biology chapter 12

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1

*In modern terminology, Mendel's heredity "factors" that were transmitted from parents to offspring are called
A. DNA.
B. chromosomes.
C. genes.
D. RNA.

*gene

2

*The Principle of ________ states that the 2 alleles of a gene separate from one another during gamete formation and remain distinct.
A. Alleles
B. Segregation
C. Crossing over
D. Dominance
E. Independent assortment

*segregation

3

*Mendel used the ______ to determine whether an individual with the dominant phenotype was of homozygous or heterozygous genotype for that trait.
A. backcross
B. testcross
C. dihybrid cross
D. F2 generation
E. double cross

*testcross

4

*In a heterozygous individual, the allele being expressed is
A. recessive.
B. codominant.
C. pleiotropic.
D. dominant.
E. epistatic.

*dominant

5

*The allelic make up (gene arrangement) of a cell or individual is referred to as its
A. blueprint.
B. genotype.
C. phenotype.
D. pedigree.

*genotype

6

*A cross where we follow the inheritance of 2 pairs of alleles is called
A. homozygous.
B. monohybrid.
C. dihybrid.
D. heterozygous.
E. diallelic.

*dihybrid

7

*Let R = red pigment and r = no pigment(white). In carnations, RR offspring make a lot of red pigment, rr offspring make no pigment(white) and Rr offspring make a small amount of red pigment, thus appearing pink. Pink carnations are therefore an example of
A. codominance.
B. incomplete dominance.
C. epistasis.
D. pleiotropy.

*incomplete dominance

8

*

In humans, if non-disjunction led to an individual with a genotype of XO, that person would
A. be female because each cell lacks a Y chromosome.
B. be male because each cell has only one X chromosome.
C. display both male and female characteristics.
D. not survive.

*a. be female because they do not have a Y chromosome

9

*In humans, if non-disjunction led to an individual with a genotype of XXY, that person would
A. be female because each cell has two X chromosomes.
B. be male because each cell has one Y chromosome.
C. display both male and female characteristics.
D. not survive.

*be male because they have a Y chromosome.

10

*Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. What are the genotypes of the gametes that could be produced by a plant that is heterozygous for both traits (PpTt)?
A. PpTt only
B. both Pp and Tt
C. P, p, T, and t
D. PT, Pt, pT, and pt
E. Tt, TT, tt, Pp, PP, and pp

*PT, Pt, pT, and pt

11

*Traits that are controlled by genes located on the X chromosome are said to be ________________.
A. autosomal
B. gametal
C. sex-linked
D. pleiotropic​

*c. sex-linked
or X-linked. If on X chromosome they are sex linked

12

The first detailed and quantitative studies on inheritance were carried out by an austrian monk named
a. Mendel
b. Darwin
c. mandeleev
b. benedict

mendel

13

Mendel used the garden _____ plant for his studies on inheritance
a. lily
b. carrot
c. onion
d. pea

pea

14

The phenotypic ratio for the F1 generation that results from a testcross between a homozygous individual and a heterozygous individual is
a. 1:1
b. 2:1
c. 3:1
d. 1:2:1

1:1

15

In modern terminology, mendel's hereditary "factors" are called
a. DNA
b. chromosome
c. gene
d. RNA

gene

16

The observable expression of the genes present in an organism is called
a. phenotype
b. genotype
c. pedigree
d. karyotype

phenotype

17

alternate forms of the same gene are called
a. homologues
b. genotypes
c. cofactors
d. alleles

alleles

18

A diploid organism that has two identical alleles for a given trait is called ___ for that trait
a. homozygous
b. heterozygous
c. dominant
d. recessive
e. codominant

homozygous

19

An allele for a particular trait that is only expressed in the presence of a second copy of the same allele is called
a. dominant
b. codominant
c. incompletely dominant
d. recessive
e. pleiotropic

recessive

20

During his experiments with pea plants, mendel refereed to the trait that was expressed in the F1 or first filial generation as
a. recessive
b. dominant
c. codominant
d. independent
e. homozygous

