Intro to Psych Final Flashcards


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Review for Psych 102 final, fall 2016, at CCNY
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1

In classical conditioning one learns _____, while in operant conditioning one learns _____.

a. by avoiding punishment; to associate a response (one's behavior) and its consequence

b. through observation; through imitation

c. to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence; to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events

d. to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events; to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence

D

2

Jane had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room started to make her nauseous. The chemotherapy is the:

a. unconditioned stimulus.

b. neutral stimulus.

c. conditioned response.

d. conditioned stimulus.

A

3

Conditioning is the process of:

a. learning associations.

b. learning innate associations.

c. observational learning.

d. storing memories in the unconscious.

A

4

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed into the eye is a(n):

a. unconditioned stimulus (US).

b. conditioned response (CR).

c. conditioned stimulus (CS).

d. unconditioned response (UR).

D

5

Animals and humans learn about the consequences of behavior through:

a. instinctual learning.

b. observational learning.

c. classical conditioning.

d. operant conditioning.

D

6

Macy gave her dog a treat each time she came to Macy when she called her by name. Soon the dog came every time Macy called the dog by name. This is an example of:

a. classical conditioning.

b. operant conditioning.

c. observational learning.

d. instinctual behavior.

B

7

Lightning is associated with thunder and regularly precedes it. Thus, when people see lightning, they often anticipate that they will hear thunder soon afterward. This is an example of:

a. observational learning.

b. instinct.

c. classical conditioning.

d. operant conditioning.

C

8

Classical and operant conditioning involves learning through _____, whereas observational learning involves learning through _____.

a. imitation; association

b. association; imitation

c. conscious behaviors; unconscious behaviors

d. sensation; perception

B

9

John just started his vacation from work and scheduled a tee time with friends to play golf Monday morning. On Monday morning he started driving his car to work instead of the golf course. Driving his car to work instead of the golf course is an example of:

a. adaptability.

b. habitual behavior.

c. spontaneous recovery.

d. instinct.

B

10

Jeff's psychology assignment is to observe and list any behaviors of his relatives that indicate learning. Which of the following should be included on his list?

a. Jeff's sister bumps into a door when she has a high fever.

b. Jeff's little brother whines whenever he wants something.

c. Jeff's father falls asleep watching TV.

d. Jeff's mother forgets her keys.

B

11

Marshall ate a hamburger he purchased from his favorite fast food restaurant. An hour later his stomach became very upset and he spent the rest of the evening vomiting. A week later he entered the restaurant and immediately became nauseous when he saw a hamburger. Marshall's nausea when he saw the hamburger is an example of:

a. classical conditioning.

b. observational learning.

c. imitation.

d. operant conditioning.

A

12

Marlee was raped at gunpoint in a parking garage. Her attacker was wearing strong cologne, and she now refuses to go through the male fragrance department at the department store, will not be alone by herself with any man, and will not park in any garages. This reaction best illustrates:

a. operant conditioning.

b. generalization.

c. an unconditioned response (UR).

d. discrimination.

B

13

Dan wanted to train his dog, Rocket, to come to him when called. Every time Dan called Rocket and he came, Dan would give him a treat and pet him. Soon Rocket would come every time he was called. Which type of learning/conditioning is Dan using?

a. observational learning

b. latent learning

c. operant conditioning

d. classical conditioning

C

14

When bits of information do not compete with each other, and actually facilitate memory, it is called:

a. positive transfer.

b. motivated forgetting.

c. associative memory.

d. proactive interference.

A

15

Maximizing ____ cues is a good way to improve your memory of something.

retrieval

16

Our ability to recognize material can make us feel _____, which might lead to poorer performance on certain tests.

a. overconfident

b. uncertain

c. helpless

d. indifferent

A

17

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories is called _____.

Repression

18

Memories of abuse prior to age 4, in which there was no loss of memory, are much more likely to be ___ than those that were recovered in adulthood.

a. elaborate

b. partial

c. distorted

d. true

D

19

Committing information to memory after already learning new material is analogous to _____clutter in your mental attic.

a. cleaning

b. destroying

c. adding

d. substituting

C

20

Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the:

a. hypothalamus.

b. amygdala.

c. sensory cortex.

d. motor cortex.

