APUSH Chapter 4 Flashcards


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1

As the seventeenth century wore on, regional differences continued to crystallize, most notably

a.

the use of indentured servants.

b.

loyalty to England.

c.

the continuing rigidity of Puritanism.

d.

the breaking of the Atlanta economy.

e.

the importance of slave labor in the South.

E

2

The population of the Chesapeake colonies, throughout the first half of the seventeenth century, was notable for its

a.

fast growth rate.

b.

scarcity of women.

c.

low death rate.

d.

stable family life.

e.

large percentage of middle-aged men.

B

3

In 1650, males in the Chesapeake area competed for the affections of the extremely scarce women, whom they outnumbered nearly

a.

six to one.

b.

ten to one.

c.

fifteen to one.

d.

twenty to one.

e.

There is no statistical data.

A

4

Which of these is NOT a true statement about life expectancy for the earliest Chesapeake settlers?

a.

It was ten years shorter for these Chesapeake colonists than it had been in England.

b.

Many of the early male settlers died soon after arriving in the Chesapeake.

c.

Half of those born in early Virginia and Maryland did not live past age twenty.

d.

The population grew rapidly due to new male immigrants.

e.

Half of the male settlers made it to age 50; half the female settlers to age 40.

D

5

During the seventeenth century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for all of the following reasons except that

a.

the Indian population proved to be an unreliable work force because they died quickly after contact with whites.

b.

African slaves cost too much money.

c.

in some areas families formed too slowly.

d.

Spain had stopped sending slaves to its New World colonies.

e.

families procreated too slowly.

D

6

The headright system, which made some people very wealthy, consisted of

a.

using Indians as forced labor.

b.

giving land to indentured servants to get them to come to the New World.

c.

giving the right to acquire fifty acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer to America.

d.

discouraging the importation of indentured servants to America.

e.

giving a father's wealth to the oldest son.

C

7

By 1700, the most populous colony in English America was

a.

Massachusetts.

b.

Virginia.

c.

New York.

d.

Pennsylvania.

e.

Maryland.

B

8

Seventeenth-century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by

a.

selling slaves to reduce productive labor.

b.

selling land to reduce their volume of production.

c.

growing more tobacco to increase their volume of production.

d.

planting corn and wheat instead of tobacco.

e.

releasing unneeded indentured servants early.

C

9

____ reaped the greatest benefit from the land policies of the headright system.

a.

Indentured servants

b.

African slaves

c.

Merchant planters

d.

New England colonists

e.

Slave owners

C

10

English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony were called

a.

headrights.

b.

burgesses.

c.

indentured servants.

d.

slaves.

e.

birds of passage.

C

11

For their labor in the colonies, indentured servants received all of the following except

a.

passage to America.

b.

a suit of clothes.

c.

a few barrels of corn.

d.

a headright.

e.

at times, a small parcel of land.

D

12

Throughout the greater part of the seventeenth century, the Chesapeake colonies acquired most of the labor they needed from

a.

African slaves.

b.

white servants.

c.

captured Indians.

d.

West Indian natives.

e.

prisoners of war.

B

13

Indentured servants in the seventeenth century Chesapeake represented

a.

one tenth of the population.

b.

one-fourth of the population.

c.

half of the population.

d.

three-quarters of the population.

e.

85% of the population.

D

14

Over the course of the seventeenth century, most indentured servants

a.

became landowners.

b.

devolved into slavery.

c.

managed to escape the terms of their contracts.

d.

faced increasingly harsh circumstances.

e.

saw their wages increase.

D

15

By the end of the seventeenth century, indentured servants who gained their freedom

a.

often gained great wealth as more land opened for settlement.

b.

rarely returned to work for their masters.

c.

almost always found high-paying jobs in the cities.

d.

had little choice but to hire themselves out for low wages to their former masters.

e.

often returned to England penniless and broke.

D

16

Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by

a.

young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land and find women to marry.

b.

the planter class of Virginia.

c.

those protesting the increased importation of African slaves.

d.

people from Jamestown only.

e.

the local Indians.

A

17

The immediate reason for Bacon's Rebellion was

a.

the Virginia governor's refusal to retaliate against Indian attacks on frontier settlements.

b.

the wealthy planter class losing control of the colony.

c.

a shortage of indentured servants.

d.

to halt the importation of African slaves.

e.

All of these

A

18

As a result of Bacon's Rebellion

a.

