APUSH Chapter 16 Flashcards


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1

As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin

a.

fewer slaves were needed on the plantations.

b.

short-staple cotton lost popularity.

c.

slavery was reinvigorated.

d.

Thomas Jefferson predicted the gradual death of slavery.

e.

the African slave trade was legalized.

C

2

Members of the planter aristocracy

a.

produced fewer front-rank statesmen than the North.

b.

dominated society and politics in the South.

c.

provided democratic rule in the South.

d.

promoted tax-supported public education.

e.

kept up with developments in modern thought.

B

3

All the following were true of the American economy under Cotton Kingdom except

a.

cotton accounted for half the value of all American exports after 1840.

b.

the South produced more than half the entire world's supply of cotton.

c.

75 percent of the British supply of cotton came from the South.

d.

quick profits from cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise.

e.

the South reaped all the profits from the cotton trade.

E

4

Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because

a.

it relied mainly on artificial means to fertilize the soil.

b.

it required leaving cropland fallow every other year.

c.

excessive water was used for irrigation.

d.

it was too diversified, thus taking essential nutrients from the soil.

e.

its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land.

E

5

Plantation mistresses

a.

had little contact with slaves.

b.

primarily controlled male slaves.

c.

frequently supported abolitionism.

d.

commanded a sizable household staff of mostly female slaves.

e.

were almost universally loved by their slaves.

D

6

The plantation system of the Cotton South was

a.

increasingly monopolistic.

b.

efficient at utilizing natural resources.

c.

financially stable.

d.

attractive to European immigrants.

e.

unable to expand westward.

A

7

All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation system except that

a.

it relied on a one-crop economy.

b.

it repelled a large-scale European immigration.

c.

it stimulated racism among poor whites.

d.

it created an aristocratic political elite.

e.

its land continued to remain in the hands of the small farmers.

E

8

European immigration to the South was discouraged by

a.

competition with slave labor.

b.

southern anti-Catholicism.

c.

Irish antislavery groups.

d.

immigration barriers enacted by southern states.

e.

their inability to tolerate the hot climate.

A

9

All told, only about ____ of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family.

a.

one fourth

b.

one third

c.

half

d.

two thirds

e.

three fourths

A

10

____ said the following quote, "I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom."

a.

Jefferson Davis

b.

John C. Calhoun

c.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

d.

Abraham Lincoln

e.

Andrew Johnson

C

11

As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised

a.

cotton.

b.

tobacco.

c.

corn.

d.

rice.

e.

sugar cane.

C

12

Most white southerners were

a.

planter aristocrats.

b.

small slaveowners.

c.

merchants and artisans.

d.

"poor white trash."

e.

subsistence farmers.

E

13

By 1860, three-quarters of all southern whites did not own slaves, but instead

a.

lived and worked in the emerging cities of the South.

b.

eked out a living in the mountains and backcountry raising corn and hogs.

c.

owned small farms where they and their families raised cotton.

d.

farmed a mixture of wheat, tobacco and cotton.

e.

None of these

B

14

Slaves regarded the least prosperous, nonslaveholding whites as

a.

potential, yet undesirable, masters.

b.

their equals in doing the least desirable work.

c.

violent, rabble-rousers who often picked on slaves.

d.

hillbillies and "poor white trash" - too lazy to work.

e.

dirty, diseased, and malnourished.

D

15

In society's basement in the South of 1860 were nearly ____ million black human chattels.

a.

1

b.

2

c.

4

d.

8

e.

10

C

16

By the mid-nineteenth century

a.

most southerners owned slaves.

b.

the smaller slaveholders owned a majority of the slaves.

c.

most slaves lived on large plantations.

d.

slavery was a dying institution.

e.

southerners were growing defensive about slavery.

C

17

Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by

a.

Susan B. Anthony.

b.

Lucrecia Mott.

c.

Harriet Beecher Stowe.

d.

Margaret Fuller.

e.

Harriet Tubman.