B

21

Familiar context can help activate memory in children as young as ____.

a. two years

b. one year

c. six months

d. three months

D

22

Infantile amnesia is at least partially explained by _____.

a. memory organization

b. vocabulary changes

c. brain maturation

d. all of the above

D

23

The phenomena of forgetting information learned while intoxicated until the person is once again intoxicated is called ____.

a. encoding specificity

b. misinformation

c. recall

d. state-dependent memory

D

24

Theo suffers from depression and is currently in treatment. His physician is using electroconvulsive therapy, which will affect his _____ memory.

a. long-term

b. short-term

c. implicit

d. explicit

B

25

Studies on state-dependent memory show that ____ distorts memory.

a. context

b. behavior

c. mood

d. experience

C

26

Jonny has suffered hippocampal damage from a near-fatal bus crash. He is able to remember verbal information, but has no ability to recall visual designs and locations. He has probably suffered damage to his:

a. right hippocampus.

b. right thalamus.

c. left hippocampus.

d. left thalamus.

A

27

Memory consolidation is most likely to have happened _____.

a. after repeated exposure to material

b. after rehearsal

c. after sleep

d. all of the above

D

28

Hakeem has a very clear memory of his daughter's birth. He remembers the weather, what he was wearing, the sounds in the hallway, and the joy he felt. Psychologists would say that:

a. his ability to remember an emotionally significant event in so much detail is unusual.

b. he is describing the spotlight effect.

c. he will completely forget all of these memories over time.

d. he has a flashbulb memory for this event.

D

29

If you study for a test by reviewing multiple choice items, but your test is given in an essay format, you aren't likely to do as well as you might have if the test were also multiple choice. This is explained by the _____.

a. concept of explicit memory

b. hippocampus

c. Premack principle

d. encoding specificity principle

D

30

Learning that is not immediately demonstrated in overt behavior is called:

classical conditioning.

operant conditioning.

latent learning.

auditory learning.

C

31

Infants by age _____ months will imitate acts modeled on television.

11

12

14

16

C

32

In psychologist Robert Rescorla's classical conditioning experiment, one group of rats experienced a tone just before each of 20 shocks. A second group of rats experienced the same number of tone-shock pairings plus an additional 20 shocks with no tone. Rescorla found that the rats in the first group showed a much stronger conditioned fear response than the rats in the second group. How did Rescorla explain this finding?

It was an example of the partial reinforcement effect.

The interval between the tone and the shock was too great for the second group of rats.

Spontaneous recovery had occurred in the second group of rats.

The tone was a more reliable predictor of the shock for the first group of rats.

D

33

Studies have shown that exposure to violence also _____ people when they later view violence on television.

saddens

sensitizes

desensitizes

confuses

C

34

The correct order of the phases of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is:

alarm reaction, exhaustion, resistance.

resistance, exhaustion, alarm reaction.

exhaustion, alarm reaction, resistance.

alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion.

D

35

A woman, alone in a house, ignores the creaking sounds she hears and experiences no stress. Another woman might hear the same sounds, suspect an intruder, and thus become alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of:

biofeedback.

spontaneous remission.

the general adaptation syndrome.

stress appraisal.

D

36

Since the Great Recession, Americans' primary daily hassle has been:

rising costs and better health insurance.

rising costs and rising income.

rising costs and stagnant income.

stagnant costs and rising income.

C

37

typical

highly variable

atypical

dependent on the type of catastrophe

A

38

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor, or the way one interacts with that stressor, is known as:

internal locus of control.

problem-focused coping.

emotion-focused coping.

external locus of control

B

39

Aerobic exercise _____ the body's production of serotonin and _____ its production of endorphins.

decreases; decreases

increases; decreases

increases; increases

decreases; increases

C

40

Carlos' wife is going to the hospital for a painful spinal tap procedure and he is permitted to be with her during the procedure. What advice would one give Carlos to help him reduce the stress for his wife?

Play music.

Play a video.

Ask a nurse to hold her hand.

Hold her hand and talk to her about funny events in her life.

D

41

After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior BEST illustrates:

an optimistic outlook on life.

emotion-focused coping.

spontaneous remission.

a Type B personality.

B

42

A month ago, Jason lost his job because of circumstances beyond his control and he is very concerned about his financial situation. Since then, he has learned that his wife will not be able to return to the United States because she cannot get her green card, that his rent-controlled apartment is being sold, and he must find another place to live. Given what happens when people feel unable to control their environment, which of the following do you think is happening to Jason?

his blood pressure is decreasing

his stress hormone levels are depressed

he is less vulnerable to disease

his immune response is dropping

D

43

Jan, who is on a strict diet, often finds herself cheating when she is tired or stress. This is because her _____ varies over time.

self-control

coping skill

social support

level of relaxation

A

44

Employees are who are permitted to personalize their work space are likely to be more productive, committed, motivated workers, because the personalization process increases workers' _____.

coping skills

social support

relaxation

perceived control

D

45

Dr. Perez is conducting research about how people form impressions of other people and how they interpret each other's' behavior in a variety of situations. Dr. Perez is probably a(n) _____ psychologist.

developmental

clinical

social

cognitive

C

46

This occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues.

attribution

central route persuasion

peripheral route persuasion

cognitive dissonance

C

47

Travis is on trial for attempted murder. He has pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity. A psychiatrist has testified that Travis has a psychological disorder affecting aggressive behavior. What is likely to happen?

