Ap Bio Midterm

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 2-8, 22-24, 27
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1

1) Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution by natural selection was revolutionary because it _____.

A) was the first theory to refute the ideas of special creation

B) proved that individuals acclimated to their environment over time

C) dismissed the idea that species are constant and emphasized the importance of variation and change in populations

D) was the first time a biologist had proposed that species changed through time

C) dismissed the idea that species are constant and emphasized the importance of variation and change in populations

2

2) Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
A) evolution.
B) the fossil record.
C) uniformitarianism.
D) the origin of new species.
E) natural selection.

B)the fossil record

3

3)When Cuvier considered the fossils found in the vicinity of Paris, he concluded that the extinction of species _____.

A) occurs, but that there is no evolution

B) and the evolution of species both occur

C) and the evolution of species do not occur

D) does not occur, but evolution does occur

A) occurs, but that there is no evolution

4

4)Which pair of scientists below would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree?

A) Cuvier and Lamarck

B) Lamarck and Wallace

C) Aristotle and Lyell

D) Wallace and Linnaeus

B) Lamarck and Wallace

5

5)

Which of the following scientists argued that variation among individuals allows evolution to occur?

A) Aristotle

B) Lamarck

C) Linnaeus

D) Wallace

D) Wallace

6

6)

Which of these conditions are always true of populations evolving due to natural selection?

Condition 1: The population must vary in traits that are heritable.

Condition 2: Some heritable traits must increase reproductive success.

Condition 3: Individuals pass on most traits that they acquire during their lifetime.

A) Condition 1 only

B) Condition 2 only

C) Conditions 1 and 2

D) Conditions 2 and 3

C) Conditions 1 and 2

7

7)Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus?

A) Technological innovation in agricultural practices will permit exponential growth of the human population into the foreseeable future.

B) Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows.

C) Earth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals.

D) The environment is responsible for natural selection.

B) Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows

8

8)Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population?

A) genetic variation among individuals

B) variation among individuals caused by environmental factors

C) sexual reproduction

D) the population has predators

A) genetic variation among individuals

9

9)Pseudogenes are _____.

A) composed of RNA, rather than DNA

B) the same things as introns

C) unrelated genes that code for the same gene product

D) nonfunctional vestigial genes

D) nonfunctional vestigial genes

10

10)which of the following is the best modern definition of evolution

survival of the fittest

11

11)Which statement about the beak size of finches on the island of daphne major during prolonged drought is true

Each bird's survival was strongly influenced by the depth and strength of its beak as the drought persisted

12

12)When ever diploid populations are in Hardy-Wienberg equilibrium at a particular locus,____.

the allele's frequency shuold not change from one generation to the next

13

13)In the formula for determining a population's genotype frequencies, the "pq" in the term 2pq is necessary because

heterozygotes can come about in two ways

14

14)Over time, the movement of people on earth has steadily increased. This has altered the course of human evolution by increasing ____.

Gene flow

15

15)What keeps the two populations separate?

habitat isolation

16

16)Macroevolution is ____.

evolution above the species level

17

17)Which of the various species concepts distinguishes two species based on the degree of genetic exchange between their gene pools

C) Biological

18

18)The production of sterile mules by interbreeding between female horses (mares) and male donkeys (jacks) is an example of _____.

C) Reduced hybrid fertility

19

19) The largest unit within which gene flow can readily occur is ____.

B) a species

20

20) (referring to passage) Which of the following describes the most likely order of events in allopatric isolation?

D) genetic isolation, genetic drift, divergence

21

21) The difference between geographic isolation and habitat differentiation (isolation) is the ____.

A) relative locations of two populations as speciation occurs

22

22) (referring to passage) In which feature(s) should one be able to locate a complete chromosome of this bacterium?

D) 3 and 4

23

23) Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share?

C) lack of a nuclear envelope and presence of plasma membrane

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