C

18

The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because

a.

they opposed slavery.

b.

they could not afford the purchase price.

c.

their urban location did not require them.

d.

their racism would not allow them to work alongside African Americans.

e.

they feared the possibility of slave revolts.

B

19

The most pro-Union of the white southerners were

a.

plantation owners.

b.

mountain whites.

c.

small slaveowners.

d.

nonslaveowning subsistence farmers.

e.

people with northern economic interests.

B

20

Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of

a.

the prohibition of the Atlantic slave trade after 1807.

b.

purchase by northern abolitionists.

c.

fleeing to mountain hideaways.

d.

purchasing their way out of slavery with money earned after hours.

e.

the objection to slaveholding by some white women.

D

21

The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to

a.

the reopening of the African slave trade in 1808.

b.

larger imports of slaves from the West Indies.

c.

natural reproduction.

d.

reenslavement of free blacks.

e.

the deliberate breeding of slaves by plantation owners.

C

22

Northern attitudes toward free blacks can best be described as

a.

supporting their right to full citizenship.

b.

disliking the race but liking individual blacks.

c.

advocating black movement into the new territories.

d.

politically sympathetic but socially segregationist.

e.

disliking the individuals but liking the race.

E

23

For free blacks living in the North

a.

living conditions were nearly equal to those for whites.

b.

voting rights were widespread.

c.

good jobs were plentiful.

d.

education opened the door to economic opportunity.

e.

discrimination was common.

E

24

All of the following are true statements about free blacks except

a.

they were banned from entering several northern states.

b.

they were always vulnerable to being hijacked back into slavery in the South.

c.

slaveholders feared that they were living examples of what might be achieved with emancipation.

d.

in the North, they forged ties with the Irish, who similarly worked in menial jobs.

e.

most states denied them the right to vote.

D

25

The profitable southern slave system

a.

hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole.

b.

saw many slaves moving to the upper South.

c.

led to the textile industry's development in the South first.

d.

relied almost totally on importing slaves to meet the unquenchable demand for labor.

e.

enabled the South to afford economic and educational progress.

A

26

Regarding work assignments, slaves were

a.

given some of the most dangerous jobs.

b.

sometimes spared dangerous work.

c.

given the same jobs as Irish laborers.

d.

usually given skilled rather than menial jobs.

e.

generally supervised in small groups.

B

27

Slavery's greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, was

a.

the enforced separation of slave families, whose members could be sold away from each other.

b.

slaveowners' frequent use of the whip.

c.

the breeding of slaves.

d.

having to do the most dangerous work on the plantation.

e.

forcible sexual assault by slaveowners.

A

28

By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located in the

a.

border states of Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland.

b.

Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

c.

old South states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

d.

new Southwest states of Texas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory.

e.

mountain regions of Tennessee, West Virginia, and Kentucky.

B

29

As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, slaveowners most often used the

a.

promise of eventual freedom.

b.

reward of some legal rights.

c.

right to hold private property.

d.

whip as a motivator.

e.

threat of death.

D

30

All of the following were characteristic of slaves in the mid-nineteenth century United States except

a.

slaves had no civil or political rights.

b.

slaves usually toiled from dusk to dawn in the fields.

c.

slaves had minimal protection from murder or unusually cruel punishment.

d.

slaves were forbidden to testify in court and their marriages were not legal.

e.

floggings were very uncommon and rare.

E

31

In some counties of the deep South, especially along the lower Mississippi River, blacks accounted for more than ____ percent of the population.

a.

25

b.

50

c.

75

d.

85

e.

95

C

32

By 1860, life for slaves was most difficult in the

a.

Atlantic states of North and South Carolina.

b.

Deep South states of Georgia and Florida.

c.

territories of Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico.

d.

upper South states of Virginia and Maryland.

e.

newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

E

33

Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common

a.

in the Deep South.

b.

on the large plantations.

c.

on small plantations and in the upper South.

d.

in the decade before the Civil War.

e.

as a punishment for running away.

