Festival 6 (Urinary and Acid, Base, Fluid Balance)

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 25, 26
Mr.Brady 2016
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1

True or False:

Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.

True

2

True or False:

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.

False

3
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Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote water reabsorption?

descending limb of the nephron loop

collecting duct

ascending limb of the nephron loop

distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

Collecting duct

4

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.

increase in the production of aldosterone
decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
decrease in the production of ADH
increase in the production of ADH

Increase in the production of ADH

5
card image

In what part of the renal tubule are aquaporins scarce or absent so that water CANNOT be reabsorbed?

descending limb of the nephron loop
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
collecting duct
ascending limb of the nephron loop

Ascending limb of the nephron loop

6

What is the largest component of urine by weight, other than water?

creatine
salt
phosphates
urea

Urea

7

True or False:

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.

False

8
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Where is filtrate produced in the nephron?

vasa recta
peritubular capillaries
glomerulus
juxtaglomerular complex

Glomerulus

9
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Which pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?

colloid osmotic pressure in the capsular space

colloid osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries (OPgc)

hydrostatic pressure in the capsular space (HPcs)

hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

10

Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?

proximal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule
glomerulus
collecting duct

Proximal convoluted tubule

11

The macula densa cells respond to ________.

changes in pressure in the tubule
aldosterone
antidiuretic hormone
changes in solute content of the filtrate

changes in solute content of the filtrate

12
card image

What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus and renal tubule

renal tubule and collecting duct

proximal convoluted tubule and nephron loop

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

13

True or False:

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.

True

14

True or False:

Under normal conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs all of the glucose, lactate, and amino acids in the filtrate and 65% of the Na+ and water.

True

15

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

podocyte cells
granular cells
mesangial cells
macula densa

Podocyte cells

16

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

angiotensin I and epinephrine
angiotensin II and ADH
angiotensin II and aldosterone
angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide

angiotensin II and aldosterone

17

True or False :

In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically. True False

TRUE

18

True or False :

Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.

True

19

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

has a basement membrane

has a blood pressure much lower than otherorgan systems

is drained by an efferent arteriole

is impermeable to most substances

is drained by an efferent arteriole

20

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

glucose
electrolytes
hormones
plasma protein

Plasma protein

21

True or False:

The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.

False

22

True or False:

Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.

True

23

True or False:

Despite the fact that the kidney's intrinsic controls work to maintain a constant GFR, in some situations the body's extrinsic controls will work to override these intrinsic controls in order to maintain systemic blood pressure.

True

24

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.

glucose
potassium
sodium
water

Sodium

25

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10

when the peritubular capillaries are dilated

when the pH of the urine decreases

by a decrease in the blood pressure

By a decrease in the blood pressure

26

What is the effect of hyperventilation on pH?

metabolic alkalosis
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
respiratory acidosis

Respiratory alkalosis

27

True or False:

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.

True

28

True or False:

As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.

True

29

True or False:

The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.

True

30
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Which chemical buffer system is the only important system in the extracellular fluid (ECF) that resists short-term changes in pH?

physiological buffering systems
protein buffer system
bicarbonate buffer system
phosphate buffer system

Bicarbonate buffer system

31

Which age group most commonly has fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance issues?

the elderly
infants
growing children
young adults

Infants

32
card image

Which of the following is NOT involved in triggering the thirst mechanism?

increase in blood pressure
decrease in blood volume
osmoreceptors detect increased osmolality
dry mouth

Increase in blood pressure

33
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Select the person in the following list who would have the highest percentage of water in his or her body.

a 25-year-old overweight female
a 80-year-old man of average weight
a 25-year-old male of average weight
a 6-month-old baby boy

a 6 month old baby boy

34
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In a given day, what is the typical value for water intake?

1500 ml
750 ml
250 mL
2500 ml

2500 ml

35

What solute in body fluids determines most of their chemical and physical reactions?

glucose
electrolytes
nonelectrolytes
water

Electrolytes

36

A patient's anxiety caused her to develop respiratory alkalosis. What breathing technique did the nurse recommend, and why?

The nurse instructed the patient to breathe faster and deeper. This will decrease the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by eliminating more carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a decrease in the blood pH.

The nurse instructed the patient to breathe more shallowly. This will decrease the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by eliminating more carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a decrease in the blood pH.