The jury will find him guilty.

The judge will give him a lighter sentence.

The judge will give him the maximum sentence.

The jury will find him not guilty.

B

48

Cyndi thinks that her new neighbor is mean and snobbish. This attitude will likely influence Cyndi to act _____ toward her neighbor.

friendly

positively

negatively

ambivalent

C

49

Barry is watching golf and sees Tiger Woods scowl after a missed putt. He would be making the fundamental attribution error if he assumed that he:

has an angry and volatile personality.

just made a double bogey.

was thrown off by the flash of a camera.

was in a tough situation.

A

50

Cheree is trying to convince her parents to send her to Europe. First, she asks them for a small favor (a bus ticket to a local city), hoping that later they will be more willing to send her on the longer trip. This technique is known as:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

motivated forgetting.

the fundamental attribution error.

cognitive dissonance.

A

51

Gussie and Max have been happily married for 54 years. This morning, however, Gussie made an unkind remark about Max's table manners. Given research findings on marital satisfaction and attribution, what did Max think of this comment?

She must be having a bad day.

She has a negative personality disorder.

She is a perfectionist with no patience.

She is always on my case; she is such an unforgiving person.

A

52

Evan's father yells at him for being five minutes late for tee time. Rather than believe his father is a rude jerk, he decides that he may be having difficulties at his job. This means he makes a _____ attribution about his behavior.

situational

dispositional

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

personal

A

53

While eating at the university cafe, students see a waiter's serving tray tilt and the food and beverages spill all over four people. "What a careless, clumsy idiot," they mumble to themselves as they resume eating. They have just committed an attributional bias called:

the self-serving bias.

diffusion of responsibility.

the fundamental attribution error.

deindividuation.

C

54

Stephanie's new roommate leaves dirty laundry all over her room and is being sloppy. She assumes this is because she is currently taking finals and working 40 hours per week. Stephanie is attributing her behavior to:

her heavy course work

a stable, enduring personality characteristic

her family relationship

her dedication to her education

A

55

A telemarketer calls one night and asks for a one dollar donation to a local charity for children. Scott happily agrees. A week later the same telemarketer calls asking for a twenty dollar donation to the same charity and he agrees. This is known as:

the fundamental attribution error.

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

motivated forgetting.

cognitive dissonance.

B

56

Participants in Stanley Milgram's obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of:

aggression.

learning.

visual perception.

altruism.

B

57

Improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others is called:

social loafing.

deindividuation.

social facilitation.

groupthink.

C

58

Ben's sister-in-law always has a smile on her face and a joke to tell. The moment she walks into the house he starts smiling, even before she says something funny. This is caused by:

conformity.

the self-serving bias.

obedience.

mood linkage.

D

59

Social loafing refers to the:

tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone.

tendency to spend more time being productive when in the company of one's peers.

tendency for people to exert more effort when working in groups than when working alone.

social norm that obligates the general public to help those who may not be completely able to help themselves (e.g., children and the elderly).

A

60

When are people most likely to obey?

when the person giving orders is viewed as an equal

when the person giving orders is seen as an authority figure

when the person giving orders is far away

when other people are disobeying

B

61

Yolanda is the expert on psychometrics and assessment; however, three of the clinicians disagree on her choice of scales. She decides to change her opinion for the good of the group. This best illustrates:

the bystander effect.

social facilitation.

groupthink.

group polarization.

C

62

When are people most likely to obey an order related to harming someone else?

when the person giving orders is far away

when the person giving orders is viewed as an equal

when the person being harmed is far away

when other people are disobeying

C

63

What results in reduced self-restraint?

deindividuation

social loafing

social facilitation

groupthink

A

64

Juan's friends ask him to participate in some activities. He feels pressure to join them even though the adventures might not be in his best interest. Which of the following reasons might be strengthening Juan's conformity to the group?

The group has less than three people.

Juan is made to feel secure.

Juan's culture strongly discourages following social norms.

He admires the group's status and attractiveness.

D

65

This is an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group.

discrimination

prejudice

stereotype

aggression

B

66

This circulates in the bloodstream to influence the neural systems that control aggression.

estrogen

testosterone

Y chromosome

MAOA

B

67

Prejudice contains:

beliefs.

emotions.

both beliefs and emotions.

neither beliefs nor emotions.