African slavery was reduced.

b.

planters began to look for less troublesome laborers.

c.

Governor Berkeley was dismissed from office.

d.

Nathaniel Bacon was named to head the Virginia militia.

e.

better relations developed with local Indians.

B

19

The majority of African slaves coming to the New World

a.

went to English North America.

b.

were delivered to South America and the West Indies.

c.

came to New England.

d.

were brought by the Dutch.

e.

died before reaching their destination.

B

20

All of the following are reasons for increased reliance on slave labor, after 1680, in colonial America except

a.

higher wages in England reduced the number of emigrating servants.

b.

planters feared the growing number of landless freemen in the colonies.

c.

the British Royal African company lost its monopoly on the slave trade in colonial America.

d.

Americans rushed to cash in on the slave trade.

e.

the development of wheat as a staple crop in the British colonies.

E

21

Many of the slaves who reached North America

a.

came from eastern Africa.

b.

were originally captured by African coastal tribes.

c.

were captured in southern Africa.

d.

eventually gained their freedom.

e.

settled in the middle colonies.

B

22

For those Africans who were sold into slavery, the middle passage can be best described as

a.

the trip from the interior of Africa to the coast.

b.

the easiest part of their journey to America.

c.

the journey from American parts to their new homes.

d.

the gruesome ocean voyage to America.

e.

None of these

D

23

The 1662 slave codes in Virginia are significant because they

a.

restricted the number of slaves that could be imported into the colony.

b.

established a legal difference between servants and slaves based on race.

c.

established curfews and prohibited slaves from moving freely about the colony.

d.

outlined the conditions under which slaves could obtain their freedom.

e.

made slaves and indentured servants of equal status under the law.

B

24

Identify the statement that is false.

a.

Most of the early African immigrants gained their freedom.

b.

The legal difference between a slave and a servant was unclear early on in colonial history.

c.

Slavery in American began for economic reasons.

d.

Slavery was harshest in the deep South.

e.

Some slaves became slave owners once they were freed.

A

25

The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in

a.

Maryland.

b.

Virginia.

c.

South Carolina.

d.

Massachusetts.

e.

Pennsylvania.

C

26

All of the following are true conditions of the Chesapeake, as compared to the Deep South, except

a.

tobacco was less physically demanding than rice.

b.

tobacco plantations were larger and closer to one another, allowing for more contact with friends and relatives.

c.

the proportion of female slaves in the Chesapeake had begun to rise by 1720.

d.

it was one of the few slave societies in history to perpetuate itself by its own natural reproduction.

e.

even though the slave population began to rise, family life was still impossible.

E

27

African American contributions to American culture include all of the following except

a.

jazz music.

b.

the banjo.

c.

the piano.

d.

a variety of words.

e.

bongo drums.

C

28

While slavery might have begun in America for economic reasons,

a.

it soon became clear by 1700 that profits were down.

b.

race was rarely an issue in relations between blacks and whites.

c.

racial discrimination also powerfully molded the American slave system.

d.

profit soon played a less central role.

e.

Europe profited most from the institution.

C

29

The slave culture that developed in America

a.

was derived exclusively from African roots.

b.

rejected Christianity.

c.

was Muslim in its religious teachings.

d.

contained many Western elements that remained thoroughly European.

e.

was a uniquely New World creation.

E

30

Which of these is NOT a true statement about the experience of slavery for women?

a.

Female slaves worked a much longer day than male slaves.

b.

After toiling in the fields, female slaves spent their evenings spinning or making clothes for their families.

c.

Slave women lived in fear of sexual violence from white masters.

d.

Female slaves made up the majority of early imports to the colonies.

e.

Women constantly sought ways to preserve their dignity under the slave system.

D

31

All of the following can be said about slave culture in the colonies except

a.

native-born African Americans had much to do with its development and growth.

b.

it included a unique language that blended African and English words.

c.

it transformed African religious rituals into what would become new musical forms.

d.

it merged a blend of traditional African folkways with those found in the colonies.

e.

it emerged from efforts by slave traders to suppress African speech, religion and traditions.

E

32

Slave Christianity emphasized all of the following in their faith except

a.

Jesus was the Messiah who would deliver them from bondage.

b.

that they should be humble and obedient.

c.

heaven was a place where they would be reunited with their ancestors.

d.

that God freed the Hebrews from slavery.

e.

how to use religious songs as encoded messages about escape.