C

34

All of the following were true of slavery in the South except that

a.

slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas.

b.

a distinctive African American slave culture developed.

c.

a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the backs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis.

d.

by 1860, most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South.

e.

most slaves were raised in single unstable parent households.

E

35

Most slaves were raised

a.

without the benefit of a stable home life.

b.

in stable two-parent households.

c.

never knowing anything about their relatives.

d.

not to display their African cultural roots.

e.

without religion.

B

36

Slaves were denied an education because

a.

it would take time away from their work in the fields and households of white masters.

b.

the cost of education was far more than masters would want to spend on slaves.

c.

masters believed that reading brought new ideas that might lead to their discontent.

d.

their labor did not require literacy or math skills.

e.

masters feared their slaves might become smarter than white owners.

C

37

Slaves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways except by

a.

slowing down the work pace.

b.

conducting periodic successful slave rebellions.

c.

sabotaging expensive equipment.

d.

pilfering goods that their labor had produced.

e.

running away from their masters.

B

38

As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South

a.

formed alliances with white imperialists in Africa.

b.

adopted British attitudes toward the "peculiar institution."

c.

emancipated many slaves.

d.

shed its image as a reactionary backwater.

e.

developed a theory of biological racial superiority.

E

39

In the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was

a.

feigned laziness.

b.

sabotage of plantation equipment.

c.

running away.

d.

armed insurrection.

e.

stealing food and other goods.

D

40

Which one of the following has the least in common with the other four?

a.

Nat Turner

b.

David Walker

c.

John Quincy Adams

d.

Denmark Vesey

e.

Gabriel

C

41

The idea of recolonizing blacks back to Africa was

a.

proposed by William Lloyd Garrison.

b.

proposed as part of the Fourteenth Amendment.

c.

advocated by Frederick Douglass.

d.

suggested by the African nation of Liberia.

e.

supported by the black leader Martin Delaney.

E

42

The idea of transporting blacks back to Africa was

a.

a recognition of blacks' desire to preserve their culture.

b.

never carried out.

c.

advocated by Frederick Douglass.

d.

proposed by the African nation of Liberia.

e.

an expression of widespread American racism.

E

43

In 1839, enslaved Africans rose up aboard the Spanish slave ship

a.

Isabelle.

b.

Amistad.

c.

Gerriere.

d.

La Nina.

e.

El Liberte.

B

44

Match each abolitionist below with his publication.

A.

William Lloyd Garrison

1.

Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World

B.

Theodore Dwight Weld

2.

The Liberator

C.

Frederick Douglass

3.

Narration of the Life of ____

D.

David Walker

4.

American Slavery as It Is

a.

A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2

b.

A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1

c.

A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1

d.

A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4

e.

A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3

B

45

Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, and (C) Liberty party.

a.

A, B, C

b.

C, A, B

c.

B, C, A

d.

A, C, B

e.

C, B, A

A

46

William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to

a.

shipping freed blacks back to Africa.

b.

outlawing the slave trade.

c.

preventing the expansion of slavery beyond the South.

d.

forming an antislavery political party.

e.

the immediate abolition of slavery in the South.

E

47

Match each abolitionist below with his role in the movement.

A.

Wendell Phillips

1.

abolitionist martyr

B.

Frederick Douglass

2.

black abolitionist

C.

Elijah P. Lovejoy

3.

abolitionist golden trumpet

D.

William Lloyd Garrison

4.

abolitionist newspaper publisher

a.

A-4, B-2, C-l, D-3

b.

A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3

c.

A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2

d.

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

e.

A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4

E

48

Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840, when they backed the presidential candidate of the

a.

Free Soil party.

b.

Republican party.

c.

Know-Nothing party.

d.

Liberty party.

e.

Anti-Masonic party.

D

49

The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the

a.

1790s.

b.

1820s.

c.

1830s.

d.

1840s.

e.

1850s.