dominant

21

In mendel's experiments on seed color in pea plants, when a dominant yellow seed-bearing plant was crossed with a recessive green seed-bearing plant, what was the approximate phenotypic ratio among the F2 generation
a. 1 yellow: 3 green
b. 1 yellow: 1 green
c. 3 yellow: 1 green
d. all yellow
e. 9:3:3:1

c. 3 yellow: 1 green

22

Individual that have 2 alleles for most gene loci are best described as
a. haploid
b. dioloid
c. dihybrid
d. homozygous
e. heterozygous

diploid

23

If fertilization involves two gametes that contain different alleles of a given gene, the resulting offspring is
a. dihybrid
b. haploid
c. heterozygous
d. homozygous
e. polygenic

c. heterozygous

24

In a heterozygous individual, the allele being expressed is
a. recessive
b. codominant
c. pleiotropic
d. dominant
e. epistatic

dominant

25

An allele that is present but unexpressed is
a. codominant
b. dominant
c. pleiotropic
d. epistatic
e. recessive

recessive

26

The allelic make up of a cell or individual is referred to as
a. blueprint
b. genotype
c. phenotype
d. pedigree

genotype

27

The observable outward manifestation of the genes of an individual is referred to as its
a. blueprint
b. genotype
c. phenotype
d. genetic map
e. pedigree

phenotype

28

What type of cross is used to determine if an individual with the dominant form of a trait is homozygous or heterozygous
a. double cross
b. dihybrid cross
c. reciprocal cross
d. test cross
e. back cross

test cross

29

A cross where we follow the inheritance of 2 pairs of alleles is called
a. homozygous
b. monohydrid
c. dihydrid
d. heterozygous
e. diallelic

dihybrid

30

Let P=purple flowers and p=white, and T=tall plants and t=dwarf. If the upper case letters represent the dominant alleles, what is the phenotype of a plant with the genotype PpTt?
a. purple flowers, tall
b. purple flowers, dwarf
c. white flowers, tall
d. white flowers, dwarf
e. pale purple flowers, intermediate height

purple flowers,tall

31

Let P=purple flowers and p=white, and T=tall plants and t=dwarf. What are the genotypes of the gametes that could be produced by a plant that is heterozygous for both traits
a. PpTt only
b. both Pp and Tt
c. P,p,T, and t
d. PT, Pt, pT, and pt
e. Tt, TT, tt, Pp,PP, and pp

PT, Pt, pT, and pt

32

Let P=purple flowers and p=white, and T=tall plants and t=dwarf. Of the 16 possible gamete combinations in the dihybrid cross between 2 double heterozygotes, how many would produce the phenotype white, tall?
a.none
b. 1
c. 3
d. 9
e. 16

3

33

Mendel's principle of independent assortment states that different pairs of
a. non homologous chromosomes segregate independently of each other
b. sister chromatids segregate independently of each other
c. non-sister chromatids segregate independently of each other
d. alleles segregate independently of each other
e. gametes segregate independently of each other

d. alleles segregate independently of each other

34

The independent assortment of allele pairs is due to
a. the independent segregation of homologous chromosome pairs during anaphase II
b. the random combination of gametes during fertilization
c. the independent segregation of sister chromatids pairs during anaphase I
d. the independent segregation of non-sister chromatids pairs during anaphase II
e. the independent segregation of homologous chromosome pairs during anaphase I

the independent segregation of homologous chromosome pairs during anaphase I

35

If a single gene has 3 or more alternative forms, this is called
a. pleiotropy
b. multiple alleles
c. epistasis
d. blending inheritance
e. codominance

b. multiple alleles

36

Sometimes, one gene pair will interfere with the expression of a second gene pair in an interaction called
a. incomplete dominance
b. codominance
c. blending inheritance
d. pleiotropy
e. epistasis