C

68

_____ can be defined as any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy.

Conformity

Altruism

Catharsis

Aggression

D

69

Marcus was upset because his boss, who had promised him a raise, decided not to give him the raise and to give it to a rival of Marcus instead. Marcus told his wife that he believed "what comes around goes around" and that both will "get theirs." This is an example of:

mirror-image perceptions.

the mere exposure effect.

the just-world phenomenon.

deindividuation.

C

70

Based on the research presented in the text, what is the most likely outcome experienced by children who frequently play violent video games?

They are more likely to be empathetic to the feelings of others.

They are more likely to engage in aggressive thoughts and behaviors.

They are less likely to engage in aggressive thoughts and behaviors.

They are no different from children and adolescents who do not play violent video games.

B

71

When a police officer pulls over a car because the driver is an African-American male in an expensive car, the police officer has committed:

a stereotype.

discrimination.

aggression.

a microaggression.

D

72

Recently Tanya has been caught in heavy traffic when traveling to and from work. This situation has caused her to arrive to work late and arrive home at a much later time than normal. When she comes home, she slams the front door and tends to yell more at her children and husband over things that are rather insignificant. This behavior can best be explained by the:

observational learning theory.

cognitive dissonance theory.

mere exposure effect.

frustration-aggression principle.

D

73

Mr. Rogers thinks that all teenagers are reckless, promiscuous, irresponsible delinquents. Mr. Rogers appears to be associating qualities that are unrelated to the objective evidence that define all members of this particular age group. Mr. Rogers is demonstrating:

prejudice.

a stereotype.

the social responsibility norm.

the mere exposure effect.

B

74

Seven-year-old Marcus's parents use harsh physical punishment and verbal intimidation to control his behavior. Studies have shown that if his parents continue this type of discipline, Marcus is more likely to:

demonstrate delinquent behavior in the future.

learn more appropriate social skills.

be more empathetic to others.

use less violent behavior in disciplining his children in the future.

A

75

Chuck has just moved into a new neighborhood. This new neighborhood is full of drug addicts living in rundown houses in horrible condition. He often sees them struggling to find food on the street and shivering through the cold winter. When his friend asks him if he feels bad seeing these people suffer, Chuck replies, "Good people don't end up that way, so I don't feel bad for them." His attitude best illustrates:

mirror-image perceptions.

the just-world phenomenon.

deindividuation.

the mere exposure effect.

B

76

South Florida has a high violent crime rate in comparison to other parts of the country. What might partially account for this phenomenon?

Both the crowded nature of the area as well as the high temperatures contribute.

South Florida is a densely crowded area.

The temperature in South Florida tends to be very hot.

Neither the crowded nature of the area nor the high temperatures contribute.

A

77

Two-thirds of same-sex couples have met:

through family.

online.

at school.

at work.

B

78

_____ is the unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

The mere exposure effect

Social facilitation.

Altruism

Social exchange theory

C

79

Women from what location are attracted to men who seem mature, dominant, masculine, and affluent?

Australia

the United States

various cultures

Zambia

C

80

According to contemporary newspaper accounts, in 1964 Kitty Genovese was brutally stabbed to death in front of her apartment building. It took the assailant approximately 30 minutes to kill Genovese. Police reports showed that although 38 neighbors witnessed the event, no one helped or called the police. According to current knowledge of social psychology, this incident can be best explained by:

social exchange theory.

the just-world phenomenon.

social facilitation.

the bystander effect.

D

81

Ellen Hatfield and her co-workers randomly matched new University of Minnesota students for a Welcome Week dance. On the night of the blind date, the couples danced and talked for more than two hours and then took a brief intermission to rate their dates. What determined whether they liked each other?

physical attractiveness

affection

companionship

caring

A

82

In 2007, Construction worker Wesley Autrey was waiting on a New York City subway train with his two young daughters when a man collapsed in a seizure, got up, then stumbled to the platform's edge and fell onto the tracks. Wesley jumped from the platform, pushed the man off the tracks and into a foot-deep space between them, and lay on top of him. Both men survived. The actions of Wesley demonstrates:

social exchange theory.

social-responsibility.

reciprocity norm.

ingroup bias.

B

83

The excitement that lingers after a frightening event can often facilitate passionate love. This is best explained by:

cognitive dissonance.

social exchange theory.

the two-factor theory.

equity theory.

C

84

Marla is at a physician's office waiting in the waiting area for her name to be called. She notices that an elderly woman is struggling physically to complete the new patient forms. Marla asks the elderly woman if she would like assistance and then proceeds to complete the forms for her. This best demonstrates:

reciprocity norm .

ingroup bias.

social exchange theory.

social-responsibility .

D

85

Sarah and Marge have been assigned to the same dorm room for the academic year. What is likely to happen by the end of the year?

