A&P Cumulative Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9,11, 12, 13, 14, 15

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 3-6, 8, 9, 11-15
Mastering A&P Human Anatomy & Physiology 10th Edition Marieb
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1

Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

True

2

Which of the following increases the surface area of certain epithelial tissues?

microvilli

3

__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Ganglia

4

Which ligament would one tap to generate the knee-jerk reflex?

patellar ligament

5

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.

provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

6

Which brain nucleus is the body's "biological clock"?

suprachiasmatic nucleus

7
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The joints indicated by the arrows in C and D are distinguished from those indicated in A and B by the presence of which of the following tissues?

fibro-cartilage

8

Information from balance (equilibrium) receptors goes directly to __________.

the brain stem

9

Connective tissues ________.

primarily consist of extracellular matrix

10

Which of the following is NOT a concept of the cell theory?

Cells are given life through a process known as spontaneous generation.

11
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Which set of membrane proteins in the figure depicts the transport of solute molecules?

A

12

Schwann cells are functionally similar to ________.

oligodendrocytes

13
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What process allows for the production of molecule B from a template consisting of molecule A?

transcription

14

A motor neuron and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as a motor end plate.

False

15

Motion sickness seems to ________.

result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

16

Which of the following is NOT an autonomic nervous system (ANS) effector?

skeletal muscle

17

In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.

in the medullary cavity of long bones

18

The term diploƫ refers to the ________.

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

19

Which of the choices below describes the ANS?

motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

20

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?

potassium

21

Arteries, veins, and lymphatics keep clots from sticking as long as their ________ is intact and healthy.

endothelium

22

The major role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to regulate ________.

intracellular levels of Ca2+

23

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

True

24

The force of a muscle contraction is NOT affected by __________.

the amount of ATP stored in the muscle cells

25

Which of the following is stored in bones?

phosphate

26
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What activity does cell 1 undertake to contribute to the body's defense against injury and infection?

phagocytosis of foreign materials

27

Injured cartilage might heal more quickly if a treatment were discovered that would __________.

stimulate blood vessels to develop within cartilage

28

Functional classification of joints is based on ________.

the amount of movement allowed by the joint

29

Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?

prefrontal cortex

30

Phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis.

False

31

What are the two basic steps of polypeptide synthesis?

transcription and translation

32
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Which structure is a type of sudoriferous gland?

C

33
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In the figure below, which letter points to an afferent neuron?

A

34

What is the primary function of the mitochondria?

They are the main sites of ATP production.

35

What cells line the ventricles of the brain?

ependymal cells

36

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

Tactile cells anchor the skin to the body.

37

The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________.

axon

38
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Which statement accurately describes the event indicated by B?

Binding of acetylcholine to a receptor triggers the opening of an ion channel.

39

Cholesterol helps to stabilize the cell membrane while decreasing the mobility of the phospholipids.

True

40

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?

amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

41

All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function.

True

42
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Which lettered protein functions as a motor protein?

C

43
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What structural classification describes this neuron?

multipolar

44

Which cell organelle provides the majority of the ATP needed by the cell to carry out its metabolic reactions?

mitochondrion

45

If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

The cells will lose water and shrink.

46

Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

Synchondroses

47

Bitter taste is elicited by ________.

alkaloids

48
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Which letter is pointing to an mRNA molecule?

B

49

Which neuroglia are the most abundant and versatile of the glial cells?

astrocytes

50

During interphase of the cell life cycle, the parent cell divides into two daughter cells.

False

51

Which of the following is the conducting region of the neuron?

axon

52

The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a ________.

centriole

53

Mitochondria ________.

contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function

54

Use the figure to match the following descriptions.
Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

card image
55

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage

56

What part of the nervous system performs information processing and integration?

central nervous system

57

Eye color is determined by the amount of brown pigment present in the iris.

True

58

The most dangerous type of skin cancer is ________.

melanoma

59

Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes

60

Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.

True

61

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is ________.

tRNA

62

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

False

63

Peroxisomes ________.

are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action

64

Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

molecular transport through the membrane

65

Which of the following is not a step in tissue repair?

Formation of new stem cells

66

The main component of the cytosol is ________.

water

67

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

diaphysis

68

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin

69

Axon diameter and degree of myelination determine nerve impulse conduction velocity.

True

70

After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.

Schwann cells

71

Static equilibrium involves linear acceleration as well as changes in head rotation.

False

72

What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?

closure of the epiphyseal plate

73

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.

exteroceptors

74

Creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ________.

storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP

75

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.

dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

76

All connective tissues arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.

True

77

Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.

True

78
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Which protein is indicated by E?

myosin

79

Cardiac muscle makes most of its ATP via anaerobic pathways.

False

80

Which of the following allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles?

the somatic nervous system

81

Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

skeletal muscle: voluntary control

82
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The connective tissue that covers structure A is continuous with which of the following?

tendon

83

Which of the following is the basic taste quality responsible for the "beef taste" of steak?

umami

84

The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with that outside the body is the external auditory meatus.

False

85

The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

True

86
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Which of the following is the smallest structural unit in which the distinctive striated bands characteristic of skeletal muscle are observed?

D

87

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the membrane potential?

The resting membrane potential is maintained solely by passive transport processes.

88

Which tissue type consists of a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity?

epithelial tissue

89

When muscle cells break down glucose to generate ATP under oxygen deficient conditions, they will form ________.

lactic acid

90

All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.

thalamus

91

Broca's area ________.

is considered a motor speech area

92

The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.

True

93

During isometric contraction, the energy used appears as movement.

False

94

If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?

a complete loss of voluntary movement

95

What tissue forms the model for endochondral ossification?

cartilage

96

The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.

True

97

In adults, hematopoietic tissue is NOT found in ________.

the medullary cavity of long bones

98

The skin consists of two main regions. From deep to superficial they are the ________.

dermis and epidermis

99
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What specific neurotransmitter is released from the axonal terminus as shown in A?

acetylcholine

100
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Which of the following describes the neurons shown in this figure?

somatic motor neurons