C

50

Proslavery whites defended the institution of slavery in all of the following ways except

a.

they claimed slavery was supported by the Bible.

b.

slaveholders said slavery lifted Africans from the barbarism of the jungle and gave them Christian civilization.

c.

Slaveholders claimed that master-slave relationships resembled a family.

d.

they said that slaves toiled under better working conditions than factory workers and hired hands in the North.

e.

they claimed that slaves were set free once they reached old age.

E

51

In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners

a.

placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the Western world.

b.

were in opposition to the North but on the side of the Western world.

c.

failed to compare slaves with the northern factory worker.

d.

allowed considerable dissent in the South.

e.

aligned themselves with leading European intellectuals.

A

52

Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed that these opponents of slavery

a.

were creating disorder in America.

b.

were defending the American way of life.

c.

deserved the right to speak freely.

d.

had turned their backs on religion.

e.

were undermining fundamental American beliefs.

A

53

"Varying Viewpoints" notes that Ulrich B. Phillips made certain claims about slavery that have been challenged in recent years. Which of the following is not one of his conclusions?

a.

Slaves were racially inferior.

b.

Slavery was a dying economic institution.

c.

Planters treated their slaves with kindly paternalism.

d.

Slaves were passive by nature and did not abhor slavery.

e.

Slavery was comparable to the Nazi concentration camps.

E

54

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South because

a.

about two-thirds of the southern cotton crop was sold to New England textile mills.

b.

northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton.

c.

cotton accounted for about half the value of all United States exports after 1840.

d.

northern farmers profited from selling their foodstuffs to feed southern slaves.

e.

northern investors controlled the cotton futures markets.

BC

55

The pre-Civil War South was characterized by

a.

a well-developed martial spirit.

b.

the lack of free, tax-supported public education.

c.

a widening gap between rich and poor.

d.

a ruling planter aristocracy.

e.

a growing hostility to free speech and a free press.

ABCDE

56

Even those who did not own slaves in the pre-Civil War South supported that institution because they

a.

dreamed of one day owning slaves themselves.

b.

presumed themselves racially superior to black slaves.

c.

were always economically better off than slaves.

d.

were closely related to people who did own slaves.

e.

benefited from the economic growth of the region.

AB

57

Before the Civil War, free blacks

a.

were far more numerous in the North than in the South.

b.

were often the mulatto offspring of white fathers and black mothers.

c.

were often forbidden basic civil rights.

d.

found their greatest friends and sympathizers in poor Irish immigrants.

e.

were disliked in the North as well as the South.

BCE

58

Slaves were

a.

regarded primarily as financial investments by their owners.

b.

the primary form of wealth in the South.

c.

profitable for their owners.

d.

often bred like cattle.

e.

denied any kind of family life.

ABC

59

The slave culture was characterized by

a.

the breakdown of black family life.

b.

frequent intermarriage between slaves who were close relatives.

c.

a hybrid religion of Christian and African elements.

d.

widespread illiteracy among slaves.

e.

subtle forms of resistance to slavery.

CDE

60

After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the

a.

success of the British abolitionists in having slavery abolished in the British West Indies.

b.

religious spirit of the Second Great Awakening.

c.

success of the American Colonization Society.

d.

success of several southern slave insurrections.

e.

widespread support for antislavery action in the North.

AB

61

The South's "positive good" argument for slavery claimed that

a.

slavery was supported by the authority of both the Bible and the Constitution.

b.

slavery was good for the barbarous Africans because enslavement introduced them to Christianity.

c.

slaves benefited from receiving education and job training.

d.

slaves were usually treated as members of the family.

e.

slaves were better off than most northern wage earners.

ABDE

62

After 1830, most people in the North

a.

held that the Constitution sanctioned slavery.

b.

were generally indifferent toward slavery or its expansion.

c.

were alarmed by the radicalism of abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison.

d.

quickly rallied to the support of proponents of immediate abolition.

e.

believed that Christianity and slavery were incompatible.

AC