Sarah and Marge will become close friends.

Sarah and Marge will take several classes together.

Sarah and Marge will not like each other.

Sarah and Marge will each form their own group of friends.

A

86

Dwayne has over $100,000 in credit card debt. He is able to have much of his credit card debt forgiven through a debt consolidation company. He doesn't realize that his debt forgiveness impacts the
global economy because of:

conflict.

a social trap.

the bystander effect.

self-conflict.

B

87

Samantha and Ashley are friends who met online. Their friendship is likely to be:

long lasting.

neither long lasting nor satisfying.

both long lasting and satisfying.

satisfying.

C

88

Lucas needs a new car but doesn't want to purchase a fuel efficient car because he thinks it is more expensive than the car he would like to buy. He also reasons that the fuel he would burn in his new car would not alter the greenhouse gases. His reasoning is an example of:

bystander effect.

self-conflict.

a social trap.

conflict.

C

89

Tameka is angry with Reggie for acting in a way she perceives as insensitive. She becomes quiet and sullen and does not respond to Reggie's attempt to communicate. He perceives Tameka as being sullen and insensitive to his attempts at conversation. The interaction between Tameka and Reggie is an example of:

a social trap.

group polarization.

the mere exposure effect.

mirror-image perceptions.

D

90

Jacob and Makayla have been dating for about three months. They are most likely experiencing:

companionate love.

passionate love.

equity.

friendship.

B

91

This neo-Freudian worked closely with Sigmund Freud but placed less emphasis on social factors and agreed with Freud that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence.

Carl Jung

Alfred Adler

Karen Horney

Anna Freud

A

92

Many researchers believe that this is not a repository of seething passions and repressive censoring, but rather a cooler information-processing center that works without one's awareness.

the preconscious

the postconscious

the collective unconscious

the unconscious

D

93

Bruce has been smoking since he was 15 years old. His doctor tells him that he needs to quit for his health. Bruce tells the doctor, "Look, smoking is the only bad thing I do, and besides, a person has to die of something." This best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:

projection.

rationalization.

reaction formation.

displacement.

B

94

Marsha just received an income tax refund of $1500. Rather than using this money for some needed expenses, she decides to go out of town. She gets a hotel room with her friends, goes out to eat, spends the day at an amusement park, etc. She seems to be dominated by the:

unconscious

ego.

id.

superego.

C

95

Maria does not have a very good driving record. She has gotten several tickets for running red
lights, speeding, and not wearing her seat belt. When asked by the judge at her more recent court appearance why she continually violated driving laws, Maria stated that she was certain others did the same, including the judge. According to Freud, which defense mechanism is Maria employing?

displacement

reaction formation

regression

projection

D

96

Dr. Smith is a modern-day researcher on personality who, like many in his field, believes that a shared evolutionary history has shaped some universal dispositions. Of the following theorists, who is mostly responsible for establishing this belief?

Carl Jung

Karen Horney

Abraham Maslow

Alfred Adler

A

97

The process of fulfilling one's potential is called:

self-concept.

self-actualization.

self-esteem.

self-transcendence.

B

98

According to Hans Eysenck and Sybil Eysenck, the individual variation that is apparent across people can be reduced to several dimensions, including:

collectivism-individualism.

extraversion-introversion.

adaptation-habituation.

conformity-individualism.

B

99

Which theoretical perspective has influenced counseling, education, child rearing, and management?

behaviorism

psychoanalytic

psychosocial

humanistic

D

100

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a popular inventory that classifies people into personality types based on their responses to a series of questions. According to one National Research Council report, this test:

is a valid test for females, but less useful for males.

has been thoroughly researched and is an excellent predictor of job performance.

has been shown to be a valid tool for matching work partners and tasks.

lacks confirmation of its scientific worth as a predictor of job performance.

D

101

According to Abraham Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for:

the reality principle.

reciprocal determinism.

self-transcendence.

unconditional positive regard.

C

102

The MMPI was originally developed to identify:

psychosexual stages.

emotional disorders.

unconditional positive regard.

a hierarchy of needs.

B

103

According to Abraham Maslow, self-actualization is the ultimate psychological need. It only arises after basic psychological and physiological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved. Self-actualization refers to:

not being attainable.

the need to achieve.

the need to belong.

the motivation to fulfill one's potential.

D

104

Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that seem to be consistent with a set of factors called:

defense mechanisms.

psychosexual stages.

the hierarchy of needs.

the Big Five.

D

105

Dr. Burns sees his own therapist in order for him to be at his emotional best for seeing patients. He is open with his feelings and self-disclosing in his own therapy. Carl Rogers refers to this attitude as:

companionate love.

genuineness.

confirmation bias.

unconditional positive regard.

