Human Anatomy & Physiology: Previous Tests Flashcards
An _____ supplies blood to the heart.
A red blood cell would ______ in pure water.
swell and burst.
Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing cells of surface area?
______ is the main component of the cytosol.
Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in _______ solution.
Smallest living unit in the human body is ______.
Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria, while others have few or none. This suggests _________.
Cells with largest number of mitochandria have high energy demand.
Skin swells and puckers with long bath. Bath water is a ______ solution.
Persons intervertebral discs exhibit large amounts of tensile strength to absorb shock because they exhibit _____.
______ tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, blood vessels.
Epithelial tissues have a __________.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines the __________.
Matrix is composed of _______.
cells and fibers.
Fiber type that gives CT its great tensile strength is _________.
Shape of external ear is maintained by _________.
Study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy, but as a whole you would say it is ________ anatomy.
Histology is defined as _________.
the study of tissue
Increased rate of breathing as a result of an increase build up of CO2 in blood stream would be _________.
excretion of metabolic waste.
Average body temp in celcius is _____.
What statement is true concerning feedback mechanism?
negative feedback mechanism to prevent sudden severe change within body.
Smallest to largest body structure:
atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ.
In what abdominal cavity is the stomach?
Survival needs of body are _________.
nutrients, water, atmosphere, pressure, oxygen.
_______ is necessary for proper conduction of nerve impulse.
A solution that has a PH of 2 could be described as ______.
Enzymes ________ activation energy needed to start a reaction.
A dipole is a __________.
_____ does NOT influence reaction.
Which is true regarding the generation of a membrane potential?
both potassium and sodium ions can leak through the cell membrane due to diffusion.
The shape of the external ear is maintained by ______.
Glands such as the thyroid that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as _______.
Epithelium appears to have 2 or 3 layers of cells, but _________ are attached to the basement membrane.
pseudostatified columnar epithelium
A multilayer epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ______.
______ is NOT considered a connective tissue.
First step in tissue repair involves ________.
Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system except ________.
synthesis of vitamin C.
Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the _________.
Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed _________.
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are _____ glands.
Ear wax is produced by ______.
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is ________.
A needle would pierce the epidermis at the forearm in which order?
Corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
The dermis has _______ layers.
Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure? _______.
If a splinter penetrated the skin into the 2nd epidermal layer of the sole of the foot which cells would be damaged?
Dermis has 2 major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
the reticular layer.
The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. the secretion of sebum is stimulated by _______.
hormones, especially androgens.
_____ is the first threat to life from a massive 3rd degree burn.
Using the ________ helps physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with dangerous fluid loss caused from the burn.
rule of nines
When the arrector pilli muscles contract ________ are formed.
Calcium hemostasis, BC production, protection of internal organs, and body support are functions of the ________.
________ are irregular shaped bones.
A rib is an example of a _____ bone.
_________ are cells that secrete organic compounds of bone matrix.
Central canal of osteon contains ________.
Shaft of a long bone is called __________.
Secondary ossification centers occur in the _______.
Elevated levels of calcium in blood stimulate secretion of _______.
When stress is applied to a bone __________.
minerals produce weak electrical signal that attracks osteoblasts.
Small odd shaped bones that fill gaps in skull are ________.
_______ is a hole through a bone.
Structural units of mature, compact bone are called _______
Articular cartilage of a long bone is composed of ______ cartilage.
When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of metaphysis at same rate as bone, it causes bone to ______.
_______ is NOT part of axial skeleton.
External acoustic meatus is a foramen found in ______ skull bone.
_________ is the smallest facial bone.
Lumbar vertebrae are most massive and ______ mobile.
Fibrous CT is called _________ and accomodates brain growth in infant.
Styloid process, zygomatic process, auditory ossicle are all associated with __________.
Xyphoid process, body, jug notch, and manubrium are all part of the _______.
Most mammals including giraffes has _____ cervical vertabrae.
The ________ transports weight along axis of body.
