answer: TRUE