B

106

Dr. Starr is attempting to develop a new personality test. As part of the process, she needs to identify clusters of related items. For this she will need to apply:

unconditional positive regard.

factor analysis.

free association.

defense mechanisms.

B

107

Rachel is a manager at a large department store. She is popular with her staff. Many of her employees like her because she is honest, frank, and open without any facade. Carl Rogers would argue that Rachel would score highly on:

genuineness.

acceptance.

identification.

empathy.

A

108

Darius's friends know him as someone who values people, regardless of their failings. When people spend time with Darius, they know he will have an attitude of total acceptance toward them. Carl Rogers refers to this attitude as:

companionate love.

unconditional positive regard.

confirmation bias.

counterconditioning.

B

109

Alice works as a school counselor for an inner-city school. She is very popular with the kids. They believe that they can share anything with her and that she will listen and take the time to understand what is going on with them. Carl Rogers would argue that Alice would score highly on a scale of:

genuineness.

acceptance.

empathy.

identification.

C

110

Beginning in the 1960s, psychologists of the humanistic perspective focused on ways _____ people strive for self-determination and self-realization.

healthy

intelligent

sick

poor

A

111

Before Serene's first appointment date with a psychologist, she wants her to take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Serene is uncomfortable taking a personality test for someone she barely knows. What argument can she use to persuade this psychologist that she should NOT take the test?

It works better on females than on males.

The Stanford-Binet is a better predictor of personality.

There are questions about the validity of the test.

Large corporations do not like to use it because they do not trust its value.

C

112

Alyssa lives in the United States. Which trait is she MOST likely to demonstrate?

extraversion

openness

introversion

agreeableness

A

113

Rogers and Maslow are the key proponents to which personality theory?

humanistic

psychodynamic

psychoanalytic

social-cognitive

A

114

People's behavior can be described in terms of the spotlight effect. This means that they:

tend to see themselves as being above average in ability.

perceive that their fate is determined by forces not under their personal control.

underestimate the extent to which other people's opinions should be taken into account.

overestimate the extent to which other people are noticing them.

D

115

In a psychology class debate on the social-cognitive perspective, students need to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which of the following criticisms of the social-cognitive perspective can they cite?

People do not act with predictable consistency and behavior varies from one situation to the next.

This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person's inner traits.

This perspective has not built on psychological research on learning and cognition.

This perspective focuses too much on the personality traits and fails to consider the situation.

B

116

In European and North American psychology, the _____ is thought to be the organizer of thoughts, feelings, and actions, as well as the pivotal center of the personality.

id

self

human soul

unconscious

B

117

Joshua's history of romantic relationships influences his attitudes toward romantic relationships, which changes how he now responds to his current girlfriend. This is an example of:

self-concept

unconditional positive regard

reciprocal determinism

self-actualization

C

118

This is overestimating others' noticing and evaluating one's appearance, performance, and blunders.

self-esteem

self-efficacy

spotlight effect

self-serving bias

C

119

Aerial's history of romantic relationships influences her attitudes toward romantic relationships, which changes how she now responds to her current boyfriend. This is an example of:

reciprocal determinism

unconditional positive regard

self-concept

self-actualization

A

120

When their self-esteem has been threatened, people with large egos may:

seek out explanations for their errors.

retreat.

be less likely to criticize others.

react violently.

D

121

Melissa is a high school junior who wants to be a veterinarian. She is envisioning one of her _____.

personality traits

self-concept

possible selves

internal personal factors

C

122

Carolos is applying for a new job. They have asked for copies of his transcripts, a list of personal references, and letters of recommendations from his past employers. He also has to complete a face to face interview. Which of these is the best indicator of his potential performance at this new job?

his list of personal references

his transcripts

the interview

the recommendations from his past employers

D

123

Rebecca is applying to graduate school and has several items she must turn in with her application, including letters of recommendation, GRE scores, transcripts, and a personal statement. Which of these
is likely the BEST indicator of her potential for success in graduate school?

the letters of recommendation

her personal statement

her GRE scores

her academic transcripts

D

124

Juan loves horseback riding. What would be an environmental factor associated with horseback riding for Juan?

having friends that also ride horses

learning how to ride horses

his thoughts and feelings about riding horses

selecting where he is going to ride horses

A

125

Walter always seems to make judgmental comments about others, whether he is judging their clothing, the way they walk, the way they talk, etc. What might be a reason why Walter acts this way?

He has high self-esteem.

He has low self-esteem.

He has high self-efficacy.

He has low self-efficacy.

B

126

The introduction of therapeutic drugs and community-based treatment programs in the _____ helped to empty large mental hospitals as well as mark an era of improved treatments.