B

33

Compared with indentured servants, African American slaves were

a.

less reliable workers.

b.

more likely to rebel.

c.

cheaper to buy and own.

d.

a more easily controlled labor force.

e.

less expensive to buy but more expensive to keep.

D

34

As slavery spread in the South

a.

social differences within society narrowed.

b.

the great plantation owners worked less.

c.

gaps in the social structure widened.

d.

planters tried to imitate the ways of English country gentlemen.

e.

it also increased dramatically in New England.

C

35

Most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South were

a.

large merchant planters.

b.

landowning small farmers.

c.

landless farm laborers.

d.

black slaves.

e.

native Americans.

B

36

Urban development in the colonial South

a.

rivaled that of New England.

b.

kept pace with the growth of large plantations.

c.

led to the construction of an excellent highway system.

d.

was slow to emerge.

e.

occurred without the development of a professional class.

D

37

At the bottom of the social class in the South were the

a.

landless farmers.

b.

indentured servants.

c.

small farmers.

d.

slaves.

e.

tenant farmers.

D

38

It was typical of colonial New England adults to

a.

marry early and have several children.

b.

be unable to read and write.

c.

arrive in New England unmarried.

d.

die before becoming grandparents.

e.

live solitary lives.

A

39

The New England family can best be described as

a.

relatively small in size due to the frequency of deaths from childbirth.

b.

a very stable institution.

c.

a limiting factor in the growth of the region's population.

d.

not very close-knit.

e.

similar to the family in the Chesapeake colonies.

B

40

Southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate title to their property because

a.

of religious beliefs.

b.

of English tradition.

c.

southern men frequently died young.

d.

southern families were stable.

e.

of a smaller number of men than women.

C

41

Puritans refused to recognize a woman's separate property rights because

a.

of the short life span of New England women.

b.

they worried that such rights would undercut the unity of married persons.

c.

New England families were so rare.

d.

there was so little land available.

e.

All of these

B

42

In seventeenth-century colonial America, all of the following are true regarding women except

a.

women could not own property under any circumstances.

b.

women could not vote.

c.

women were regarded as morally weaker than men.

d.

women dominated the profession of midwives.

e.

abusive husbands could be punished.

A

43

The expansion of New England society

a.

proceeded in an orderly fashion.

b.

was a rather haphazard process.

c.

was undertaken by lone-wolf farmers on their own initiative.

d.

took place without the approval of the colonial legislature.

e.

led to little concern about the community as a whole.

A

44

When new towns were established in New England, all of the following were true except

a.

a land grant was given by the legislature.

b.

a meeting house was built.

c.

a village green was laid out.

d.

schools were required in towns of more than fifty families.

e.

families did not automatically receive land.

E

45

The Puritan system of congregational church government logically led to

a.

an authoritarian political government.

b.

the early establishment of religious toleration.

c.

democracy in political government.

d.

the end of town meetings.

e.

complete equality between men and women.

C

46

Thomas Jefferson once observed that "the best school of political liberty the world ever saw" was the

a.

College of William and Mary.

b.

Virginia House of Burgesses.

c.

New England town meeting.

d.

Chesapeake plantation system.

e.

English parliament.

C

47

All of the following were consequences of the Half-Way Covenant except

a.

it weakened the distinction between the elect and others.

b.

it maintained the original agreement of the covenant.

c.

it conferred partial membership rights in the once-exclusive congregations.

d.

it increased the numbers of church members.

e.

women became the majority in the Puritan congregations.

B

48

The Half-Way Covenant

a.

allowed full communion for all nonconverted members.

b.

strengthened the distinction between the elect and all others.

c.

brought an end to the jeremiads of Puritan ministers.

d.

resulted in a decrease in church members.

e.

allowed the children of unconverted existing members to be baptized but not full members of the church.

E

49

The Salem witchcraft trials were

a.

a result of Roger Williams's activities.

b.

the result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving Massachusetts.

c.

caused by ergot in the Puritans' bread.

d.

unique to the English colonies.

e.

accusations made by the daughters of business owners.

B

50

During the Salem witchcraft trials, most of those accused as witches were

a.

property-owning women.

b.

from the ranks of poor families.

c.

primarily un-Christian.

d.

women in their late teen years.

e.

from subsistence farming families.

A

51

The Salem witch hunt in 1692

a.

was the largest witch hunt in recorded history.

b.

was the first in the English American colonies.

c.

was opposed by the more responsible members of the clergy.

d.

was ultimately of little consequence for those who were accused of witchcraft.

e.

did not see anyone put to death.

