PSY-03 Flashcards


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Developmental psychology exam-2 CH.4-8
updated 6 years ago by rachelmms
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1

Neurons

Nerve cells that store and transmit information

2
  • When baby Jaleel was born, stimulation in his brain resulted in a massive over abundance of synapses. Neurons that were seldom stimulated began to lose their synapses this process is known as....

Synaptic pruning

3

Which of the following statements about the cerebral cortex is true?

It is sensitive to environmental influences for a longer period than any other part of the brain.

4

The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is known as?

Lateralization

5

_________ greatly influences the organization of the cerebral cortex

Early experience

6

Which of the following learning experiences should Cheryl, a caregiver, use to promote experience-expectant brain growth?

Playing a game of peekaboo

7

Between birth and 2 years,

The organization of sleep and wakefulness changes substantially.

8

Rachel is concerned that she might accidentally suffocate her baby if she shares a bed with him. What info can you share with Rachel about precautions taken in cultures where cosleeping is widespread?

Parents and infants usually sleep on hard surfaces, such as firm mattresses, floor mats, or wooden planks.

9

The US dept of health and human services advises exclusive breastfeeding for the first ______ and inclusion of breast milk in the baby's diet until at least _________

6months; 1 year

10

Jack and Jamie are concerned that their chubby infant son angus will become an overweight adult. Which of the following steps can they take to help prevent that?

Limit the time angus spends in front of the t.v.

11

Yolanda age 2, is being raised in Texas by a single mother. While Yolanda's mother works, she does not always have sufficient funds to purchase enough food for a healthy active life. Yolanda is skinny and withdrawn. Yolanda suffers from?

Food insecurity

12

A researcher hangs a mobile over the crib of 4 month old. When the researcher attaches Anya's foot to the mobile with a long cord, Anya can by kicking, make the mobile turn. The turning of the mobile is an example of ?

Reinforcer

13

Of all motor skills, __________ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.

Reaching

14

Piaget believed that infants and toddlers

"Think" with their eyes, ears, and hands.

15

According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called ____________ are organized ways of making sense of experiences.

Schemes

16

During ______, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.

Assimilation; accommodation

17

Baby luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby lugging has begun to master?

Object permanence

18

Recall is more challenging than recognition because it?

Involves remembering something that is not present

19

Research on infantile amnesia suggest that Adults typically cannot remember events that happen during the first few years of life because?

Adults cannot translate early pre verbal memories into language

20

In the form of teaching known as scaffolding, as a child's competence increases, the adult ...

Steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task.

21

Research using HOME checklist reveals that the extent to which parents ________ is especially important in facilitating toddlers intelligence test performance

Talk to their infants and toddlers

22

_______ is/are much better indicator than an early mental test score of how children will do later.

Warm, responsive parenting that builds on toddlers current capacities.

23

Research showed that by age 3, children in early head start....

Demonstrated gains in cognitive and language development

24

Which of the following parent-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?

Reading and talking about picture books

25

Which of the following statements about the authoritative child rearing style is true?

Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give reasons for their expectations, and use "teaching moments" to promote the child's self regulation.

26

Twenty-two-year old Daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, missy. Daniel continually doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the task of _____ and _____ during infancy and childhood.

Trust; autonomy

27

John bowlby retained the psychoanalytic idea that...

Quality of attachment to the caregiver has profound implications for the child's capacity to form trusting relationships.

28

According to bowlby, the _____ becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships.

Internal working model

29

In the strange situation, Olivia seems unresponsive to her mother when she is present. When her mother leaves, Olivia is not distressed. She reacts to the stranger in much the same way. Olivia is demonstrating characteristics of _____ attachment.

Avoidant attachment

30

_______ is best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance".

Interactional synchrony

31

Compared with securely attached infants , avoidant babies tend to receive ______ care.

Overstimulating, intrusive

32

Parents who discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance, regardless of whether their experiences were positive or negative, tend to have _______ infants.

Securely attached.

33

Research on child care in infancy has found that...

The relationship between child care and emotional well-being depends on both family and child-care experiences

34

______ increases the chance of sibling conflict

Lack of parental involvement

35

2 year old Annmarie tells her mom, "l a good girl." This statement demonstrates that Annmarie is beginning to develope...

A categorical self

36

Fibers linking the ____ to the _____ grow and myelinate from birth through the preschool years, contributing to dramatic gains in motor coordination

Cerebellum; cerebral cortex

37

The _____, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.

Pituitary gland

38

In the US, _______ is/are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.

Motor vehicle collision

39

According to Freud, children....

Obey the superego to avoid guilt

40

Piaget acknowledged that _______ is our most flexible means of mental representation.

Language

41

Preschoolers who _____ are seen as more socially competent by their teachers.

Spend more time at sociodramatic play

42

According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is....

Egocentrism

43

Conservation refers to the

Idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes

44

In Paula's preschool classroom, children are encouraged to choose activities from a rich variety of materials designed to promote exploration. This preschool emphasizes the piagetian principle of...

Discovery learning.

45

Three year old maya is asked to describe what happens at preschool . This task requires maya to use...

Scripts

46

Dr. Wizda is assessing the home life of a preschool child using the HOME OBSERVATION FOR MEASUREMENT of the Environment (HOME). She observes the parent converse with the child four times during the visit. On which subscale should dr. Wizda record this observation?

Language stimulation

47

Preschool viewing of educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with.....

Getting higher grades, reading more books and placing more value on achievement in high school.

48

According to erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is....

Initiative versus guilt

49

According erikson, preschoolers exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they....

Are threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.

50

Adults can avoid promoting self defeating reactions in children by...

Adjusting their expectations to children's capacities

51

Research on emotional understanding shows that preschoolers....

Focus on the most obvious aspect of an emotional situation to the neglect of other relevant information

52

The more parents ________, the more "emotional words" children use and the better developed their emotional understanding.

Label emotions; explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers

53

Among western children, when guilt occurs appropriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, is related to...

Good adjustment

54

Which of the following is an example of the direct parental influence on children's peer sociability?

Maxine arranges for her 4 year old to play with his friend at the park.

55

Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is .....

Externally controlled by adults

56

Truly moral individuals ....

Have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct.

57

According to Freud, children....

Obey the superego o avoid guilt

58

Research reveals that inductive discipline.....

Helps children notice others feeling and points out the effect of children's misbehavior on others

59

Discipline that relies on ______ makes children so anxious and frightened that they cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do...

Threats of punishment or withdrawal of love

60

Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all characteristics...

That increase a child's willingness to imitate a models behavior

61

A few minutes in time out can be enough to change behavior and also allow parents....

Time to cool off.

62

Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophia because "she lies." This is an example of....

Relational aggression.

: damages another's peer relationships through social excuses, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation.

63

Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence...

Increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggressive behaviors in viewers

64

In Michaels preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys with blocks and Legos. This is an example...

Gender typing

65

Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft spoken. Marks response indicate....

Androgynous gender identity

66

Authoritarian parents....

Rarely listen to the child's point of view

67

Which of the following statements about the authoritative child rearing style is true?

Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give reasons for their expectations, and use "teaching moments"l to promote the child's self regulation.

68

Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self esteem. When frustrated, Bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are most likely to fit which of the following child rearing styles?

Authoritarian

69

Longitudinal research indicates that authoritative child rearing....

Promotes maturity and adjustment in children of diverse temperaments.

70

______ and ________ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.

Preschool; School- age children