e. heterozygous purple pea plant and heterozygous purple pea plant

37

Height is a trait that shows continuous variation in humans. In pea plants, onn the other hand, the tall allele is dominant over the short allele and there are no intermediate heights. What is the best explanation for this difference
a. the alleles that control height in pea plants are epistatic
b. the alleles that control height in pea plants are pleiotropic
c. the alleles that control height in humans are pleiotropic
d. height is a polygenic trait in humans
e. height is a polygenic trait in pea plants

d. height is a polygenic trait in humans

38

An extensive study was conducted on identical twins who were seperated at birth. Among other things, the study showed that the individual from each pair who received better nutrition during childhood tended to score higher on standardized intelligence tests. this can best be described as an example of how
a. mutation alter genotype
b. environment alters phenotype
c. environment alters genotype
d. mutation alters genotype
e. pleiotropic genes affect more than one trait

b. environment alters phenotype

39

Irene knows her body type is A, but William does not know his blood type. However, William knows that his mother and father both had blood type B. Irene and William's first child is a boy with type O blood. Based on this info, William's blood type could be
a. B only
b. either B or O
c. O only
d. either AB or O
e. A only

either b or o

40

A person who has lost a large amount of blood but is still alive is found in a wrecked automobile under a highway bridge. Several people are helping the paramedics load the victim into the ambulance. After the ambulance has departed for the hospital, you overhear the following conversation from the persons who helped the paramedics. " I am certain when that guys gets to the hospital, they will transfuse him with any blood that they have in the blood bank since he has lost so much blood" the other person says " Yeah i bet you're right"! having has a biology course, you know which blood could be safely given to anyone. Select it below
a. A
b. B
c. AB
d. O

o

41

A diploid individual carrying two identical alleles at a given gene locus is called
a. homologous
b. heterozygous
c. homozygous
d. dihybrid

homozygous

42

If 2 people with sickle-cell trait have a child who has sickle-cell disease, what is the probability that their next child will have sickle-cell disease

1/4

43

Punnett square

predict the genotypic ratio among the offspring

44

Let Y = yellow and y = green, and R = round and r = wrinkled. You cross YYRR peas with yyrr peas. All of the F1 individuals are yellow and round with a genotype of YyRr. You then perform an F2 cross and get the expected 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio. What proportion of the F2 plants are expected to be heterozygous for both traits

1/4

45

In white tigers, the absence of fur pigmentation is caused by a recessive allele. This allele also causes the tigers to be cross-eyed. If two tigers heterozygous for this allele mate, what do you expect to see among the offspring

1/4 will be both white and cross-eyed

46

A male fruit fly has the genotype PpYYrrTt. In terms of these 4 allele pairs, how many different types of gametes can he form

4

47

ABO blood group determination is an example of

multiple alleles

48

A cell biologist is conducting a karyotype procedure on alligator red blood cells. Exactly what does this mean?
a. It means that red blood cells from the alligator will be examined with a microscope and the nuclei will be counted.
b. It means that red blood cells from the alligator will be examined using restriction enzymes to count the number of centromeres that are present on the chromosomes.
c. It means that chromosomes from the red blood cells of the alligator will be examined with a microscope, photographed, counted, lined up with their respective homologous partner, and displayed.
d. It means that chromosomes from the red blood cells of the alligator will be examined with a microscope to determine the amount of hemoglobin present.

c. It means that chromosomes from the red blood cells of the alligator will be examined with a microscope, photographed, counted, lined up with their respective homologous partner, and displayed.

49

In humans the diploid number of chromosomes is 46. The haploid number is 23. Prior to mitosis in the cell cycle, the cell is in the G2 phase. Which of the statements is true?
a. The homologous chromosomes are lined up on the equator.
b. The homologous chromosomes have all been copied through DNA replication and are now sister chromatids.
c. The homologous chromosomes have been pulled to their respective poles by the spindle apparatus.
d. The homologous chromosomes have not been replicated yet.
e. The homologous chromosomes are now in the haploid or n condition.

b. The homologous chromosomes have all been copied through DNA replication and are now sister chromatids.