_______ curves of the spine develop during fetal development.
Nurses suspect possible dehydration when she checks the __________ in an infant.
anterior fontanel for depression.
Skull contains ______ bones.
_______ can be distinguished from other vertebrae by presence of facets for articulation of ribs.
The ondontoid process is found in the _____.
Exaggerated lateral curvature is termed ______.
There are ______ carpal bones located in the wrist which form _______ rows of bones.
8 and 2.
In anatomical position, the ulna is located _____ to the radius.
Each coxal bone consists of 3 fused bones: ____, _____,_____.
ilium, ischium, pubis.
Angle of pubic arch being greater than 100 degrees is NOT a characteristic of a _____ pelvis.
_____ aka heel bone.
Medial bulge at ankle is a projection from the _____.
_______ is a surface feature present along the lateral border of the shaft of humerus.
Clavicle articulates with the scapula ______ with the acromion.
An immovable joint is a _______.
Movement away from the midline of the body is _____.
Monoaxial joints are known as _____ joints.
Extreme bending of head backward is an example of ________.
Joints can be classified as ____, _____, ______, _______.
fibrous, bony, synovial, or cartlaginous.
Twisting motion of foot that turns sole of foot OUTWARD is known as _______.
________ enables ballerinas to stand on their toes.
________ is a good example of supination.
turning palm upward.
Nodding head yes is an example of _______.
flexion and extension.
_______ is an example of ball and socket joint.
_______ are small spaces in bone tissue in which osteocytes live.
A RBC placed in hypertonic water would _______.
The hip joint is a good example of a _______ joint.
An example of interosseous fibrous joint is ________.
the radius and ulna along its length.
What is the role of tropomyosin in the skeletal muscle?
serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules.
______ muscles have the greatest ability to regenerate.
Most skeletal muscles contain a _______ of fiber types.
Excitation-contraction coupling requires which of the following substances?
Ca2+ and ATP.
________ function in calcium storage in skeletal muscles.
stores oxygen in muscle cells.
________ are composed in myosin.
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to ______.
A ______ is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle.
During exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvate energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to _______.
An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of 2 net ATPs per glucose plus 2 ? molecules is _______.
The sliding filament model of contraction involves ______.
actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping.
A long relaxing swim would best represent a ______ muscle fiber.
_______ is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement.
When the term biceps, triceps form a part of a muscles name, what does it tell you?
the muscle has 2, or 3 origins respectively.
There are over _____ muscles in the body.
What does the term levator mean?
elevates or abducts a region
A child sticks her tongue out at you, she is using her ______ muscle.
Which muscle is involved in crossing one leg over the other?
Which muscle inserts by the calcaneal tendon?
A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a_____.
An infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling. This is the ______ muscle.
Spasms of the straplike muscle often result in torticollis. These muscles are the _____.
Which muscle is the main muscle for breathing?
Muscles that are contracted to exhale forcefully?
internal intercostal and rectus abdominus.
Paralysis of which muscle would make an individual unable to flex the knee?
The temporalis muscle passes through or under the _____.
_____ is the only knee flexor that originates superior to the acetabulum.
NOT a function of the astrocytles:
defense for the CNS
What ciliated CNS nueralgia are active in the movement of cerebrospinal fluid?
Bipolar neurons could be mos commonly found in the ______.
retina of the eye.
________ is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by the motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles.
What part of the neuron is responsible for conducting impulses AWAY from its body?
What is NOT a special feature of neurons?
Ion channels opening in reponse to change in the membrane potential that conducts action potentials are known as _______.
voltage gated channels.
What is the role of acetycholinerase?
_______ are collections of nerve bodies outside the CNS.
What is the substance released at the axon terminals to cause nervous impulses called?
Saltatory conduction is made possible by
After the peak of the action potential, _____ gates open
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by:
entering some cells and binding to their internal receptors
__________ is known as "fight or flight" hormone.