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

B

127

Systematic desensitization is a form of:

aversive conditioning.

exposure therapy.

electroconvulsive therapy.

stress-inoculation training.

B

128

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) uses how many steps in their program?

8

6

10

12

D

129

_____ psychotherapy is a variation on psychodynamic therapy. It is different because its goal is symptom relief in the here and now, and it focuses primarily on current relationships.

Interpersonal

Cognitive

Psychoanalytic

Humanistic

A

130

Which one of these is an example of operant conditioning in behavior therapy?

systematic desensitization

virtual reality exposure therapy

aversive conditioning

a token economy

D

131

These disorders share the common problem of emotion regulation.

psychotic and anxiety disorders

anxiety and mood disorders

mood and psychotic disorders

personality and mood disorders

B

132

During her weekly psychoanalytic therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates _____.

active listening

resistance

systematic desensitization

disputing negative thoughts

B

133

Who emphasized the importance of active listening in the process of psychotherapy?

Carl Rogers

Mary Cover Jones

Sigmund Freud

Hans Eysenck

A

134

Aaron Beck's therapy teaches people new and more adaptive ways of thinking and acting. It is based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions, and is called:

exposure therapy.

humanistic therapy.

cognitive therapy.

psychoanalysis.

C

135

Tracy is a manager for a large corporation and has been placed in charge of an important project. She now has to report to someone who she does not like, and is responsible for a staff that has a history of underperforming. On top of this, she is getting married in the next six months. She and her fianc´┐Ż are fighting all the time and she has become irritable at work. Instead of talking about childhood memories, as well as Tracy's relationship with her mother, Tracy's new therapist decides to focus exclusively on the relationship she has with her boyfriend as well as her coworkers. Tracy's therapist is using:

psychoanalysis.

token economy.

systematic desensitization.

interpersonal psychotherapy.

D

136

In an eating disorders clinic, the patients receive merits for good eating behaviors such as finishing their meal, not exercising after their meal, and for appropriate behaviors on the unit. This best illustrates an application of:

stress-inoculation training.

the token economy.

systematic desensitization.

virtual reality exposure therapy.

B

137

While _____ focused on revealing the absurdity of people's self-defeating ideas through a more confrontational approach, _____ sought to reverse catastrophizing beliefs people have about themselves through the use of gentle questioning.

Albert Ellis; Sigmund Freud

Albert Ellis; Aaron Beck

Carl Rogers; Aaron Beck

Aaron Beck; Albert Ellis

B

138

Bob yells at this therapist, "You are impatient, a know-it-all, and you only care about yourself!" Most likely Bob is experiencing _____.

transference

resistance

free association

catharsis

A

139

Except for traditional _____, most therapies may also occur in small groups.

psychoanalysis

cognitive therapy

light exposure therapy

family therapy

A

140

Shania sees a cognitive therapist for depression. Shania's therapist has explained to her that cognitive therapy is very effective for depression because it addresses _____.

behavior change

the relationship between thoughts and feelings

unconscious processes

underlying feelings

B

141

Sam suffers from schizophrenia, known to be a brain-based disorder. Because of this, he should choose _____ therapy.

biomedical

psychological

no

a combination of biomedical and psychological

D

142

Aaron is undergoing Army basic training. He is being taught to reduce incapacitating anxiety by saying things to himself that enhance a sense of control during anxiety-producing situations. This best illustrates _____.

stress inoculation training

systematic desensitization

increasing optimism

exposure

A

143

To help Monica overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment best illustrates:

light exposure therapy.

aversive conditioning.

systematic desensitization.

stress-inoculation training.

B

144

To help Jacob overcome his smoking habit, a therapist puts him in a room with a carton of cigarettes laced with a chemical to induce nausea. He displays images of the dangers of smoking both on the walls and on a television set. This approach to treatment best illustrates _____.

aversive conditioning

systematic desensitization

virtual reality

exposure

A

145

Nadine has decided to seek help for some problems she is having. She knows a little about different therapies and has decided she doesn't want to get involved in anything long-term. However, she does want to gain insight into the roots of her difficulties. If Nadine wants to gain insight into current issues, rather than delve into the past, she should try to find a therapist who specializes in:

psychoanalysis.

systematic desensitization.

interpersonal psychotherapy.

token economy.

C

146

Is the public's belief in the effectiveness of psychotherapy justified? Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy indicates:

clinicians are too biased to determine treatment effectiveness.

clients only think they are getting better.

treatment is generally beneficial.

therapy outcomes are difficult to measure.

C

147

Therapy is likely to be MOST effective when a client's problem is:

clear-cut.

the result of unconscious conflicts.

schizophrenia.

less-focused.