50

Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. Of the 16 possible gamete combinations in the dihybrid cross, how many would be the phenotype white, tall?
a. none
b. 1
c. 3
d. 9
e. 16

3

51

One of the main reasons genes assort independent of one another is that
a. they produce unrelated traits.
b. they produce related traits.
c. they are on the same chromosome.
d. they are different alleles.
e. they are on different chromosomes.

they are on different chromosomes

52

A single gene has 3 or more alternative forms. These are called
a. heterozygotes.
b. multiple alleles.
c. epistatic.
d. homozygotes.
e. multiple zygotes.

multiple alleles

53

Sometimes one gene pair will interact so as to control the expression of a second gene pair in an interaction called
a. dominance.
b. gene regulation.
c. recessiveness.
d. pleiotropy.
e. epistasis.

epistasis

54

Height and eye colors are two examples of continuous variation in humans. Whereas in pea plants the tall allele is dominant over the short allele, there are no intermediate heights in peas. Which of the following is the best explanation for the differences described above?
a. Humans are more advanced than pea plants; thus, the genetics of peas is much simpler than humans.
b. The intermediate size pea plant seeds are aborted within the seedpod and thus will never develop.
c. The intermediate size pea plant seeds have deleterious alleles that prevent them from germinating.
d. Many genes, rather than one gene for a characteristic, control some variations in species.
e. These variations in humans are affected by lack of dominance in the alleles that control these traits.

d. Many genes, rather than one gene for a characteristic, control some variations in species.

55

How many different types of gametes can be formed by plants with a genotype of PpYYrrTt?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 16

4

56

A secretor is a person who secretes their blood type antigens into body fluids and secretions such as saliva. By comparison, a non-secretor does not. A person's status as a secretor or non-secretor is independent of blood type. Consider the following inheritance pattern of this trait:

secretor x secretor all offspring are secretors
non-secretor x non-secretor all offspring are non-secretors
secretor x non-secretor all offspring are secretors
F1 generation secretors F2 generation = 75% secretors, 25% non-secretors

Raven - 012 Chapter...

The genotypic ratio produced in the F2 generation is
a. 3:1.
b. 1:2:1.
c. ¾:¼.
d. cannot determine from the information provided.

1:2:1

57

You can use a Punnet square to do all of the following except
a. determine gametic possibilities.
b. predict phenotypic ratio.
c. determine genotypic ratio.
d. establish a pedigree.

establish a pedigree

58

As a genetic counselor, you are constructing a human pedigree for a particular disease. You note that every generation shows the trait, suggesting that it is
a. sex-linked.
b. recessive.
c. dominant.
d. cannot determine from the information provided.

dominant

59

The white eye mutation in Drosophila was shown to be sex-linked and caused by a gene residing on chromosome

x

60

Occasionally, chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, leading to a condition in which the diploid number is not normal. This phenomenon is called
a. epistasis.
b. nondisjunction.
c. disjunction.
d. pleiotropy.
e. autosomy.

nondisjunction

61

If an XY individual had a genetic disorder in which they were insensitive to androgens, their genotype and phenotype would be
a. XX, female.
b. XX, male.
c. XY, female.
d. XY, male.

xy, female

62

. Which offspring will inherit all their mitochondria DNA from their mother and none from their father?
a. daughters
b. sons
c. both sons and daughters
d. Mitochondria DNA is inherited from both parents.

both sons and daughters

63

Of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, 22 pairs are homologous and are found in both males and females. these are called
a. bivalents
b. autosomes
c. recombinant chromosomes
d. somatic chromosomes

autosomes

64

If a human female has 2 Barr besides per cell, it is almost certain that
a. her father had 1 Barr body per cell
b. her mother also had 2 Barr bodies per cell
c. she developed from a fertilized egg with 3 X chromosomes
d. she is genetically a male with female characteristics
e. she is genetically a normal fertile female

c. she developed from a fertilized egg with 3 X chromosomes

65

Hemophilia is caused by a
a. recessive allele on the X chromosome
b. dominant allele on the X chromosome
c. codominant allele on the X chromosome
d. recessive allele on an autosome
e. dominant allele on an autosome

a. recessive allele on the X chromosome