C

52

As a result of poor soil, all of the following conditions prevailed in New England except that

a.

reliance on a single, staple crop became a necessity.

b.

the area was less ethnically mixed than its southern neighbors.

c.

frugality became essential to economic survival.

d.

hard work was required to make a living.

e.

diversification in agriculture and industry were encouraged.

A

53

The New England economy depended heavily on

a.

slave labor.

b.

the production of many staple crops.

c.

fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce.

d.

tobacco.

e.

rice production.

C

54

In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England

a.

had a more diversified economy.

b.

expanded westward in a less orderly fashion.

c.

had a more ethnically mixed population.

d.

were more oriented toward the individual than toward community interests.

e.

followed the land use pattern established by the local Indians.

A

55

The English justified taking land from the native inhabitants on the grounds that the Indians

a.

were not Christians.

b.

wasted the earth.

c.

burned woodlands.

d.

refused to sell it.

e.

did not have a legal right to it.

B

56

The combination of Calvinism, soil, and climate in New England resulted in the people there possessing which of the following qualities?

a.

Energy

b.

Stubbornness

c.

Self-reliance

d.

Resourcefulness

e.

All of these

E

57

The impact of New England on the rest of the nation can best be described as

a.

greatly exaggerated.

b.

generally negative.

c.

confined primarily to New England.

d.

extremely important.

e.

moderately important.

D

58

Compared with most seventeenth-century Europeans, Americans lived in

a.

relative poverty.

b.

larger cities.

c.

affluent abundance.

d.

a more rigid class system.

e.

more primitive circumstances.

C

59

The late-seventeenth-century rebellion in New York was headed by ____, whereas that in Maryland was led by ____.

a.

Nathaniel Bacon, Catholics

b.

William Berkeley, slaves

c.

Puritans, Indians

d.

Jacob Leisler, Protestants

e.

the Dutch, Catholics

D

60

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Bacon's Rebellion stemmed from

a.

Governor Berkeley's Indian policies.

b.

the frustration of Virginia's colonial dependency on England.

c.

the frontier's resentment of the tidewater gentry.

d.

the inherent rebelliousness of African slaves.

e.

lack of a policy toward Indians.

AC

61

The great majority of Africans who left Africa as captured slaves

a.

were taken to South American and Caribbean colonies.

b.

came to English America before 1700.

c.

died aboard slave ships before they ever reached America.

d.

came from the west coast of Africa.

e.

came from the east coast of Africa.

AD

62

The early "slave codes" in colonial America

a.

defined slavery as lifetime servitude.

b.

defined slavery as inheritable servitude.

c.

usually forbade whites from teaching slaves to read or write.

d.

provided that slaves who converted to Christianity must be granted their freedom.

e.

applied to indentured servants as well.

ABC

63

Which of the following are products of the American slave culture?

a.

Jazz

b.

The Christian belief in obedience

c.

Several modern American dances

d.

The development of an American form of Islam

e.

A new language, Gullah

ACE

64

Slaves in colonial America

a.

were a generally manageable labor force.

b.

engaged in frequent acts of organized rebellion.

c.

were mostly menial field hands.

d.

contributed almost nothing to the developing American culture.

e.

failed to reproduce in large numbers.

AC

65

By 1700, the colonial South generally lacked

a.

a well-defined social structure.

b.

reliable overland transportation.

c.

an urban professional class.

d.

a manageable labor force.

e.

cash crops.

BC

66

Unlike those in the Chesapeake, New England immigrants

a.

enjoyed a longer life expectancy.

b.

usually migrated in family units.

c.

were less ravaged by infectious diseases.

d.

had a low premarital pregnancy rate.

e.

allowed married women to retain property.

ABCD

67

Which of the following reflected the lessening hold of Puritan piety on later generations of New Englanders?

a.

The geographical dispersion of New England's population

b.

The Congregational church's reliance on the Half-Way Covenant to bolster church membership

c.

The erosion of the distinction between the elect and other members of society

d.

The declining participation of women in Puritan congregations

e.

The witchcraft trials

ABC

68

Whether slave or free, North or South, which of the following was universally true about men and women?

a.

Women cooked, cleaned and cared for children.

b.

Women were the primary farmers.

c.

Men cleared the land and planted the crops.

d.

Children gathered berries.

e.

Children helped with all chores and picked up an education when possible.

ACE