Anthropology Test One Flashcards


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1

Anthropology is

the study of human mankind everywhere, throughout time

2

Although human beings always have been interested in other human beings, anthropology has emerged as a tradition of scientific inquiry over the last

150 years

3

What are the traditional fields or subdisiplnes of anthropology?

Cultural Anthropology
Physical Anthropology
Linguistics Anthropology
Archaeological Anthropology

4

The Garbage Project in Tucson demonstrated that what people say and what they do can differ dramatically. For instance, investigators found that

the amount of beer consumed, according to empty cans in the trash, was far higher than people claimed

5

Historians, who usually study the past through written sources, are limited chronologically to

the past 5,000 years

6

Which of the following research projects would NOT belong to the province of linguistic anthropology?

reconstructing the evolution of the big toe to find out at what time humans began to walk upright

7

In-depth descriptive studies of specific cultures are called?

ethnographies

8

A(n) _____ is a closely examined and critically checked out explanation of observed reality

theory

9

Franz Boaz did his first ethnographic research among the

Inuit

10

Which of the following services is NOT one that forensic anthropologists routinely are called upon by the police and other authorities to identify?

potential archaeological sites

11

The term that refers to worldwide interconnectedness, signified by global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases is known as

globalization

12

What is "transplant tourism?"

travel connected with the buying and selling of human organs

13

Reconstructing the evolution of the big toes to determine at what time humans began to walk would be a research project for which of the following type of anthropologists?

physical

14

The hand of a human and wing of a bat are _____ structures, while the wings of birds and butterflies are _____ structures.

homologous, analogous

15

Generation after generation, the bullfrogs in a farm pond look much alike, have the same cells, and exhibit the same behavior when breeding. The _____ of the population appears to remain stable over time.

Gene Pool

16

Ultimately, all natural selection is measured in terms of

reproductive success

17

A chance creation of a new allele is called a

mutation

18

The last 500 years have seen the introduction of Spanish and African alleles into Central and South American populations from Spanish colonists and African slaves. The change in the gene pool is caused by

gene flow

19

The process by which a population becomes better adapted to its biological and social environment is

adaption

20

A ______ is a population or group of populations capable of interbreeding that is reproductively isolated from other such populations

species

21

Who proposed a "flower clock" that could show the time of day according to whether blossoms of particular species were open or shut

Carolus Linneaus

22

Among primates, humans are least related to which of the following?

monkeys

23

A structure unique to lemurs is

a dental comb made up of the lower incisors and canines that projects forward from the jaw

24

Primates are mammals. Evidence from ancient skeletons indicates the first mammals appeared over ______ million years ago.

200

25

Among many species, males possess larger canine teeth than females. This is an example of sexual

dimorphism

26

Nearly _____ percent of the known primate species and subspecies face extinction in the next decade

50

27

Which of the following have no tails?

Apes

28

Which of the following primates have been observed hunting, killing and eating colubus guereza monkey?

chimpanzees

29

Baboons feed on a diet of

grass, leaves, insects

30

The _____ is the large opening at the base of the skill through which the spinal cord passes and is an important clue to evolutionary relationships

foramen magnum

31

As mentioned in your textbook, the skin around the genitals of the _____ female is constantly swollen, concealing the time of ovulation by looking and behaving as if they are always fertile.

Bonobo

32

The violence among chimpanzee groups witnessed by primatologist Jane Goodall is thought to have been the consequence of

crowding brought about by human encroachment

33

If you were to visit a primate group in the wild, the most frequent type of activity that you would be likely to see is

grooming

34

An important method of learning among infants and juveniles is

play

35

The way chimpanzees in West Africa crack open oil-palm nuts requires observation and practice. After a great deal of practice, they are proficient by the age of

6 or 7

36

The hardened, nerveless buttock pads that allow baboons to sit for long periods of time are called

ischial callosities

37

It is clear that all of the great ape species can develop language skills to the level of a ____ year old human child

2-3

38

Those physical anthropologists engaged in the recovery and study of fossil evidence for human evolution are known as

paleoanthropologists

39

In the case of fossils, the block in which they have been removed from the field is cut open, and the fossil is separated from the matrix. Which of the following chemicals would be used in this process?

hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids

40

With accurate and detailed records of their excavations in hand, archaeologists and paleoanthropologists are able to deal with a plausible reconstruction of

culture

41

For the archaeologists, according to the original study "Whispers from the Ice," having elders stand beside them and identifying items and providing _____ is like hearing the past whispering in their ears.

historical context

42

Which of the following conditions is most favorable to the preservation of fossils?

burial in volcanic ash

43

What is a "relative date"

Would be represented by the statement, " Fossil A has more fluorine in it than Fossil B, so it is the older one."

44

You as your best friend's mother how old she is. She replies, "I'm younger that your mother." You were asking for a(n) _____ date, but she gave you a(n) ______ date.

absolute, relative

45

You are investigating an archaeological site in which there are several clearly distinguishable layers of earth laid down. You find a piece of finely glazed china in the fifth (lowest) layer and a piece of unglazed pottery in the first (highest) layer. You assume that the unglazed pottery was made more recently that the finely glazed pottery. In making such an assumption you are using the method of

stratigraphy

46

You are a paleoanthropologist uncovering fossils in East Africa. Using a certain technique, you discover that humanlike fossil is in a stratum between a volcanic eruption dated at 2.9 million years and another volcanic eruption whose rocks give a date of 3.6 million years. The fossil is about midway between these layers, so you assign a tentative date of 3.2-3.3 million years to your fossil. What technique are you using?

potassium-argon analysis

47

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act was passed in

1990

48

What are garbage disposal areas in an archaeological sites called?

Middens