The nurse instructed the patient to breathe slower and deeper, and to breathe into a paper bag. This will increase the patient's blood level of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs, and by breathing in the expired air which has a higher concentration of carbon dioxide. As a result, the blood pH will decrease.

The nurse instructed the patient to breathe faster and deeper. This will increase the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a decrease in the blood pH.

The nurse instructed the patient to breathe slower and deeper, and to breathe into a paper bag. This will increase the patient's blood level of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs, and by breathing in the expired air which has a higher concentration of carbon dioxide. As a result, the blood pH will decrease.

37

Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?

diet
chemical buffer systems
renal mechanism
respiratory changes

Diet

38

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.

respiratory alkalosis
respiratory acidosis
metabolic alkalosis
metabolic acidosis

Respiratory acidosis

39

The fluid that bathes the cells found in tissues is called __________.

electrolytic fluid
interstitial fluid
intracellular fluid
plasma

Interstitial fluid

40
card image

How much water is generated per day from cellular metabolism?

2500 ml
750 ml
1500 ml
250 ml

250 ml

41

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.

hemoglobin
protein
phosphate
bicarbonate

Bicarbonate

42

Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?

phosphate
nucleic acid
protein
bicarbonate

Nucleic acid

43

The most important renal mechanism for regulating acid-base balance of the blood involves __________.

maintaining water balance
maintaining phosphate balance
maintaining HCO3- balance.
maintaining CO2 balance

maintaining HCO3- balance.

44

The most common cause of acid-base imbalance is __________.

respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory acidosis

45

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?

respiratory alkalosis
respiratory acidosis
metabolic alkalosis
metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

46
card image

What is the most common cation found in the interstitial fluid?

HPO42-
Na+
Cl-
K+

Na+

47

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

respiratory alkalosis
metabolic alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
respiratory acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

48

The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.

a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor

the feeling one might have after profuse sweating with exertion

a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

49

True or False:

The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.

False

50
card image

What accounts for the route through which most fluid is lost in a day?

sweat
insensible loss through skin and lungs
feces
urine

Urine

51

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

myogenic mechanism
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
capsular hydrostatic pressure

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

52

True or False:

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg) is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.

True

53

True or False:

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.

True

54

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.

inhibits the release of ADH
is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
increases secretion of ADH
increases the rate of glomerular filtration

Inhibits the release of ADH

55

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

a system for concentrating urine

a system for diluting urine

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

a system that protects the nephron from some chemicals found in blood

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

56
card image

What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?

The macula densa cells pass regulatory signals between the extraglomerular mesangial cells.

The macula densa cells produce filtrate.

The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule.

The macula densa cells sense blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.

The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule.

57

Which of the following is the functional unit of the kidney?

renal pyramid
renal corpuscle
renal pelvis
nephron

Nephron

58

True or False:

The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.

True

59

Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process?

glomerular filtration
micturition
tubular secretion
tubular reabsorption

Micturition

60
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In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?

renal medulla
renal pelvis
renal columns
renal cortex

Renal cortex

61
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What vessel directly feeds into the glomerulus?

efferent arteriole
vasa recta
afferent arteriole
cortical radiate artery

Afferent arteriole

62
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What region subdivides to form two or three major calyces and several minor calyces? Select from letters A-D.

A
B
C
D

C

63

True or False:

Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.

True

64

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.

potassium
bicarbonate
iron
chloride

Potassium

65
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What type of water imbalance increases the amount of fluid in all compartments?

dehydration
hypotonic hydration
edema
inflammation

hypotonic hydration

66
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What receptors does the brain use to detect changes in osmolality?

baroreceptors
chemoreceptors
thermoreceptors
osmoreceptors

Osmoreceptors

67

True or False:

Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.

True

68

The body's water volume is closely tied to a powerful water "magnet." What magnet is referred to here?

water level in the intracellular compartment
ionic potassium
ionic sodium
water level in the extracellular compartment

Ionic sodium

69
card image

Where is the majority of water stored in the human body?

interstitial fluid (IF)
extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment
plasma
intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment

intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment

70

Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

a runner has completed a very long marathon

a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

71

The role of ADH is to __________.

decrease water reabsorption
lower blood pressure
produce dilute urine
increase water reabsorption

Increase water reabsorption

72

True and False:

Potassium balance is controlled mainly by renal mechanisms.

True