A

148

These therapists specialize in problems arising from family relations.

counselors

psychiatrists

psychiatric social workers

clinical psychiatrists

A

149

The placebo effect best illustrates the importance of _____ in therapeutic outcomes.

free association

active listening

cognitive processes

behavior modification

C

150

It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy because:

clients have no need to believe or promote that the therapy was effective.

it is difficult to locate participants after therapy has concluded.

clients transfer their problems onto their therapists, but the problem still exists.

clients generally speak kindly of their therapists.

D

151

This therapy is empirically supported for treating sexual dysfunction.

behavioral conditioning

family therapy

cognitive therapy

psychodynamic therapy

A

152

The American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that which of the following is a signal that a person should consider seeking help from a professional?

A person should consider therapy if he/she experiences any of these trouble signals.

sexual difficulties

feelings of hopelessness

disruptive fears

A

153

It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy because:

people often enter therapy in crisis, and these crises often pass without professional help.

clients have no need to believe or promote the idea that the therapy was effective.

clients never speak kindly about their therapists.

clients transfer their problems onto their therapists, but the problem still exists.

A

154

Delores has been in therapy for two years, but her last session is today. If asked next month how effective her psychotherapy was, she is likely to _____ its effectiveness.

overestimate

underestimate

not remember

fabricate

A

155

The CEO of a large corporation is considering the benefits her firm will offer employees. If she offers employees effective treatment for psychological problems, chances are good that medical costs will be _____.

reduced

increased

stay the same

double

A

156

Although not more effective in controlling schizophrenia symptoms, many of the newer-generation antipsychotics, such as _____ and Zyprexa have fewer side effects.

Risperdal

Prozac

lithium

Xanax

A

157

By the _____, 35,000 people had been lobotomized in the United States.

1930s

1920s

1960s

1950s

D

158

Like alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs work by:

depressing CNS activity.

activating the autonomic nervous system.

altering the effects of serotonin in the brain.

unknown effects.

A

159

Egas Moniz performed the first lobotomy in the:

1920s.

1930s.

1950s.

1960s.

B

160

A patient at a mental health clinic is suffering from involuntary movements of his facial muscles and tongue. It is possible that this _____ is a side effect of his long-term use of antipsychotic medication.

tardive dyskinesia

dystonia

motor rigidity

persistent depressive disorder

A

161

Identifying and eliminating the socially stressful conditions that contribute to psychological disorders is of MOST central interest to the advocates of:

systematic desensitization.

preventive mental health.

cognitive-behavior therapy.

the biomedical therapies.

B

162

Doug, a person who suffers from depression, recently saw an ad for free medication in return for participation in a new drug trial. Doug was told that he would be participating in a double blind study. What does that imply?

The researcher won't know if Doug is receiving a placebo or the medication.

Doug won't receive the medication.

Doug will be "blind" to the possible side effects of the medication.

His doctor won't know that Doug is a patient in the study.

A

163

Recent research on the effects of lifestyle on health showed that _____ had the MOST significant impact on mental health.

no one single factor clearly

sleep

exercise

nutritional supplements

A

164

Of the following individuals, who is MOST likely to benefit from the use of lithium?

Olivia, who experiences delusions and auditory hallucinations

Landon, who experiences a generalized sense of apprehension and anxiety

Miranda, who experiences periods of extreme sadness, followed by episodes of optimistic overexcitement

Ivan, who experiences sudden brief episodes of intense dread and panic

C

165

Of the following individuals, who is MOST likely to benefit from the use of lithium?

Olivia, who experiences delusions and auditory hallucinations

Landon, who experiences a generalized sense of apprehension and anxiety

Miranda, who experiences periods of extreme sadness, followed by episodes of optimistic overexcitement

Ivan, who experiences sudden brief episodes of intense dread and panic

A

166

Today, Ellen is going to the mental health clinic for a relatively new treatment. During the procedure her brain will be exposed to repeated pulses of magnetic energy. This type of treatment is known as:

electrocardiogram (EKG).

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

D

167

John is a 28-year-old male who suffers from bipolar disorder. He does not like lithium because of the side effects. His doctor prescribes _____, originally used to treat epilepsy.

Thorazine

Depakote

Risperdal

Ativan

B

168

Blake's doctor told her that she should not drink alcohol while taking Xanax. This is because antianxiety agents such as Xanax:

depress central nervous system activity.

depress peripheral nervous system activity.

increase central nervous system activity.

increase peripheral nervous system activity.

A

169

Sadia is suffering from depression. She wants long-term relief from this problem and is willing to work hard to make changes in her life. What treatment is likely to have the best effects long-term?

therapy, then medication

antidepressant medication

therapy

antidepressant medication and therapy simultaneously

D